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caused by a reckless issue of bonds and Treas The Blind Institute is established on a solid ury warrants, the permanent debt of the State foundation, and in successful operation. The has not been increased.

appropriation required is $7,000. A Deaf-Mute With regard to the payment of the State Institute is also in operation, with every promdebt the board say:

ise of future permanency. An appropriation In regard to the settlement of the mass of the debt of $50,000 was made for the erection of an of the State, the board, after the most thorough con- asylum for the insane; the ground has been sideration that they have been competent to give to obtained, and plans of the building proposed. the subject, are of the opinion that no final action There are about two hundred insane persons should be taken at this time. It admits of a mathe- in the State. A new building has been erected matical demonstration that the State is not in a condition to pay the interest on the nominal outstanding for the State penitentiary, which with the old debt; and no creditor, as far as the board is advised, one furnishes 406 cells for prisoners. The entertains any opinion different from that which is number of prisoners is about 385. An act of hiere expressed. As to what offer they will finally the Legislature allows to every convict two make is unknown even to themselves, from the days for every month that he has, during his wunt of due deliberation, and such consultation as could result in any concerted and definite offer. It confinement, conducted himself in an exemis known that the legality of many of the bonds plary manner. of the State admits of grave question; and bonds The total number of enlisted men enrolled of the classes affected by this consideration have in the militia is 13,057, and the estimated total fallen on the market, and are now selling at prices of effective militia in the State is estimated at far below the other bonds which labor under no such imputation.

93,000 men. The board has felt itself precluded from express

On the subject of immigration, the recentlying any decided opinion on the subject of the valid- inaugurated Governor Miller says: ity of these bonds. The constitution contemplates the payment of the just debts of the State, but fails Perhaps our one greatest need is that of capital to provide any tribunal to decide what debts are just and labor, to bring out the great and undeveloped and what are not; nor has it prescribed any criterion resources of the State. With a mild and healthy by which these two classes of debts may be distin- climate, a soil of fertility unsurpassed, and capable guished.

of producing grains, grasses, fruits, vegetables, and Cases may be conceived in which bonds would textile growths in almost endless variety; with be so wholly destitute of all legality and merit as forests of timber, adapted to purposes of manufactto amount to no more than waste-paper. Other ure, such as have no parallel in any other State on cases may be conceived where bonds might be tech- the Atlantic slope; with ample mines of coal, lead, nically invalid, and where the State would still be iron, and other valuable metals; with a greater bound in justice and fair dealing to pay to the length of navigable streams than any other State in holders of such bonds the equivalent of any benefit the

Union; with railroads traversing her territory actually purchased by the State with them. In any from east to west and from north to south; with event, the State must always be the final arbiter in water-power in great abundance, and with absolute the matter; and as no inferior tribunal can decide peace and tranquillity within her' borders, Arkansas in the premises, the duty of making any final adju- offers to the immigrant inducements such as are dication must devolve on the Legislature as the afforded by no other portion of the West. Every supreme power of the State.

means within the resources of the State should be As the subject must then come before a body that employed to set before the world our true condition. cannot claim to be wholly impartial, we would recom- Let the country know, as we know, that the immimend such an investigation as should fitly stand in grant, from whatever realm of Europe, from whatthe place of a judicial inquiry, so that no one could ever section of our own land, he may come, will say that he had been condemned unheard, in de- meet, here, a cordial welcome, and will be protected fiance of the principles of natural justice. We are in every right of person, of opinion, and of property. convinced that by proceeding with circumspection, The diffusion of reliable information upon these and giving to the holders of the bonds of the State subjects by our highest official authorities cannot an opportunity of perceiving the whole situation, in

fail to be one of the very best methods of bringing all its details of calamity and hardship; by evincing our State into notice, and demands the patronage a frank, fair, and manly purpose in every step, the and support of the representatives of the people. public debt can be more satisfactorily settled for the people of the State, and the honor of the State more ARMY OF THE UNITED STATES. The perfectly sustained, than by any hasty expedient subject of the reform and reorganization of which might suggest that the state precluded in the Army was referred by the act of July 24, quiry because it might be productive of unfavorable results in some moral point of view.

1876, to a commission consisting of two mem

bers from each House of Congress, the SecreAn efficient law for common schools has tary of War, and two officers of the Army. been in force in the State for a short time; its This commission met on the 11th of August, operation is such as to give the friends of the and subsequently collected for transmission to system strong hopes of its success. The only Congress a large mass of valuable statistics and embarrassment met with arises from the finan

opinions bearing upon the questions before it. cial condition of the State. Full reports have

At the close of the year the Chief of Enbeen received from all the counties but fifteen. gineers submitted estimates as follows: There is an Industrial University supported by the State, and intended for the direct benefit Fortifications and other works of defense... $2,228,000

River and harbor improvements..

13,220,100 of the colored population, which promises to Buildings and grounds in and around Washington accomplish its object. A proposition is also Washington Aqueduct.. made to connect with St. John's College a


892,000 Normal School and a Geological Department.



229,050 349,500

Public Works

“I submit this,” said Secretary Cameron, year at a cost of $146,960. The number of in" without further comment than to remark that terments June 30, 1876, was 310,356, of which this is not an estimate ’in the sense of the esti- 164,655 were of unknown persons. The work mates asked for other purposes; it is not ap- of erecting head-stones over the graves has proved nor disapproved, but it is forwarded been completed at fifty-seven of the cemeteries, in response to various acts of Congress calling and 92,046 known and 87,242 unknown graves for surveys and estimates for improvement at have been marked. There are about 17,000 various localities."

graves of Union soldiers who fell during the For all purposes except those above named, war and were buried by the War Department the estimates for 1877–78 amount to $37,583,- in various public and private incorporated 555. The appropriations for 1876–77 were cemeteries not known as national military $30,610,351; for 1875–76, $31,325,822 ; and cemeteries. 1874–75, $30,915,265. The increase in the The health of the Army during the year has present estimates over the appropriations for been good, and the mortality from disease (8 the current year is made up as follows: per 1,000 of mean strength) unusually small.

The number of deaths from wounds has been Civil establishment,

$49.437 86 Military establishment..

4,078,655 40 exceptionally large (15 per 1,000).
2,201,902 70 The Signal-Service organization comprises
644,203 31

145 stations, from which telegraphic reports of Total..

.$6,979,208 77 observations are received in addition to the

reports from the Dominion of Canada. From The public works are the new building for these reports tri-daily forecasts or “probabilithe War, State, and Navy Departments, the ties” are made in the Central Office, and furRock Island Hospital, and the hospital and nished to the press throughout the country. other works at West Point, all of which are in Of these probabilities 88 per cent. are verified. course of construction. The increase in mis- Cautionary signals, of which 77 per cent. have cellaneous estimates is made up of $350,000 been justified, are displayed when necessary for refunding to States the expenses incurred by day and night at forty-eight of the principal in raising volunteers; $98,000 for furnishing ports of the sea and lake coasts. Farmers' artificial limbs under existing laws; $50,000 bulletins, containing much information valufor the Signal Service ; $77,850 for printing able to agriculturists, are posted daily in severand binding; and the remainder, $88,358, for al thousand post-offices. River reports, giving various minor objects. The increase asked the depth of certain rivers at certain points, for the military service is made up of $1,385,- are published daily. 000 for armament of fortifications, manufact The small force of effective troops in the ure of small-arms, and the purchase of a site Army has been actively employed during the for a powder-depot, and nearly $3,000,000 for past year. Their employment has been mainly quartermasters' and subsistence supplies. “The directed to two objects: First, to compel the appropriations for the current year,” says the Sioux Indians to acknowledge the authority Secretary, "furnish no criterion of what is re of the Government; and, second, to preserve quired for the support of the Department. It order at the South. To be prepared for any is probable that a deficiency will be necessary disturbance that might arise during the excitein order to meet the expenses during the ment of the presidential election, Lieutenantlatter months of the year, although no efforts General Sheridan was instructed to concenwill be spared to avoid it."

trate a sufficient number of troops in New The report of the Inspector-General shows Orleans under Brigadier-General Augur, comthat the desertions have decreased from about manding the Department of the Gulf; and 30 per cent. of the entire force in 1871 to Major-General Hancock was directed to detach about 7 per cent. in 1876. That officer recom a sufficient number of companies from the garmends that Congress pass a law making deser- risons on the sea-coast and send them to South tion a felony cognizable by the ordinary courts Carolina for duty, under the orders of Colonel of the country invested with jurisdiction over Ruger, who had lately been assigned to the criminal cases.

command of the Department of the South, and Nearly 30,000 claims of loyal citizens, amount ordered to make his headquarters temporarily ing to $8.000,000, are pending in the Quarter- at Columbia. master-General's office, under the act of July In the early part of the year W. W. Belknap 4, 1864. It is stated that the only difference was charged with official corruption, and rebetween this class of claims and those before signed his position as Secretary of War. He the Southern Claims Commission is in the was succeeded by Judge Alonzo B. Taft, of residence of the claimants, the Quartermaster- Ohio, who after a short term of service in the General investigating those in Northern States War Department was made Attorney-General; and the Southern Claims Commission those in and in May J. Donald Cameron, of PennsylStates proclaimed as in insurrection against vania, son of Senator Simon Cameron, became the United States.

Secretary of War. There are now seventy-eight national ceme In the early part of the year military operteries, which were maintained during the pastations were begun against the hostile Sioux

Indians in Dakota, Montana, and Wyoming. 26th. General Terry's command arrived on These, to the number of about 3,000, under the morning of the 27th, and the Indians withSitting Bull, Crazy Horse, and other chiefs, drew from the valley, taking with them their had made war on the friendly Indians, and had village. refused to settle upon a reservation. In March Of the movements of General Custer, and an unsatisfactory expedition was made by Gen- the five companies under his immediate comeral Crook toward Powder River. General mand, scarcely anything is known. He was Sheridan now ordered three columns to move killed, and his entire command was obliterated. simultaneously to a common centre, where the The remaining seven companies of the Seventh Indians were supposed to be, from Montana, Cavalry were saved by the brave and prudent from Dakota, and from the Platte. The two conduct of Major Reno, and the timely arrival former were under command of General Terry, of General Terry. The loss was 12 officers, and the latter under General Crook. General 247 enlisted men, five civilians, and three InCrook started from Fort Fetterman, May 29th, dian scouts killed, and two officers and 51 men with about 1,000 men. This expedition marched wounded. The Indian force was estimated at to a point on Goose Creek, which is the head from 2,500 to 3,000 warriors. of Tongue River, a tributary of the Yellow General Terry, after burying the dead and stone. On June 17th General Crook was caring for the wounded, regained his position attacked by the Indians on the Rosebud, also at the mouth of the Big Horn, and called for a tributary of the Yellowstone. The Indians reënforcements. General Crook also awaited left 13 dead warriors on the field ; General reënforcements at his camp on Goose Creek, Crook's loss was nine dead and 21 wounded. and the hostile Indians meantime remained beMeantime, Colonel John Gibbons, with about tween them, near the base of the Big Horn 450 men, had marched from Fort Ellis, in Mon- Mountains. These commands, having been retana, down the valley of the Yellowstone, to enforced, effected a junction, August 10th, on meet General Terry, who was ascending the the Rosebud, at a point 35 miles above its same valley. General Terry, with the Seventh mouth. The march was now begun in pursuit Cavalry, under its lieutenant-colonel, Custer, of the retreating Indians. The followers of containing about 600 men and horses, and about Sitting Bull seemed to have retreated north, 400 infantry, had started from Fort Abraham near or beyond the Yellowstone, and those of Lincoln on the 17th of May, and reached the Crazy Horse to the south, near Slim Butte Yellowstone, at the mouth of Powder River, and Owl Creek, in the direction of the Black June 9th, where he established a supply-camp. Hills. Resuming his march along the south bank, he In October Colonel Miles received hostages, reached the mouth of the Rosebud on the 21st. on the Yellowstone, opposite the mouth of Near this point he came in communication Cabin Creek, for the surrender of about 2,000 with Colonel Gibbons, whose command was Indians. left at the mouth of the Big Horn, and deter In his annual report, Lieutenant - General mined in person to continue to the same place, Sheridan says: but to detach the Seventh Cavalry by a circuit

The surrender of the Indians from the Missouri to the Upper Rosebud (a tributary of the Big River agencies to Colonel Miles, on the 27th of OcHorn), where all his command, embracing that tober, numbering, in men, women, and children, at of Colonel Gibbons, was to meet on a day ap- small band to the north, leave now out and hostile pointed.

only the northern Cheyennes and the band of Crazy On the 22d General Custer started, with his Horse and his allies from the Red Cloud agency, whole regiment and a strong detachment of and it is against these Indians that General Crook is scouts and guides, from the mouth of the Rose now operating; and when these are killed, captured, bud. Proceeding up that river about twenty I think all future trouble with them, as it is intended

or surrendered, the Sioux war will be at an end, and miles, he struck a heavy Indian trail, which he

to put most of them on foot, and a Sioux on foot is a followed to the Little Big Horn River. Here Sioux warrior no longer. I recommend that the be found a village of almost unlimited extent, whole Sioux nation be established on the Missouri and at once attacked it with that portion of River, between Standing Rock and Fort Randall. his command which was immediately at hand. They can be cheaply fed there, and can be sufficiently Major Reno, with three companies, was sent dians to the Indian Territory would be a difficult into the valley of the stream at the point where undertaking at this time, and would, in my opinion, the trail struck it. General Custer, with five be attended with the worst results to those now companies, attempted to enter about three there, as well as to the Sioux. They should go miles lower down.' Reno forded the river, but gradually, from time to time, and when the Indians

there are ready to receive them. was completely overwhelmed by the Indians, and was forced to recross. In a short time he In April, 1876, the headquarters of the Army was joined on the bluffs by Captain Benteen were transferred from St. Louis to Washington. with three companies, and by Captain Mc- During the year the number of grand military Dougall with one company. Soon after, this divisions was reduced from four to three, viz., united force was nearly surrounded by Indians. Missouri, Atlantic, and Pacific. The aggregate The fighting continned from about half-past force of the army is 28,571, including 2,151 two o'clock of the 25th till six o'clock of the officers and 26,420 enlisted men.

ASIA. According to the latest accounts the In Japan considerable progress was again area of Asia was 17,300,000 square miles, and made in the work of civilization during the the population about 798,900,000.*

year. A permanent exhibition-building was esThe conquest of Khokan by the Russians, tablished in Tokio. The work on the railroads which had been begun in 1875, was completed on the principal islands was actively pushed in 1876 (see KUOKAN). This added another forward. The difficulties with Corea were large tract of land to the Russian dominions, settled by a favorable treaty. The exercise and brought it another step nearer to British of torture was forever abolished (see Japan). India, its great rival in Asiatic politics. The In Persia several expeditions were underprogress of Russia made Afghanistan to a taken against the Kurds and against the Turkohigher degree than ever before the battle-field mans of Merv, the latter having committed between its own and British diplomacy. The large depredations on Persian territory (see results of the special embassies which both Persia). powers in the course of the year sent to Af In Siam the King introduced many innovaghanistan were not known in December (see tions destined to civilize the country (see Siam). AFGHANISTAN). In another country of Central In Acheen the war continued during the Asia, Beloochistan, the English Government, year, being generally favorable to the Dutch. by a successful intervention, greatly strength- The abolition of slavery on the west coast of ened its influence, and reopened the Bolan Sumatra completed the extinction of that inPass, one of the chief roads of communication stitution in the Asiatic colonies of European between British India and its western neigh- countries (see NETHERLANDS). bors (see BELOOCHISTAN). Throughout Central The Spanish Government, in the early part Asia the excitement visibly increased, and the of the year, found itself compelled to fit out final result of the rival policies of Russia and an expedition against the pirates of the SooEngland is awaited with intense suspense. loo Islands, which was successful (see Sooloo). The aggressive attitude which Russia pursued The Turkish provinces in Asia, and parts of in regard to Turkey disposed the Moham- Persia, India, and Muscat, were visited by the medan population throughout Asia favorably cholera, which was particularly severe in the toward England.

neighborhood of Bagdad. The Prince of Wales continued his journey The eastern coast of Bengal was swept by a through India during the early part of the severe cyclone on October 31st, during which year, returning home in March. The Viceroy 125,000 persons were reported to have perished. of India, Lord Northbrook, resigned in the ASTRONOMICAL PHENOMENA AND early part of the year, and was succeeded by PROGRESS. Veiled Solar Spots.—A valuLord Lytton. The difficulty with the natives ablo memoir on “ veiled solar spots," by Mr. on the Malay Peninsula continued during the L. Trouvelot, of Cambridge, Mass., was pubearly part of the year. Disturbances and na- lished in the American Journal of Science tive rebellions were also reported from various for March, 1876. The author adopts the parts of the country (see India).

view, now generally accepted, that the sun's The relations of England to China appeared visible surface—the chromosphere-is a gasat one time to assume threatening dimensions, eous envelope, composed chiefly of incandesas Chinese authorities in every possible way cent hydrogen. The depth of this stratum is endeavored to obstruct the investigation of the found to be ordinarily from 4,000 to 6,000 Margary murder; but, at last, the Government miles; the thickness varying, however, from agreed to the British demand, to pay Mrs. day to day. The minimum thickness hitherto Margary a sum of money, and to open three observed occurred in the summer of 1875. The new ports to foreign trade. The operations of principal results of Mr. Trouvelot's observaChina against the ruler of Kashgaria were re tions are summed up as follows: newed, but, so far as is known, without success. The opening of the island of Hainan to the interval from June 10th to August 18th, and to a

1. During the year 1875, and especially during the foreign trade, promised in the treaty of 1862, less degree to September 14th, the chromosphere was finally brought about on April 1, 1876. was notably thinner than usual upon the entire surThe name of the new port is Kiimgchow. face of the sun. An important step forward in the course of

2. The granulations were smaller and less nucivilization was made in China during the past

3. The light-gray colored background seen beyear, by the opening of the first railroad. A tween the granules was more conspicuous and occudifference arose between the Chinese and Ger- pied more space than usual. man Governments, on account of the mutiny 4. There are spots, which the author has named on board of the German vessel Anna, and the

“ veiled spots," which are seen through the chromurder of the captain and mate by the muti- mosphere which is spread over them liko a veil.

5. These veiled spots are true openings of the neers, with the consent of the Chinese authori- photosphere, like those of the ordinary spots. ties. The full demands of the German Gov 6. During this period these spots were larger, ernment were granted (see China).

darker, and more numerous, than the observer had

before seen them. * For a detailed account of the area and population of the

7. The veiled spots are scattered throughout all political and geographical divisions of Asia, see ANNUAL CI: latitudes, though more complicated in the regions

where the ordinary spots make their appearance.


OLOPEDIA for 1575.

8. Mr. Trouvelot has observed spots at least within maximum in 1870. The mean period, accord10° of the north-pole of the sun. 9. The flocculent objects sometimes seen projected epoch of least disturbance took place, there

The last

ing to Dr. Wolf, is 11.11 years. maining portion of the granulations composing the fore, nearly two years before tre predicted chromosphere, more or less dissolved by the forces time. emanating from the interior of the photosphere. Probable Existence of an Intra-Mercurial

Temperature of the Sun's Surface.-It is well Planet.—It is well known that dark circular known that eminent authorities have differed spots have been seen at widely-distant intervery widely in their estimates of the intensity vals passing rapidly across the solar disk. of solar heat. The calculations of Sir John These phenomena bave been regarded by some Herschel and Father Secchi give about 10,000,- astronomers as transits of an unknown interior 000° as the temperature at the surface; while planet. The fact, on the other hand, that no other physicists, by applying the law of Dulong such body has been seen during total eclipses and Pettit, obtain a degree of heat not great- of the sun, is claimed by others as presumply superior to that of a blast-furnace. Prof. tive evidence that the so-called transits have Langley, of the Allegheny Observatory, who been due to some other cause. But this negahas for several years been devoting special tive testimony is by no means conclusive. attention to solar physics, read a paper on this When it is remembered, moreover, that an unsubject at the October meeting of the National explained motion of Mercury's perihelion has Academy of Sciences. These recent researches been referred by Leverrier to the disturbing leave little room to doubt the approximate influence either of a planet or a zone of minute correctness of Herschel's estimate.

asteroids within Mercury's orbit, the question The Sun's Atmosphere.-A memoir on the is certainly still open to discussion. atmospheres of the sun and planets was re The theory that this outstanding disturbcently communicated to the American Philo- ance of Mercury's motion is due, at least in sophical Society, at Philadelphia, by Mr. Da- part, to an interior planet, has been recently vid Trowbridge, of Waterburg, N. Y. Assum- revived by the distinguished Director of the ing the temperature of the sun's surface to Paris Observatory. The attention of astronobe 9,800,000° Fahr., and that a given volume mers was called to the subject by the anof the solar atmosphere at 32o becomes doub- nouncement that on the afternoon of April 4, led at 522°, the analysis of Mr. Trowbridge 1876, Herr Weber, of Peckeloh, had seen a leads to the conclusion that at the height of small round sun-spot, which had disappeared about 2,500 miles above the sun's surface its before the following morning. It was found, atmosphere has decreased in density to one- however, that the observers at Madrid and balf of wbat it is at the surface; at a little Greenwich had witnessed the same appearmore than 5,000 miles, to one-fourth, and so on ance, and that their observations proved it to for greater heights. Assuming further that have been a true sun-spot, not a planet. But the density of the solar atmosphere at the sur- Leverrier, who had thus been led to undertake face is 855,000,000,000 times what it is at the a discussion of the subject, found sufficient outer limit, the height of the atmosphere is evidence in former observations to render the found to be 121,000 miles, or more than one existence of the planet highly probable. The fourth of the sun's radius. This ratio is less spots seen at the five following dates are rethan that which actually exists in the earth's garded by the French astronomer as transits atmosphere. If we now suppose the masses of the same body: of the terrestrial and solar atmospheres to have

1802, October 10, observed by Fritsch. the same ratio as the masses of the earth and



? Decuppis. the sun, the density of the solar atmosphere 1849, March 12,

66 Sidebotham. at the sun's surface will be only of the den


16 Lescarbault.

66 Lummis. sity of the earth's atmosphere at the earth's surface. The resistance offered to motion in These dates are approximately satisfied by a such an atmosphere is much less than it would period of 33d. Oh. 32m. 24", corresponding to be in one of low temperature. Were the heat a mean distance of 0.201. It is remarked, of the sun's surface reduced to 32°, the height however, by a writer in Nature (November 2, of the atmosphere under the conditions above 1876), that a period of 27 23h. 8m. 105. not supposed would be only five miles, and at the only represents the observations selected by height of 665 feet the density would be re- Leverrier, but also that of Stark, October 9, duced one-half. The pressure on a square 1819, one of the most definite on record. The inch of surface would be 5} tons, and the den- question is one of much interest, and as ansity at the surface would be 740 times as great other transit may not occur for several years, as at the surface of the earth-in other words, diligent search will be made for the body along about equal to the density of water.

its calculated path. If a planet of the size inThe Late Sun-spot Minimum.-The observa- dicated by the supposed transits really exist, tions of Prof. R. Wolf, Director of the Zürich it ought certainly to be visible off the sun's Observatory, indicate a minimum of solar spots disk. about the end of the year 1875.

New Minor Planets.- The number of known ceding minimum occurred in 1867, and the asteroids at the close of 1875 was 157. Eleven


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