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cal Society ; " the second and third volumes for the initiated, and, if his “fit audience" of the “ Russian llistorical Library ; the proves to be also very “few," to put up with eighth and ninth volumes of the “ Archives of it as “the best his circumstance allows." The Prince Vorontzof; the “History of Tver," chief poetical sensation of the year was the disby Borzakofsky; the “Embassy to England in covery by Mr. Swinburne and the republica1600 of Gregory Mikulin; "} the “Historical tion of " Joseph and his Brethren," a drama Value of Russian Brigand Songs," by N. Ari- by Charles Wells, published forty years ago, stof; the fifth volume of F. Bienemann's “Briefe neglected and forgotten, but pronounced by und Urkunden zur Geschichte Livlands," from Mr. Swinburne to be worthy of comparison 1558 to 1562; and Johann Renner's “ Livlän- with the plays of Shakespeare. What adds to dische Historien."

the surprising features of the case is the fact From history to politics the transition is easy. that the author whose work thus failed to gain The chief works in this division are, the third public attention is still living to enjoy his latevolume of Prof. Marten’s “Collection of Rus- blossoming reputation, a reputation which will sian Treaties and Conventions,” which includes not come up to the height of Mr. Swinburne's the treaties with Austria from 1808 to 1815; praise, but will make some amends for his prethe second volume of Prof. Gradovsky's “Ger- vious total failure. The usual quota of minor inan Constitution; “Sketch of the History poetry has appeared, but nothing that will exand Dogmas of International Law,” by A. N. cite more than a limited and temporary interStoyanof; and J. Keussler's “Communal Prop- est. Perhaps next to the case of Mr. Wells erty and Emancipation.”

and his drama in interest is the identification In geographical and scientific literature there of what had been supposed to be genuine old is not much to speak of.

ballads as the work of an eccentric clergyman The profound work of J. R. Aspelin, on lately deceased, the Rev. Robert Stephen Haw“Finnio-Ugric Archæology," deserves special ker. One of his ballads deceived so keenmention, although published in Finnish. As it sighted a judge as Lord Macaulay. The name of is profusely illustrated, it may be useful even Mr. Hawker has been brought before the public to those ignorant of that language.

in an unpleasant way by a biography in which LITERATURE, English. The extent to his memory is by no means honored, but which the best literature of England and which the public have reason to consider as America is interchanged has been referred to more discreditable to the author than to the in the article LITERATURE AND LITERARY Prog- subject. Ress, with a notice of some of the principal Novels.- In the department of prose fiction, English works republished in the United States. the best is disappointing. Nobody but George In the present article, consequently, mention Eliot could have written “Daniel Deronda," is chiefly made of books not yet reproduced but it has not raised nor even sustained her in American editions. And among these, the great reputation. Mr. William Black's “Madmass of compiled and ephemeral publications cap Violet” is scarcely inferior to his best. call for no particular notice. It is true that there As in his previous novels, the plot is open to is soine risk in this rather wholesale and sum- exception, and some of his characters seem to mary judgment, and it may prove to have been approach the extreme of human possibility, if presumptuous in respect of some authors thus they do not overstep the modesty of Nature. passed by, but the purpose of these reviews is But with whatever drawbacks, the power of not so much criticism as the record of con- his genius is incontestable. Mr. R. D. Blacktemporary estimates of literature, to note more's “ Cripps the Carrier" is not a producwhat books did in fact make an impression on tion that can add anything to the credit of the the public, rather than to express our judgment author of “Lorna Doone" and of “ Alice Loras to what books ought to have been honored raine," however superior to the average novel. with the public approval.

" The Hand of Ethelberta," by Mr. Thomas POETRY.—In the higher order of creative Hardy, comes nearer to doing justice to his literary art, England had not much to show recognized position among literary artists. Mr. during the last year. The laureate put forth Justin McCarthy's tale, “Dear Lady Disdain," another tragedy. “Jarold,” regarded as a is well conceived and worked out with his poem, will not discredit Mr. Tennyson, though usual firmness of hand. “The Dilemma," by it can add nothing to his fame; as a drama, Colonel Chesney, author of "The Battle of while free from some of the faults of his Dorking," besides its high merits as a fiction,

Queen Mary,” it is equally deficient in dra- presents striking pictures of the Sepoy mutiny matic vitality. Mr. Browning gave us a vol- in India. "The Atonement of Leam Dundas," ume with the enigmatic title “Pacchiarotto, by Mrs. Linn Linton, takes a very high place and how he worked in Distemper, and, Other anong sensational novels, in fact, alınost rises Poems."

The leading piece is meant as "a into a higher realm of fiction. Mrs. Oliphant's fable for critics,” but the critics for whom it is last two novels, “ The Curate in Charge," and meant are less likely to wince under his satire “Phæbe Junior, a Last Chronicle of Carlingthan to point to the poem as a confirmatory ford,” are in her best style, which is a very instance of what they have alleged against the good style indeed. “ Thomas Wingfold, Cupoet. Mr. Browning must be content to sing rate,” by Dr. George Macdonald, in a very

different style, is an advance in respect to ar- Shelburne," in three volumes, has been comtistic power upon his previous productions. pleted. “Political and Military Episodes from “Rose Turquand,” by Ellice Hopkins, and “The the Life and Correspondence of the Rt. Hon. Master of Riverswood,” by Mrs. Arthur Lewis, John Burgoyne," by E. B. Fonblanque, will are productions of much promise, assuming enlarge the ideas of those whose only knowlthem to be by new writers. A considerable edge of the subject is, that he surrendered at list might be made out of fictions that attain Saratoga. The "Memoir of Earl Spencer," betto a respectable mediocrity of merit, and to ter known as Lord Althorp, the leader of the something more than that in single features, House of Commons by which the Reform Bill but to what end?

of 1832 was passed, is interesting as a biograHISTORY AND BIOGRAPHY.—The completion phy, and valuable as a memorial of an imporof Mr. E. A. Freeman's “ History of the Nor- tant political epoch. The “Life of Lord Palman Conquest of England” is a matter of con- merston,” by the Hon. Evelyn Ashley, throws gratulation. Mr. Freeman is not a master of light on a more recent period of political hisnarration or of description. He is not what tory. “Syria and Egypt under the Last Five is termed an eloquent historian. But for clear Sultans of Turkey” are exhibited in a striking exposition, placing the reader in the points of light in the “Experiences during Fifty Years view from which he can best see the subject of Mr. Consul-General Barker,” by his son. in all its parts, he stands in the first rank, and Of works in Literary and General Biography his work, we believe, is a permanent addition the most important during the year was the to the masterpieces of English literature. “Life and Letters of Lord Macaulay," by G. Prof. George Rawlinson has published his O. Trevelyan, which, if a cordial reception "Seventh Great Oriental Monarchy: History by the public can guarantee fame, promises to of the Sassanians," continuing, with undimin- be a permanent addition to English literature. ished grasp of learning and critical sagacity, Of great and varied but painful interest is the to embody the results of recent Oriental inves “Memoirs of Robert William Haydon." Mr. tigations. The series is completed, bringing John Forster's “Life of Swift," of which great Oriental history down to the era from which expectations were authorized by the first volmodern history dates. Dean Stanley's third ume, is left a fragment by the lamented death series of " Lectures on the History of the Jew- of the author. " William Whewell: an Acish Church" expounds a portion of the Jewish count of his Writings, with Selections from annals, the dryness of which, as commonly his Scientific and Literary Correspondence," treated, makes it by no means attractive to any by I. Todhunter, commemorates a man who but very inquisitive investigators. But noth- held a great place in the public view, and who ing can resist the magic of Dean Stanley's en in point of ability and acquirements was worthy thusiasm. Whatever he touches turns up an of his position. Other works in this departinteresting side, or is made to appear interest- ment of writing are: “ Life and Opinions of ing by virtue of some association or sugges- Heinrich Heine,” by William Stigand; “Life tion caught by his fertile mind and brought of Michelangelo," by Charles Heath Wilson; into relation with it. His mild and concilia- and “Forty Years' Recollections of Life, Litertory attitude of mind toward all forms of doc- ature, and Public Affairs,” by Charles Mackey. trine, and hospitality to new ideas, are also ex TRAVEL AND EXPLORATION.—The number of hibited, if possible, more than in his previous valuable and entertaining books of travel, exproductions. Part I. of a “History of the ploration, and description, issued during the Moslems, from the Ninth to the Nineteenth year, was unusually large. Of Oriental travel, Century,” by Henry H. Howorth, is the be we have “Notes of an Indian Journey," by M. ginning of an important work. “ Islam under E. Grant Duff, M. P.; “ The Indian Alps, and the Arabs," by Major R. D. Osborn, deals how we crossed them,” by “A Lady Piowith an interesting topic that needed elucida neer;

“ The Karens of the Golden Chersontion. “The Ecclesiastical History of Ireland," ese," by Lieutenant-Colonel A. R. McMahon ; by W. D. Killen, D. D., treats the subject “ Our Trip to Burmah, with Notes on that from a Presbyterian point of view. Mr. Leslie Country," by Surgeon-General Charles AlexanStephen's “ History of English Thought in the der Gordon ; “From the IIebrides to the HimaEighteenth Century" is a philosophical review layas,” by Miss Constance F. Gordon Cumming; rather than a history of events. It is the fruit Mandelay to Momien: a Narrative of the of earnest study by one who is himself an ad- two Expeditions to Western China in 1868 and vanced thinker. * The English Bible; an Ex- 1875," by John Anderson, M. D.; “The Jourternal and Critical History of the Various Eng. ney of Augustus Raymond Margary, from lish Translations of the Scriptures,” etc., by Shanghai to Bhamo and back to Mayre," with a the late Dr. John Eadie, can hardly be said to biographical preface and concluding chapter by add to what has been before published on the Sir Rutherford Alcock; 6. The Roof of the subject. It is a convenient compilation of the World: a Journey over the High Plateau of known facts, with some considerations in favor Tibet to the Russian Frontier, and the Oxus of the revision of the authorized version. Sources on Panmir," by Lieutenant-Colonel T.

Several biographical works of historical value E. Gordon; “A Ride to Khiva: Travels and have appeared. The “Life of William Earl of Adventures in Central Asia," by Frederick


Burnaby; "The Shores of Lake Aral,” by Prof. Jebb’s “ Attic Orators," deserve parMajor Herbert Wood, R. E.; “ Clouds in the ticular notice; as well as Mr. Leslie Stephen's East: Travels and Adventures on the Perso- second series of “Hours in a Library ; " Mr. Turkoman Frontier," by Valentine Baker; and J. Ormsby's “Stray Papers,” and Mr. Alexan“ The Crimea and Transcaucasia," by J. Buchan der Schmidt's "Shakespeare Lexicon; a ComTelfer, R. N. Of Oceanic explorations we no- plete Dictionary of all the English Words,

Pearls of the Pacific," by J. W. Bod- Phrases, and Constructions, in the Works of dam-Whethan; " The.South Pacific,” by Rev. the Poet.” A revised edition of “Chambers's W. Wyatt Gill; “Discoveries and Surveys in Encyclopædia " has been published; and the New Guinea and the D'Entrecastereaux Isl- ninth edition of the “Encyclopædia Britanniands,” by Captain J. Moseby; and “ Yachting ca” is in process of publication. in the Arctic Seas," by James Lamont. Com LOCOMOTIVE, COMPRESSED-Air. In boring nearer home: “ Rambles and Studies in ing a tunnel of any considerable length, reGreece," by J. P. Mahaffy ; “ Historical and moval of the rubbish has hitherto been found Architectural Sketches, chiefly Italian," by E. one of the most difficult parts of the work. A. Freeman; "The Balearic Islands," by The use of steam is out of the question, as it Charles T. Bidwell; “ Holidays in the Tyrol," prevents effectual ventilation; while the emby Walter White; “ The Great Divide: Travels ployment of horses or mules to draw the trucks on the Upper Yellowstone,” by the Earl of on which the débris is piled is attended with Dunraven; “German Home Life;" “ Dutch great expense, and the need of an extra supply Guiana," by W. G. Palgrave; and among cir- of fresh air in the gallery. In the excavation cumnavigators, “ Over the Sea and Far Away: of St. Gothard Tunnel, now going on, machines Narrative of Wanderings round the World,” moved by compressed air have been recently by T. W. Hinchliff, President of the Alpine introduced for dragging the trucks, and have Club, are noticeabe.

proved a marked success. It is well known In Science and Philosophy, the most striking that compressed air is used to work the perfowork that has appeared is Mr. A. R. Wallace's rating machines for boring the tunnel; then, “Geographical Distribution of Animals; an by the employment of compressed-air locomo“ Introduction to Animal Morphology," by tives, ventilation of the galleries is secured, as Alexander Macalister; Lord Amberly's "Analy. these machines allow only pure air to escape; sis of Religious Belief,” a work of personal in- such motors are also more powerful than horses, terest rather than of philosophical value; two and effect more rapidly the clearing away of other posthumous books : " Fragments on the débris. Ethical Subjects,” by the late George Grote; The first attempt to use compressed air for • Thoughts on Art, Philosophy, and Religion, this purpose was made with two ordinary lofrom the Unpublished Papers of Sydney Do- comotives, one at each side of the tunnel; the bell ;.” Darwin's "Movements and Habits of boilers, in which, of course, there was no waClimbing Plants; Prof. E. R. Lancaster's ter, being filled with condensed air under a “History of Creation;" not to mention the pressure of four atmospheres. This air played

nerous compilations intended to popularize the part usually done by steam, passed into science. Of original works in theological sci- slide-valves, entered the cylinders alternately ence the number is small. Dr. F. J. A. Hort's on each face of the pistons, which it set in mo* Two Dissertations: 1. On MONOTENHE OEOE tion, and then escaped into the atmosphere. in Scripture and Tradition. 2. On the Constantinopolitan Creed and other Eastern Creeds; " an essay in reply to “Supernatural Religion,"entitled “The Gospels in the Second Century," UMT by W. Sanday; a piece of recondite Biblical investigation, “ The Missing Fragment of the Latin Translation of the Fourth Book of Esdras," by R. L. Bensley; Principal Tulloch on “ The Christian Doctrine of Sin ; " the Bampton It is easily seen that, if compressed air were Lectures of Bishop Alexander, on "The Wit- to be employed, it would be indispensable to ness of the Psalms to Christ and Christianity;" have a very considerable quantity of it; the and the remarkable “University Sermons of boiler of a locomotive, sufficient when it is Rev. J. B. Mozley, D. D., are among the chief. worked by means of steam constantly produced

MISCELLANEOUS.–Of classical essays, Mr. “under the action of heat, was too small to conGladstone's “Homeric Synchronism,"

, and tain the quantity of air required for use without

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FIG. 1.

being frequently filled. This led to adding to from the boiler. Two locomotives were thus each locomotive a special reservoir for com- worked economically for about two years, in pressed air, which, mounted on trucks of its spite of the awkwardness of the long reserown, became a kind of tender, the air in the voirs that accompanied them. At departure reservoir being conveyed by a tube to the dis- the pressure in the reservoir was about seven tributing apparatus of the cylinders. The loco- kilogrammes per square centimetre; the locomotive then worked as before, except that com- motive having drawn a train of twelve loaded pressed air came from the reservoir instead of wagons along a course of about 600 metres,

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the pressure was found to fall to four and a ing apparatus: to get over this difficulty M. half kilogramines; the train then returned Ribourt, the engineer of the tunnel, devised empty to the point of departnre, the final an arrangement which allows the compressed pressure being two and a half kilogrammes. air to flow at a fixed pressure, whatever the But by this arrangement it was found to be pressure in the reservoir. The air in escaping impossible to suitably regulate the pressure of from the reservoir enters a cylinder B (Fig. 1), the air between the reservoir and the distribut- over a certain extent of the walls of which

are openings mm, that communicate with an- carrying glasses, cylinders, distributing apparaother cylinder C, which surrounds it to the tus, etc. The tube for receiving the air carries, game extent, and which is connected with the within reach of the driver, the automatic valve slide-valve by which the air is distributed, of M. Ribourt. The screw being easily reguor, more generally, with the space in which lated, the air can with certainty be made to this air is to be utilized. On one side moves a issue from the apparatus at a determined presspiston E, which shuts the cylinder and hinders ure. This air then passes into a small reserthe escape of the air. This piston carries ex voir (about one-third inetre cube), intended to ternally a shaft F, which supports externally deaden the shocks, which are always produced a spiral spring H, the force of which is regu- when the machine is set going or stopped. lated by means of a screw. Internally it is Lastly, this small reservoir communicates with connected by another shaft L with a second the cylinders, and the air which reaches them piston N, which bears a cylinder M, movable acts in the same manner as steam in ordinary in the interior of the principal pump, and form- locomotives. ing thus a sort of internal sheath. This sheath LONSDALE, HENRY LOWTHER, Earl of, born presents openings n n, which may coincide ex- March 27, 1818; died August 15, 1876. He actly with those already referred to, and in was educated at Westminster School and that case the air passes without difficulty from Trinity College, Cambridge, at which univerthe reservoir at the point where it is to be sity he graduated M. A. in 1835. In 1841 he employed. But if the sheath is displaced, the entered the army as cornet in the First Lifeopenings no longer correspond, there is resist- Guards, and retired from the service in 1854. ance to the passage, and consequently dimi- He was Lord-Lieutenant and Custos Rotulonution of the quantity of air which flows out, rum of Cumberland and Westmoreland, and and hence lowering of pressure in the exte- represented West Cumberland in the House of rior cylinder. By making the position of the Commons from 1847 till his accession to the sheath to vary continuously we may make peerage in 1872. Lord Lonsdale was a keen the pressure of exit constant, notwithstanding sportsman, keeping a select racing-stud, like the continuous variation at entry. But the his predecessor, and for several years was apparatus is automatic. In fact, the part of master of the Cottesmore hounds.

He was the cylinder B' comprised between the bottom succeeded by his oldest son, St. George Henry, and the piston N communicates by openings Viscount Lowther, born October 4, 1855. pp (which are never covered with the escape LORQUET, Louis MICHAEL Polemon, a tube of the gas), in such a manner that upon Haytian general, born December 5, 1825; died its posterior face the piston N receives the in April

, 1876, in defense of the government pressure of the air at the moment when it of President Dominigue. His father was & flows, a pressure which it is sought to render colonel in the army. After leaving school, constant. The piston E receives on its ante- Lorquet entered the ranks of the regiment, and rior face the action of the spring which can soon after became secretary to General Inginac. be regulated at pleasure. As to the other After the Revolution of 1843, when President faces of the two pistons, they are subjected Boyer fled to Jamaica, young Lorquet attendto equal actions proceeding from the pressure ed him, and remained with him till 1845, when of the air at its entry, actions which thus he returned to Hayti. He was appointed counteract each other; so that the forces which chief-clerk in the custom - house, but was determine the position of the movable system removed by General Soulouque, and went are, on the one hand, the tension of the spring, to reside at Gonaives. In 1849, when Soua constant and determined force, and, on the louque was proclaimed Emperor, under the other hand, the pressure of the flowing air; title of Faustin I., through the influence of and thus equilibrium cannot occur unless the the Duke de Saint-Louis du Sud, Lorquet was two forces are equal. If the air should flow appointed judge at Gonaives. On March 28, in too great a quantity, the pressure increases 1854, he was commissioned public prosecutor on the posterior face of the piston N, the for Gonaives. In December, 1858, when the spring is overcome, and the movable system imperial throne was shaken, and Jeffrard beadvances a little toward the left; but then came President, he appointed Lorquet Chiefthe orifices are partly covered and the flow Justice, Minister of Instruction, and tempodiminishes. If the pressure then becomes too rary commander of the republican forces. On weak at the exit, the spring in its turn prevails, the 11th of November, 1865, he was made pushes the sheath toward the right, uncovers General of the Army, and in 1866 was aidethe orifices, and consequently a greater quan- de-camp of Salnave. Lorquet returned to tity of air may enter.

Hayti from exile in Jamaica on the 8th of May, The machines which are now used at the St. 1868, and took part in the Salnave revolution. Gothard Tunnel, genuine compressed-air loco- On the 13th of May, 1871, he was appointed motives, are furnished with M. Ribourt's ap- military commander of the capital city of Portparatus. They consist of the following parts: au-Prince, by President Nissage Saget, which A sheet-iron reservoir to contain the com- position he filled for several years.

He was pressed air is mounted on a framework quite decorated with the Spanish Order of Isabel like that of steam-locomotives (Fig. 2), and la Católica.

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