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interest of 4 per cent. per annum on the present rived from this new source of locomotion. Some

V. DE LA PLAZA, lines, constructed under Government guarantee, and

only just completed, are for a time a charge upon The above contract is hereby approved in every tinue, while the lines successfully in operation are

the national revenue, but this will not long conparticular.

yielding large returns, even under the present de(For the amount of the national debt refer- pression of trade. The very depth of the financial ence may be made to the ANNUAL CYCLOPÆDIA and commercial crisis, which has so long existed in for 1875, to which amount is to be added the the Plate, is certain to produce a great reaction when

once people are satistied that the worst is over. $10,000,000 of the new loan.)

The total value and the destination of the ex A postal treaty with England, and an extraports for 1875 are given in the following table: dition treaty with Belgium, were among the

more important events in the foreign policy of EXPORTS.

the Argentine Government in 1876. Germany.

$1,227,891 The following summary of the report of the West Indies..


Minister of the Interior will serve as a rapid Belgium..

15,497,372 Bolivia.

review of the state of the various interests deBrazil..


pendent upon that department: Chili..

3,331,306 Spain...

1,912,399 Owing to the crisis, there has been such a decline Uruguay

1,016,939 of revenue as to oblige us to cut down the public

expenditure in a remarkable manner. France


As the Government railways now approach comHolland

263,869 India...


pletion, we intend next to occupy the engineers in Great Britain.

7,619,049 studies of the Upper Paraná and Uruguay, to imItaly

1,746,699 prove navigation; also to examine the project of Paraguay

493,066 making a port for Buenos Ayres, and to draw a map Portugal..

51,806 of all the new railways we shail require when a Peru.


healthy financial condition shall once more return. Other nations


Three new railways were opened to traffic last

$47,981,000 year (1875), the Mercedes, East Argentine, and In transitu.

2,350,400 Campana lines. The Tucuman line will be com

pleted in 1876, and then we shall have 2,260 kiloGrand total..

.$50,381,400 metres, or 1,412 miles English, as follows: This table shows an increase of nearly eight

Central Argentine..

397 millions as compared with 1874.

The total value of the imports for 1875 was Andine.
$55,765,627, against $49,377,129 (according to

East Argentine.
Great Southern.

the Memoria of the Minister of Finance, $55, Western...
961,177); from which it is apparent that the Ensenada..

Northern.. balance of trade is still largely and progressive

Campana.. ly in favor of foreign countries and against the Port Ruiz.. Argentine Republic.


2,260 Encouraging views are entertained that the existing state of adversity must ere long be As regards the Tucuman line, we have to recog; modified, and we quote a recent writer on the nize the perseverance, energy, and good-will of subject, a resident of Buenos Ayres:.

Messrs. Télfener, who have aided us in every man

ner, accepting whatever delays or postponements For the last two or three years the value of Argen- when the Treasury was unable to pay for the works tine exports has been seriously depressed, and this executed; and carrying on the works in spite of war, has, of course, reacted on the general resources; crisis, and the adverse elements. The contractors but the quantity, far from diminishing, is rapidly have already opened to trattic 416 kilometres, and increasing. Any improvement in prices of wool, Mr. Telfener notities us of another section now hides, and tallow, in European markets, would soon ready. The prompt completion of this great work be felt in renewed activity of trade at Buenos Ayres, is a matter of national honor. The rails are already and a larger national revenue. Another source of within ten or twelve leagues of Tucuman, but the wealth, which has lately come into operation, con traveler finds more difficulty in this short interval sists of wheat and Indian-corn, both being now ex than in the hundred leagnies of the railway. We ported to Brazil and other countries, besides sup- propose a saving of $300,000 in the works not yet plying food which formerly had to be imported. completed, especially in the stations. The certifiFrom Chili alone the supply of wheat amounted to cate of the Department of Engineers shows the five million dollars, which are now saved. There value of works already done hy Messrs. Telfener to are other sources of traffic opening up for the ex reach $7,518,869, equal to £1,505,000. We have port of Argentine products: a steamer, called the made a contract with Telfener to work the line for Frigorifique, built and fitted out at Rouen, sailed in October for the Plate, to bring back a cargo of meat

80 per cent. of gross receipts, but he has sent in a

request to cancel the agreement. preserved on a new principle, which promises to be The Aniline Railway was opened last October,

A large number of horses have recently and Mr. Rogers works it for four years at 80 per been exported to France, and are likely to be fol cent. of the gross receipts during three years, and lowed by still larger droves, for the French caval- 75 per cent. of those of the fourth year. ry. They were sold at very remunerative prices. The Central Argentine line (which was opened in

Railway enterprise, in which a very considerable May, 1870) earned last year à surplus of $32,200 amount of capital has already been embarked, is sterling over the guarantee of 7 per cent. Mr. W. one of the means by which Argentine resources are Thompson, who succeeds Mr. Armstrong as direcbecoming largely developed, and the result of their tor, has paid in the above surplus to the Government. working traffic proves incontestably the profits de Last year we paid Messrs. Wanklyn and Lezica

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£23,500 on guarantee for the first section of the East The Port Ruiz line is in a ruinous condition, and Argentine Railway. As yet this line gives bad re- requires to be constructed anew by the national sults, but it will improve with peace and industry. Government.

The new Campana line is 47 miles long. The en Projected Lines.-Mr. Clarke's project is still begineers wished to open it with the Governor's per- fore Congress. The San Roman opposition scheme mission; but we insisted that, as the line was a na was again prolonged in July, 1875, to the close of tional one, our certificate was indispensable. the year, and the period of extension has now ex




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pired. The Corrientes and Mercedes line is in abey We propose to improve the Gualeguaychú River ance, owing to the crisis. We ought to make this for sea-going vessels. We have devoted $10,000 to 'ine five feet gauge, instead of forty-eight inches. turn the course of the Dulce at Santiago, and made

In the matter of highways, our chiet attention is a loan to Rioja for a similar work. given to the northern road to Jujuy, and the western We have accepted proposals of Messrs. Ferrari & to Mendoza and San Juan.

Co., and Bustorfi and Sackimann, to finish the new








post-office for $50,000. We are also going to build which we pay him £120 per mile. Mr. James Anpost-offices at Tucuman and Córdoba; but the Laz- derson is making a line from Córdoba to Salto, zaretto at Martin García must for the present lie over. and Señor A. Santamaría one from Concepcion to

Immigration we regard as the key to national Paysandú. progress, and the forerunner of trade. The number It is desirable to plant trees throughout the Pamof French immigrants, and the amount of our im- pas, from Buenos Ayres to San Luis, but this will be port-trade from France, were as follows in the years a work of years. Mr. Oldendorff 'distributed last below expressed:

year 32,300 collections of seeds among 1,326 persons.

în future we propose to sell the seeds and plants, Immigrants. Imports. instead of giving them gratis. The Botanical Gar

den has $20,000 worth. We have given $1,440 for 1901.

1,000 $4,800,000 certain colonists at Tortugas, who have planted 6,600,000

18,000 mulberry-trees; also $724 to .colonists in 1-64.

5,000 10,100,000 1875.

7,000 12,200,000

Concepcion, for rearing silk-worms.

A subsidy of $250,000 has been paid to the BerThe decline of immigration to Buenos Ayres is mejo Navigation Company. due to causes in Europe which have determined a ARIZONA. The Governor in his message like result in the United States, as, for instance:

to the biennial session of the Legislature, com1878.

866,818 New York..


mencing January 4, 1875, states that the amount

on hand and in the general fund, December Last year we forwarded to the various provinces 31, 1872, was $16,466.33 ; receipts to Decemcolony is thriving, having a population of 700.ber 31, 1874, $19,721.53 ; making a total of Some families, too much hampered at Chubut, have $36,187.86. The disbursements from the genbeen sent up to the Chaco, where three new colonies eral fund were $27,827.33; balance, $8,360.53. have been founded. The East Argentine colony At no period had the Indian affairs been so satcounts 330 settlers, from the Tyrol, brought here isfactory; comparative peace reigned throughat a cost of $50 each from Havre.

Stupendous has been the growth of the Santa Fé out the Territory. The subject of obtaining colonies in one year :

water by means of artesian wells was engaging attention, and it was recommended that a re

ward of $5,000 be offered for the first flowing Number of colonists.

15,510 24,352 water obtained by means of an artesian well Tillage (acres)...

213,000 Crop (bushels).

215,230 300,000

in the Territory. “The advantages that would Cattle (head)....

81,901 111,912 be derived from developing flowing water by

artesian wells can hardly be estimated. We The Government sends up passage-free all newcomers who wish to try their fortune at these colo- ural lands, and many valuable mines, unser:

have millions of acres of grazing and agricultnies. Congress voted last year $80,000 for free

viceable unless water be developed upon them."

passages to immigrants and supplies for food, etc. We only With reference to mining, agriculture, and grazspent $16,022, namely, in bringing out Tyrolese ing, the Governor says: settlers for Entre-Rios, and sending supplies to the Chubut colony.

There has been a marked increase in mining enThe homestead law is imperatively called for, as

terprises during the past year. Many new and valevery dollar we spend on immigration gives 150 per gold, silver, copper, and lead, is being extracted.

uable discoveries have been made, and considerable cent: per annum in increase of revenue. Last year There is but little capital among us to develop and our Immigration Department cost altogether $207,- work mines; but in a small way, and with rude ma447, which, in relation to 42,000 pew-comers, repre- chinery, our hardy miners have started and are sue comers, is equal to an increase of 8352,000 in import cessfully operating a large number of mines. Agrirevenue. Moreover, it is impossible to estimate the

cultural interests are not prosperous, in consequence increase of products to be obtained by the introduc

of the low price of grain. Farmers have supplied tion of 100,000 agricultural settlers, which would have had a surplus jeft. No greater encomium could

the citizens, military,

and Indians, with produce, and cost the republic only a million dollars.* Señor Olivera's report upon the Post-Office De

be paid the productiveness of the Territory. The partment shows a saving of $95,797 on the sum ap

market being limited, the low prices have seriously

embarrassed" the farmers, but, with the development propriated by Congress, and an improvement of 9.52,000 in favor of the Treasury, as compared with

of the mines, a more extended market will be opened 1574.

for produce. Our unequaled grazing facilities are Some of the provinces want to tax the coaches we

beginning to be appreciated. Large numbers of employ to carry the mails, and Congress must pass here from the adjoining States and Territories, and

horses, cattle, and sheep, have already been brought a law exempting the lines from local taxation. By abolishing Government mail-cars, and subsidizing many thousands are now en route. The time is not

far distant when Arizona will be one of the first private ones, we have effected a saving of $50,000.

The Galles contract, for carrying mails to Patngo- wool-producing Territories of the Union. nia, has been rescinded, As the European inail The condition of the public schools for the steamers complained of the number of free passages granted, we have agreed to reduce them to one first Total receipts from all sources, $28,759.92, an

year ending December 31, 1875, was as follows: and two steerage passages.

The number of telegraphic dispatches increased increase over the previous year of $16,986.77: from 262,376 in 1874 to 277,254 in 1875.

total disbursements, $24,151.96, an increase The department is now annexed to the Post-Office.

over the previous year of $14,999.82; balance, Mr. Rogers is making the telegraph-line from Rio $4,607.96. Says the report : Cuarto to Rio Quinto. Señor Carranza has received materials for the line from Jujuy to Bolivia, for

A tax of 15 cents on each $100 worth of taxahie

property is levied and collected annually for a Ter* This law has since been passed.

ritorial school-fund, and is divided between the sev

599 314


eral counties in proportion to the average daily at Resolved, That we favor an efficient system of free tendance at the various public schools. A tax of schools, wherein the youth of the State may re35 cents on each $100 worth of taxable property is ceive such education as will fit them for all the levied and collected by each county in its own con duties of citizenship; and we hold the Democratic fines, for a county school-fund, and is divided be- party responsible for robbing the State of its schooltween the public schools of the county on the same funds to pay the per diem and salaries of officials, basis as is the Territorial school-fund. This makes whereby the public schools were closed by reason a total tax of 50 cents on each $100 worth of taxable of the theft. property in the Territory, for the maintenance of Resolved, That to the soldiers and sailors, who public schools, and I believe is the largest direct fought to preserve the Union, the nation owes a debt public-school tax paid by any State or Territory in of gratitude, and they, as well as the widows and the Union.

orphans of those who have fallen, are justly entitled The total number of children in the Terri

to a liberal provision for their support.

Resolved, That we hereby declare Hon. Oliver P. tory, between the ages of six and twenty-one Morton to be the choice of the Republicans of the years, reported up to December 31, 1875, was State for President, as follows, by counties :

With regard to the nomination of a State Yavapai County.

433 ticket, the following was adopted on motion Yuma County

of Judge McClure: Maricopa County. Pinal County


Whereas, The Democratic party at the election held Mobave County.

in September of 1874, for the adoption of the present Pima County


constitution, and the election of State and county Total number......


officers in twenty-nine counties, cast nine thousand

and more votes than there were male persons over Of these 2,508 children, 1,265 were boys and the age of twenty-one years resident therein, ac1,243 girls, and 908 could read and write, leav. cording to the census; anding 1,600 who could not read and write. There session, changed the time of holding all State and

Whereas, The Democratic Legislature, at its last were eleven public schools in operation during county elections from the first Monday in September the year, with 560 pupils enrolled, and an aver to the first Tuesday after the first Monday in Noage daily attendance of 412. A schoolhouse was vember, but refused to make any change as to the erected in Tucson during the year, at a cost of next election

for State and county officers; and, $9,781.96, and paid by donations from the been based upon any other theory or idea than to

Whereas, The refusal aforesaid could not have people. In this school three teachers are em- repeat the frauds which were perpetrated in 1874, ployed. There are three rooms in the build- which could not be done, if held where a United ing, one occupied by girls, one by boys of higher States supervisor was present; andgrade in studies, and the third by boys in pri- publican party to put a State ticket in nomination,

Whereas, It would be worse than folly for the Remary studies. The boys in the primary room with hope of electing the same, at an election held are taught Spanish and English. In the other by Democratic judges and clerks of election, at rooms English only is tanght.

which a Republican would not be allowed to be ARKANSAS. There was a very quiet state present: therefore, of affairs in Arkansas during the year, gen- in view of our personal but bitter experience, we

Be it resolved, That in view of the facts stated, and eral acquiescence in the supremacy of the con deem it advisablo not to put a State ticket in nomistitution of 1874, and the administration estab- nation. lished under it. Peace was preserved and the

A State Central Committee was appointed, laws executed throughout the State, and a fair to whom was left the duty of nominating candegree of progress made toward a condition of didates for presidential electors. prosperity. The political canvass of the year The Democratic State Convention was held was remarkably free from excitement.

at Little Rock on the 14th of June. PresidenThe Republicans met in convention at Little tial electors were nominated, together with thie Rock on the 27th of April. After the organi- following State ticket: For Governor, William zation had been effected and delegates ap- R. Miller, of Independence ; for Seeretary of pointed to the National Convention of the State, Benton B. Beavers, of Saline; for Audiparty at Cincinnati, the following resolutions tor of State, John Crawford, of Howard; for were adopted :

Treasurer of State, Thomas J. Churchill

, of Resolved, that the Republicans of Arkansas renew Pulaski ; for Attorney-General, William F. their

allegiance to the Republican party of the nation, Henderson, of Randolph; for Commissioner of proclaimed and defended by the Father of the Re- State Lands, James N. Smithee, of Pulaski; for public one hundred years ago.

Superintendent of Public Instruction, George Resolved, That the citizens of the several States W. Hill, of Calhoun. The following resolutions are also citizens of the nation, equal under the Con were unanimously adopted : stitution and the law, without regard to place of birth, color, race, or previous condition, and it is Resolved, That the present State administration the duty of the General Government to enforce free has realized the hopes and expectations of the Deand equal protection in their enjoyment and exer mocracy of the State, and its course is most cordially cise.

and fully indorsed. Herolned, That we favor an honest and economical Resolved, That the present Executive of this State administration of the State and national Govern- having been recommended almost unanimously for ments; that integrity and fidelity should be re the position of United States Senator by the different quired of all officials, and, if found dishonest or county conventions recently held, he is most heartily corrupt, should be promptly prosecuted and pun- indorsed for such position by this convention as the ished,

reflection of the will of the people.



Delegates to the National Convention at the creditors of the State as could result in St. Louis were appointed who were instructed any definite offer. The creditors have delayed

cast the vote of the State of Arkansas as a any such step, saying that, on account of the unit upon all questions which might arise in embarrassments growing out of the outstandaccordance with the will of the majority of all ing floating debt of the State, they did not find the delegates present.” A resolution favoring that the State could at present assume the pay

ment of the interest on any new bonds which

might be issued on the basis of such a settleSTATE

ment. They therefore express themselves as preferring to let the matter stand until the ability and resources of the State can be more clearly ascertained.

The present amount of the outstanding Treasurer's warrants is about $1,400,000. The amount of such warrants paid into the State Treasury from other sources than that of direct taxation is $154,321.47. This sum includes all payments made into the Treasury from the first quarter in 1874 up to the close of the third quarter in 1876.

Two hundred and forty thousand dollars of

Treasurer's warrants bave been funded in the S. J. Tilden as the candidate for President was six per cent. bonds of the State. defeated by the adoption of a substitute de From the estimates that have been made, it claring the choice of the St. Louis Convention will appear that it will require the taxes of to be the choice of this convention. The State between two and three more years to retire election occurred on the 4th of September, and all the outstanding Treasurer's warrants, proresulted in the choice of the Democratic can- vided that the present rate of taxation is condidates. The vote was as follows:

tinued, and that no further issue of said warAt the presidential election in November, rants is made. It is the deliberate opinion of 97,029 votes were cast, of which 58,071 were the members of the board that it will be for the Democratic electors, and 38,669 for the better for the State to continue the policy that Republican; majority for the former, 19,402. has been pursued since its organization, of bor

The total vote for Governor was 108,007, of rowing money to pay current expenses until which the Democratic candidate, Miller, re- all the outstanding Treasurer's warrants are ceived 71,298, and the Republican candidate, taken up and canceled, rather than to renew Bishop, 37,306; Democratic majority, 33,992. the system of issuing more warrants, and thus The Legislature consists of 29 Democrats and bringing about a further and constantly-intwo Republicans in the Senate, and 76 Demo- creasing depreciation of such paper. The recrats and 17 Republicans in the House. Four sult of that depreciation would be, that the Democrats were elected to Congress.

public institutions of charity would perish for An act of the Legislature approved Novem- want of support; official salaries would be reber 16, 1875, created a Board of Finance, and duced so low that good men of fair abilities authorized it to borrow money for State ex would be compelled to decline the public serpenses, etc. Two loans were contracted by vice, and the State would have to pay enhanced the board, one of $250,000, at ten per cent. prices for everything purchased by it. In the interest, which has been repaid. The other end the State would have to adopt, under was of the same amount, at eight per cent. in- augmented difficulties, the same policy which terest, and payable in July, 1877.

is now being successfully acted upon; or otherThe Board of Finance has caused a state- wise the State government would become so inent to be made of the State debt, from which clogged with irredeemable and uncurrent paper it appears that it amounts, with interest to as to render all its operations difficult if not September 30, 1876, to $17,620,362. This in- hopelessly impracticable. The board say that cludes the whole nominal debt.

they have every reason to believe that the six The board has had an extensive correspond per cent. bonds of the State could be disposed ence with persons holding evidences of the of at as much as seventy-five cents on the State's indebtedness, with a view to ascertain dollar ; but it may easily be shown that such a what could be done toward making such a method of raising money is far less economical settlement of it as would be fair and just, and to the State than that of yearly loans at a rate within the ability of the State to meet. While of interest even much higher than that paid in a general way the holders of the paper of for the loan negotiated in 1875. There will the State have expressed a desire to settle the be no necessity for continuing these loans bedebt on such terms as might be equitable, and yond the term of the next two years; and at within the probable resources of the State, the end of that time it will certainly be a satisthere has not been, as far as the board has faction to the people of the State to reflect been advised, any such concert of action among that, amid all the difficulties of the situation

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