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emician and professor, Budenz, has produced, annual subsidy of 50,000 florins from the Govin one volume, a grammar of the Mokscha and ernment, and unites our best scholars on the Erza-Mordvin languages, and effected a uniti- field of historical resources. The publications cation of these two dialects, which have been called “Monumenta Hungariæ Historica” hitherto separately treated by Finn-Ugrian sist of two different groups, those relating to philologists, such as Ahlqvist (* Versuch einer parliamentary matters, and the “ Acta Extera.” mokscha - mordwinischen Grammatik, nebst in the past year came out the following noteTexten und Wörterverzeichniss," St. Peters- worthy work: “Diplomatic Monuments of the burg, 1861) and Wiedemann (“Grammatik der Time of the Anjou Dynasty," by Prof. Gustaerza - mordwinischen Sprache, nebst einem vus Wenzel, extending from 1370–1426 ; “Dipkleinen mordwinisch-deutschen und deutsch- lomatic Monuments from the Time of our Great mordwinischen Wörterbuch," St. Petersburg, King Mathias Corvinus,” edited by Iván Nagy 1865).

and Baron Albertus Nyáry, comprising the In connection with philology, I may mention time between 1458–70. As particularly inM. Paul Hunfalvi's Ethnography of Hun- teresting, I have to mention “The Correspondgary," which treats of the origin of the Magyar ence of Nicolaus Oláh,” published by Bishop race, as well as the early history of the non Arnold Ipolyi, a book which throws an essenMagyar population of the country, such as the tial light upon one of the most interesting peGermans, Slavonians, Roumanians, Armenians, riods of Hungarian history. Nicolaus Oláh Gypsies, and Jews, the latter in their quality of was a private secretary of Queen Maria, the integral parts of the crown of St. Stephen, a wife of our unfortunate King Ludovic II., proceeding which deserves approbation, since who fell at the disastrous battle of Mohács. the ethnological conditions of these last-named Queen Maria having been obliged to eminationalities have been already amply treated grate after the Turkish occupation of Hungaby Rössler, Häufle, Miklosich, and Czoernig. ry, her secretary, N. Oláh, followed her, with

Dramatic literature can boast of two eminent a noble attachment, to the Netherlands, and products: "Milton,” by Maurice Jókai, a work the correspondence which he kept up, from defective in dramatic construction, but thor- that country, with his friends in Hungary, is oughly poetic; and “Ishkariot," a Biblical rich in details concerning the diplomatic transtragedy, by the young Anthony Várady. A actions of those times between Charles V., lofty and poetic mind pervades the dramatic Ferdinand I., and Clement VII. poem, “The Day of Judgment” (“ Az itélet from these letters an insight into the great napja "), by Baron Ivor Kaas. The greater panic which Europe experienced with regard part of the products of dramatic literature are to the Turks; but, at the same time, we see composed to supply daily demand.

how mutual rivalry and total ignorance of facts Fiction is represented only by our genius, stood in the way of an energetic and combined Maurice Jókai. To him we are indebted for defense. Bishop Ipolyi's book, comprising 621 “ The Comedians of Life" (" Az élet komé- letters in Latin, fully deserves the attention of diásai"), a social novel, “ The Lunatic of De- foreign scholars. breczen ("A debreczeni lunátikus "), an in This year the congress for prehistoric arteresting and humorous tale, and “To the North chæology and ethnology held its eighth meetPole” (“Egész az ésszaki pólusig "), a fantastic ing, at Buda-Pesth. _England was represented novel in the style of Jules Verne.

by Messrs. Franks, Evans, and Grote; France, Essays on literary history are mostly pub- Sweden, Denmark, Italy, Belgium, Germany, lished in periodicals. As separate volumes, Holland, and the different provinces of ancient we find “The Ballads of Arany” (“ Arany Poland, sent their most distinguished savants balladái "), expounded by Augustus Greguss; to our capital ; Vienna, Russia proper, and “History of our Literature, 1711-72” (“Irodal- Roumania, were absent. The principal feature muuk története, 1711–72 "), written with great of the congress was a noble exhibition of the care by Joseph Szinnyei, junior; and “The most important prehistoric remains found in Two Kisfaludy" ("A két Kisfaludy'), by Thom- Hungary, which gave a correct idea of the difas Szana, of which the latter describes two in- ferent types of Hungarian finds. teresting individuals in Hungarian literature, ITALY.–Guasti, of Prato, near Florence, has viz., Alexander Kisfaludy, one of the most recently published the forty-sixth and fortyeminent representatives of erotic poetry, and seventh portions of the monumental “Storia Charles Kisfaludy, the founder of Hungarian dell' Arte Cristiana nei primi otto secoli della comedy. The valuable work of Francis Toldy, Chiesa," by Father Raffaele Garrucci, of the "A Manual to Hungarian Poetry” (“A ma- Company of Jesus. These two portions comgyar költészet kézikönyve "), is only a second plete the third folio volume, which treats of and enlarged edition of the original book. miniatures and painted glass. The fourth vol

Turning to history, I may begin with the ume is now commencing, which will describe publications of the Academy, which, edited by the mosaics. This work is now about half fina special committee, mostly refer to the investi- ished, and all those persons who are engaged gation of our original resources. That commit- in the history of art ought to express the detee, presided over by Bishop Horváth, the emi. sire that it may be carried on to the end; they nent historiographer of this country, enjoys an should also give it their best encouragement.

Some of Father Garrucci's opinions may be dis- work, to the treasures of the Piedmontese arputed, and some of his interpretations may chives, two archivists of Venice, Sgr. F. Todeseem somewhat arbitrary; and it would have rini, and Sgr. Bartolomeo Cecchetti, the present been as well had the illustrations been strict excellent keeper of the Venetian Archives, bave fac-similes, and not undergone any arrangement given to the world an account of the archives whatever ; but this fault is not for a moment under their care, in a volume which is worthy to be weighed against the immense archæologi- of all commendation. It is entitled “L'Arcal erudition of Father Garrucci, the great inn- chivio di Stato in Venezia nel Decennio 1866– portance of some of the illustrations, which are 76.” It gives evidence of the inmense interest now for the first time given to the world in possessed by the mass of historical papers his book, and the subtile ingenuity of some of which are kept in Venice, and it also bears his remarks; above all, there is the very solid witness to the care and pains that have been and important fact that never, until now, has bestowed upon them since the deliverance of so rich or so interesting a collection of ma Venice from the Austrian yoke. terials been brought together to illustrate Chris It is thus that Sgr. Domenico Berti, deputy to tian art from the earliest ages of the Church. Parliament, and also Professor of History of This work, to which all the great libraries of Philosophy at the University of Rome, bas at Europe have subscribed, will, when complete, last given to the world, for the first time, an contain one hundred parts in folio, and the exact and complete copy of the “ Processo price will be five hundred francs.

Originale di Galileo Galilei," with an excellent From Naples we have received the first part commentary upon the same. Certain orthodos of another archeological work, “Le Rovine di critics, who have not seen the work, have prePompej;" the illustrations are drawn and en- cipitately declared that the announcement of graved by Giuseppe Solari and Eugenio Leone. this book is merely an Italian hoax. The same This work, when finished, will contain upward author, some months previously, published a of a thousand woodcuts, distributed through perfect model of an historical monograph, unsixty sheets of letter-press. The present speci- der the title of “ Copernico e le Vicende del men-number does not give promise of much Sistema ernicano in Italia nella seconda learning; but it is, at all events, well illus- metà del Secolo XVI e nella prima del trated, the objects are carefully described, and XVIIM.” Thus the two grand characters of the book will be suitable to general readers, on Copernicus and of Galileo are both faithfully account of the cuts and of the extreme, almost delineated in these eloquent and masterly hiselementary, clearness of the explanations. tories by the same writer.

Two excellent archæological monographs, in Among the best works of history that have quarto, have recently appeared: one of them, appeared in the course of the present year is "I Sigilli Antichi Romani raccolti e publicati the first volume of a very important work, by da Vittorio Poggi," with eleven pages of illus- Prof. Bartolomeo Malfatti. It is entitled “ ]mtration; the other, “Le Antiche Lapidi di Ber- peratori e Papi ai Tempi della Signoria dei gamo descritte ed illustrate dal Canonico Gio- Franchi in Italia." Immense labor has been vanni Finazzi." Both of them are works of bestowed upon this first volume; it is written solid erudition and conscientious labor. in the highest style of criticism, and every page

In this place I must especially mention the bears the impress of impartiality. I must also last volume in quarto of the “Documenti di mention the recent numbers of the always Storia Italiana," published by the Historical attractive “ Cronistoria dell'Indipendenza Commission of Tuscany, Umbria, and the Italiana,” by our aged but still indefatigable Marches. I must not omit the first volume in and illustrious historian, Cesare Cantù; and quarto of the “ Biblioteca Historioa Italiana,” the eighth edition of Sgr. Amari's celebrated published in an elegant form by the Lombard work, entitled “La Guerra del Vespro SiciliHistorical Society. It has an instructive pref- ano,” with many important additions and corace, written by A. Cerruti; and it also con- rections, which may now be considered as tains chronicles and historical monographs. final.

Last year I announced the first volume of All that can be said on the whole of Italian the “Storia della Diplomazia della Corte di publications is, that the book-trade in Italy Savoia,” by Domenico Carutti. This eminent seems to be growing more and more brisk, historian, who is a member of the Council of owing to several circumstances, which may be State at Rome, has now lately given to the brietly summed up as follows: first, the generworld the second volume of the work. This al awakening of Italy; secondly, the number volume treats of the events of 1601-63, that is of publishers, which is always on the increase; to say, the stormy period for the House of Sa- thirdly, the public becomes more eager after roy during the reigns of Charles Emanuel new works; fourthly, there are authors who I., of Victor Amadeus I., and of Madama Reale. are content to receive a nominal price for their Sgr. Carutti always goes for his materials to work, sometimes they are content to receive trustworthy sources, and turns to the best ac- nothing at all, and sometimes they even gladly count the dispatches of embassadors.

pay the expense of publication, for the sole Almost at the same time that Sgr. Bianchi is pleasure of seeing their book well got up, and introducing us, through his most inestimable brought out by a good publisher. It is seldon),

indeed, that a publisher is to be found who, countries; Dr. A. S. Guldberg, a work “On like Maisner, of Milan, is inclined to make the Theory of Determinants; C. de Sene an outlay of 20,000 francs on one large volume (in German), a treatise, Windrosen des südin quarto, with illustrations, containing the lichen Norwegens.' The last work is printed learned narrative by Prof. Enrico Giglioli of as a programme of the university. his great scientific voyage round the world in The renowned mathematician, Prof. 0. J. the Magenta. The work deserves to take its Broch, has made a most important contribution place among the best standard works of travel. to the knowledge of his native country in his It has been edited with the utmost care. The new book, entitled “ The Kingdom of Norethnological introduction which Prof. Paolo way and the Norwegian People.” This work, Mantegazza has prefixed increases the value which also appears in French translation, has of this book, which may be pronounced to be been provoked by the Exhibition at Brusthe most important work that has appeared sels. this year.

PORTUGAL.-In ten months we have had Although it would be difficult to point out, ninety translations. The “ Vida Infernal" of amid this mass of books, a single one that could Gaboriau side by side with the “Cartas a um be called a work of first-class originality and Sceptico" of Balmes; the “Historia e Milamerit, yet I can conscientiously aver that none gres da Virgem de Lourdes" of Lasserre in of these publications can be styled common front of the “ Historia dos Coitadinhos Ce. place: each one has its own characteristics, and lebres" of H. Kock. Here are the two curhas its own individnal merits. Thus, among rents of the new literature, which are still the the novels, there are several in which there is illustrations of our manners and customs. On much to appreciate and to admire.

one side the Ultramontane school publishes In dramatic and in lyric poetry Italian au- the “Syllabus Justificado” and the Egrethors have not been idle during 1876. The ja Triumphante" of Maupier, multiplies the. year has given us our earliest printed copies of number of catechisms and prayer-books, issues several dramas by authors who just now are new editions of the works of the old mystic enjoying popularity.

authors; on the other side, a literary party, Political excitement has more or less sub- without name and without character, translates sided; accordingly our poets have recently en immoral romances, and makes detestable verses joyed more favor than has been bestowed on full of profanity and caricatures of the most them for some years past. Italy's former love sacred things. of art has revived, and has partly expressed Of original works I cannot cite many. The itself in the care shown by the editors of sev “Douro Illustrado," by the Viscount de Villa eral poetical collections.

Maior, is considered by competent authorities NORWAY.—The present year has not been as up to the mark of the author's capacity: he rich in literary productions. In belles-lettres is known by his studies and writings respectthere is nothing deserving mention. Turning ing viniculture; but the present is more a treato historical literature, I may mention that the tise on curiosities and statistics than a work of edition of many and important historical science. Prof. A. A. d’Aguiar, who was he and philological essays of the late Prof. P. A. Portuguese Commissioner to the Exhibition of Munch, by Dr. Gustav Storm, has been recent Wines in London, has already published part ly finished with the publication of the fourth of his lectures on agriculture. They created volume.

for him adversaries and heart-burnings. This In theology merit to be named the Rev. E. was to be expected, for Senhor d'Aguiar is a F. B. Horn's book “On Atonement and Justi- man distinguished for science, conscientiousfication," and the Rev. A. O. Bang's learned ness, and honesty, and, moreover, speaks what essay “On the Historical Reality of the Resur- he thinks. His lectures, which made so great rection of Christ." The first of these works an impression when spoken, lose nothing of has provoked several protests from the strictly their expressiveness in a printed form. orthodox party, as it in several respects clashes In the section of belles-lettres, the reaction with the old Lutheran dogmas, but his views against the extravagance of the French style have been defended by the author himself, not begins to operate; the romances of Julio-Diniz without talent, and have also found approval serve for an example. Pedro Ivo, Bento Moin the eyes of several authorities.

reno, two noms de plume, figure on the titleIn law, Prof. Aschehoug continues his im- pages of notable books. The first, who was portant work, “ Norges offentlige Ret" ("On already known by his " Contos," has now the Norwegian Constitution and Govern- published “O Sello da Roda," and Bento Moment''), and Prof. Ingstad has written an es reno has issued the “Comedia do Campo," say on the study of Roman law, in which he pictures of manners, scenes in the Minho, small also treats of the present state of that study in unaffected stories, admirably, nay, adorably England.

narrated. Axel Blytt has produced a learned essay (in A. Sarmento has also published the “Contos the English language) “On the Immigration do Soalheiro,” an estimable work, in which is of the Norwegian Flora,” which, as it de- found a rich collection of proverbs, adages, serves, has attracted much attention in foreign idiotisms, and popular Portuguese phrases, as

well as a description of the customs and su sance, as has been the case in Germany and perstitions of our people.

Italy; unfortunately, however, in Spain the Dona Maria Amalia Vaz de Carvalho, the southern character predominates in a great deauthoress of the “ Vozes do Ermo,” is already gree, and destroys most part of the other adknown among us not only as a poetess of dis- vantages. One instance of this is furnished tinction, but also as a prose-writer of eminence. by the debates held at the Ateneo of Madrid, There is not one of the Portuguese ladies who a neutral ground on which celebrities of every aspire to literary honors able to compete with school meet to discuss every kind of subject. her. The “ Vozes do Ermo" is the only book The debates of this year have been held on imof verses which I consider I ought to particu- portant social problems, and also to discuss larize.

whether it would be advisable to have the proI desist from mentioning some agreeable tection of the Government for certain literary books of travels, as well as some pleasing productions. The orators have enchanted their poems of small importance.

audiences by their eloquence, without, howIn dramatic literature, excepting the drama, ever, convincing them for the ideas which “ Os Lazaristas," of A. Ennes, there has not they support in religion, philosophy, and social appeared anything worthy of notice. This science, possess so eclectic a tendency that it drama is not only a work of propaganda against is not easy for half a dozen individuals to agree the Jesuits, but must be rated, when we set in a concrete solution. aside a few slight blemishes, a true production Such is the general aspect of the intellectual of art.

life of 1866. The books which have appeared Theophilo Braga, a workman of untiring during the year have been few, and none of industry, has issued the " Anthologia Portu- any great importance. gueza,

" the “Manual da Litteratura Portu SWEDEN.-The prosperity, which in a mategueza,” the “Grammatica Comparada da Lin- rial point of view has been the result of abungua Portugueza," and also published the dant harvests and progress in all the depart** Cancioneiro do Vaticano." All these works ments of commerce and industry, has naturally are commendable.

exercised a beneficial influence on the bookSPAIN.-A tendency is to be observed in market. The number of original works is, Spain to foster the study of science by estab- however, not very large; translations, on the lishing it on a more solid foundation, and one other hand, are more numerous

The latter, more in accordance with modern ideas. This with a few exceptions, must here be omitted. has continued in the present year almost to a To turn to philosophy, there has been pubgreater extent than in former ones. The estab- lished the first installment of a selection of S. lishment of new literary centres and scientific Grubbe's works. Grubbe was Professor of periodicals, the foreign books which are con- Philosophy at the University of Upsala, and as tinually translated, and the excellent literary a stylist he ranks among our greatest authors. reviews which appear, show us that the Span- This work is published by A. Nyblæus, who, ish public is becoming anxious to learn and in “Den filosofiska Forskningen i Sverige från favor studies of all kinds.

slutet af adertonde århundradet" ("PhilosophFor many years French books have been the ical Researches in Sweden from the end of the only channel through which foreign ideas and Eighteenth Century'), and other books, bas scientific impulses have entered Spain. There proved himself not only a learned inquirer, is a great change at the present time. A large but a master of the art of writing in a clear number of books are translated directly from and popular style. Another volume of great German and English, most of them of a scien- interest is G. Bring's “ Immanuel Kants Fortific kind; and they meet with a ready sale, hållande till den filosofiska Teologien" ("I. which would not have been the case twenty Kant's Relation to Philosophic Theology”). years ago. Among them may be mentioned The researches in Swedish history have not Mackeldy's “Studies of Roman Law," Momm- produced any great results this year. sen's “ History of Rome,” Draper's “Science The interest taken in fine arts and their hisand Religion,” besides works of Hegel, Kant, tory has been increasing, especially since the and the Greek philosophers, which have been opening of the new National Museum, simul. translated and greatly commented upon lately. taneously with the great exhibition of producOne of the reasons which have contributed to tions of art and industry in Stockholm, 1866. make these studies popular in Spain is, that In consequence, the time seems to have arthe best Spanish literary journals publish a rived for producing an art-journal--an idea special foreign correspondence direct from the that was realized two years ago. L. DietrichEuropean literary centres. These facts clearly son is the editor; contributions have been furprove that the Spanish public is becoming more nished by Prof. Nyblom, Ljunggren, and othalive to the advantages of private enterprise; ers, and the artistic part of the work has been there is, undoubtedly, progress, though, if com- provided for by engaging the services of dispared with the modern life of other nations, tinguished etchers, Unger, Klaus, Lowenstam. the result is poor. Literary writings are scanty, Dr. Fr. Sander has this year completed a and the country is going through one of those work relating to its valuable collection of periods which generally come before a renais- pictures, under the title of “ Nationalmuseum,


bidrag till tafle galleriets historia” (“The In poetry the event of the year has been the National Museum, Contributions to the His- republication of the poems and dramas of tory of the Picture Gallery'), based on care Count Alexis Tolstoi. This edition, while ful researches. The productions of the modern containing many things that were scattered pictorial art of the North are represented by through the pages of periodicals, is not com* Nordiska målares taflor” (“Pictures by plete, in the sense that it does not contain some Northern Painters"), with an explanatory text; poems which the censorship would forbid from and the exhibition of the works of Egron their political satire, and some which were Lundgren (the painter in water-colors so high- never intended for publication, but only for ly esteemed in England), which had the hon- the amusement of friends, being caricatures or of numbering the Queen of England among of men of the time, or full of Rabelaisian huits exhibitors, together with our present exhibition of industrial productions of art-proofs The strong point with the Russian literature that the fine arts are cultivated in Sweden. of 1876, as for many years of late, is in history

The Swedish literature has this year been en and historical material. Of the latter, three riched with a most valuable collection of po- journals deserve a special mention for their ems, written by O. D. af Wirsén. These songs, general as well as their historical interest, the pervaded as they are by a mournful tone, memoirs of Michael Garnofsky, of Madame through which, however, glimmers forth a man- Passek, and of Baron Rosen. Garnofsky was ly trust that is based on Christian principles, an artillery colonel, who was for many years carry the reader into a poetical atmosphere, the overseer of the houses, villas, and glasswhich reminds him of that which surrounds B. works, of Prince Potemkin in St. Petersburg; E. Malmström's best productions.

and during the frequent absences of the prince Russia.—The literature of Russia for the from the capital had charge of all his affairs, year seems barren. The continuation of what not only those of property, but of various comis so far a really great novel, still unfinished, missions, and business at the court and with Count Leo Tolstoi's “ Anna Karenina,” is all people in near relations to the Empress CathRussia can boast of. What is, perhaps, the erine, as also with various ministries and degreatest production of the year has not yet suc. partments of the Government. Potemkin conceeded in satisfying the censorship, and is still sidered him as his right hand, all houses in St. retained in the printing-office, the important Petersburg were open to him, and he was on work of Prince Vasiltchikof, “Land Tenure intimate terms with many of the leading men and Agriculture.” Turgeneff appears in one of the epoch. They are written in a clear and short tale only, “The Watch," in which he business-like but lively style, and extend from shows all his old pathos. Moved by the Bul- 1786 to 1790. "The Recollections of Madame garian horrors, he sent to one of the Russian Passek," of which a small portion had already newspapers a short poem—a vision of a game been printed, begins with the accession of of croquet at Windsor—which, in its half- the Empress Catherine II., and extends to dozen stanzas, gave a more impressive picture 1812. The recollections concern rather the than any Russian poem which has appeared for writer herself and her immediate acquaintances years. Fortunately his pen has not been idle, than political affairs in general, although they and a new novel, longer than most of his for are full of valuable references. The publicamer works, “Nov". now in course of publi- tion of the memoirs of Baron Rosen is a new cation. Dostoiefsky has devoted all his force, proof of the great interest which the present not to works of art or to realistic novels, but generation takes in all that concerns the Deto his serial, “ The Journal of an Author," half cembrists, that band of noble and enthusiastic autobiographical and half critical, on society young men who endeavored to prevent Nichand politics. The poems and dramas of the olas from ascending the throne in 1825, and to late Count Alexis Tolstoi have been collected force upon Russia a free government. Another and published; Stchedrin (Soltykof) has given interesting contribution to historical literature, us some new satirical sketches, “Conservative for it covers and attempts to decide many Talk;” and Pypin has begun a series of studies kpotty points, is “The French in Moscow in on the history of Russian literature, which are 1812,” by D. N. Popot. the writer has carealready good and promise to be better. Be- fully studied the whole literature of the subyond this we find nothing but the productions ject, and many diaries and papers which have of third-rate writers--a play or two, some never been published, and gives us full mateslight though graceful verses, and a few novels, rials to judge for ourselves how and why Mosoccasionally of merit. Such things are pub- cow was burned. lished and are read because the Russian read Among other historical publications should ing public is growing larger, and must, some be noted the “Relations of Russia with the how, be satisfied. To supplement the defi- European Powers before the War of 1815," by ciency of native talent, now, as once before in A. Popof; the second and third volumes of the Russian literary history, translations of the new edition of the “ Complete Collection of best contemporary authors are in vogue, and Russian Laws," etc., which extend to 1723; are becoming more and more the staple of some the fifteenth, sixteenth, and seventeenth volof the magazines.

umes of the “Collection of the Russian Histori


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