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the future might have in store, Germany might Council; and, in order to give the commission rest assured that the blood of her sons would time for this work, the Reichstag took a recess be sacrificed or risked only for the protection of one week, from November 8th to Novemof her own honor and interests. But the most ber 15th. A number of these points were setimportant question for which the extraor- tled by compromises in the commission; but dinary session had been called were the three the most important points, as the position of great judicial bills (the law on the constitution the press (referring all press offenses before a of the courts, the civil process, and the crimi- jury, and the abolition of compulsory testinal process), to the consideration of which the mony of the persons employed in the office of Imperial Commission of Justice had devoted a journal against the responsible editor), and itself since February, with great diligence, the relation of the courts to the administration, Many differences of opinion which had shown were referred by the commission to the Reichsthemselves in the Federal Council had been tag. In the second reading of the bills, begun settled by the commission, but the proposi- on November 15th and finished December 3d, tions of the commission still differed materially the Reichstag in all cases decided, by large on many important points from the resolu. majorities, for the propositions of the commistions of the united governments. On this sion, and against the objections of the Federal point the speech expressly said: “If the unit- Council

. After the second reading was fined governments hold to the conviction that a ished Prince Bismarck declared that not less happy solution of the task imposed upon the than nineteen points could not be accepted by present session by the consideration of the ju- the united governments, and that the whole dicial laws is still possible, they do so in the work would be a failure if the Reichstag would firm belief that you, gentlemen, in consider- not relent. To avert this, the leaders of the ing these questions, will keep in view a safe National Liberal party, Von Bennigsen, Miquel, and unrestricted execution of justice." The and Lasker, declared themselves willing to organization of the Reichstag occupied two enter upon some compromise, which offer was days, because, instead of Prof. Hänel, a mem- accepted by the chancellor. A compromise ber of the “Party of Progress," Herr von was finally agreed upon, satisfactory to both Benda, a National Liberal, was elected second parties, the National Liberals sacrificing the vice-president. After having rapidly disposed clause with regard to the press, while the govof the budget for the first quarter of 1877, the ernments consented to relinquish the preponReichstag instructed the Imperial Commission derating influence of the administration over of Justice to consider and report on the differ- the courts. This compromise was not only bitences still existing between it and the Federal terly attacked by the Catholics and the Social

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Democrats, but also by the Party of Progress tag, on December 22d, by a vote of 194 to 100. (Fortschrittspartei), who thus hoped to drive After passing an appropriation of 10,186,000 the Natioual Liberals from their position as the marks for the condensation of the telegraphic leading party of the Reichstag. The compro- system of Germany, and for the construction of mise was, however, sanctioned by the Reichs- several main lines by subterranean cables, the

session was closed on December 23d by the for the completion of the judicial law, by Emperor in person. In the speech from the wbich considerable progress had been made throne he reviewed the results of the legisla- toward the desired end of national legal unity. tive period just completed. He enumerated He continued: “A common legal developthe more important measures which had be- ment will strengthen the consciousness solicome law, and expressed his sincere gratifica- darity in the whole German nation, and will tion at what had been accomplished by the give an interior support to the political unity House. The Emperor thanked the Parliament of Germany, such as no former period in the

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history of our country can show. It will be questions. He continued: “Yon know that the work of future sessions to effect legal unity the policy of the Emperor is a policy of peace, in the whole domain of the civil law.”. The a policy which declines to interfere in foreign Emperor proceeded to thank the deputies in matters. Up to the present the development very cordial terms for their assiduous and suc of affairs in Turkey has not touched us directcessful labors, and expressed himself firmly ly, nor will it easily affect us indirectly. In confident that on the reassembling of the the presence of the armistice we can look forReichstag it would be enabled to direct its ex- ward to the future with tranquillity. The polclusive attention to the peaceful task of devel- icy of Germany with all friendly powers is oping the national judicial system.” Advert- based upon amity, esteem, and confidence. ing in conclusion to foreign affairs, the Em- This is manifest from all the negotiations peror said: “The negotiations of the powers which have been hitherto carried on, and the upon the Eastern question, as far as they have Government intends to maintain this position hitherto proceeded, justify the hope that my in the future also, if the nation and its repreefforts and the mutually conciliatory and peace- sentatives place full confidence in the Governful intentions of the powers immediately con- ment. It is not the intention of the Governcerned will be successful in solving pending ment to withhold from the representative body questions without prejudice to the good rela- of the people any necessary communications tions now existing between them. Germany respecting the situation. The policy of Gerwill continue, by friendly and disinterested many will ever be pacific. Germany will almediation, to lend her coöperation for the at- ways remain a bulwark of peace, and this bultainment of this end."

wark will be so firm that we will claim the In the Eastern question the German Gov- confidence of the popular representatives, and, ernment occupied a quiet attitude. Besides the indeed, deserve it. statements made in the different speeches The foreign relations of the Government from the throne, the Government in Novem- were also in other respects of a very peaceful ber made an important declaration on this sub- and satisfactory nature. The difficulty with ject. Herr von Bülow, Secretary of State for Spain with regard to the seizure of the German Foreign Affairs, replying to a question of Dr. schooner Minna by the Governor of the PhiJõrg, a member of the Reichstag, said that it lippines in 1875 was settled by the release of was at the present moment impossible for the the vessel in January. The difficulty with Government to give information upon pending China with regard to the German bark Anna,

which had been plundered by Chinese pirates, Adèle Perroni, a celebrated actress, and for her and which at one time threatened to lead to sake went to Neustrelitz. Having taken part in serious complications, was also satisfactorily the revolutionary movements of 1848, he was settled. (See China.)

banished and returned to Berlin. Besides the The prosecution of Count Harry von Arnim works already mentioned, he published - Die before the court at Potsdam came to an end verkehrte Welt," " Komische 1001 Nacht," on April 27th. He was found guilty of hav “Gedichte” (a complete edition of his shorter ing abstracted official documents in his ca poems), and the juvenile books “Lachende pacity as embassador, and was dismissed from Kinder,” “Sprechende Thiere," and "Die Inthe service, which sentence included the loss sel Marzipan.” of his titles and of his pension.

GOLTHER, LUDWIG vox, a German statesThe empire was visited during 1876 by sev man, born January 11, 1823; died September eral severe disasters. In the latter part of 17, 1876. Having studied in Tübingen, he enFebruary great freshets inundated large parts tered the service in Würtemberg. He became of the country, especially in Saxony and Sile- Minister of Worship and Instruction in 1864, sia. The Elbe burst the dikes near Magdeburg, and President of the Privy Council in 1867. Kalbe, and Wittenberg, and the greater portion He contributed essentially to the promotion of of the district of Barby, fifteen miles from public instruction in Würtemberg, organizing Magdeburg, was subinerged. In the extreme the “ Volksschulen,” the "Fortbildungsschueast of Prussia, the banks of the Vistula were len," and a number of secondary schools. The inundated for miles near Pless, causing a great relation of the Catholic Church to the state was number of families to become homeless. The regulated during his administration by the law Oder also overflowed her banks, producing con- of January 30, 1862. On this subject he pubsiderable suffering. A number of railroad em- lished in 1874 a work entitled “Der Staat und bankments were washed away, causing several die katholische Kirche im Königreiche Würtemaccidents; the railroad from Posen to Thorn berg," which gained considerable celebrity. being threatened at one time with total de GOSZCZYNSKI, Severinus, a Polish poet, struction. The Empress went in person to the born in 1806; died February 25, 1876. He scenes of the disaster, to furnish aid. In con studied at the University of Warsaw, where sequence of the heavy rains, a landslip oc he early showed a considerable talent for curred at Caub, a small village on the Rhine poetry, taking Byron and Mickievitz for his in Northern Germany, on the evening of March models. In 1830 he took part in the revolu10th. Eight houses and twenty-six persons tion in Poland, writing many patriotic hymns. were buried, and, although detachments of pio- After the suppression of the movement he neer regiments were immediately detailed to went to France and Switzerland. His first aid in the extrication of the buried people, large poem, “ Zamek Kaniowski” (“The Castle only three were rescued alive. In December, of Kaniow," 1828), was a poetic narration, the Nogat, a tributary of the Vistula, broke having for its subject the terrible revolt in the through the dam at Elbing, in the province of Ukraine in 1768, and in which he described Prussia, flooding the country for miles around, Cossack life with great truthfulness. In France and causing great loss of life and property. and in Switzerland he published some excel

In April Queen Victoria paid a visit to Ger- lent novels, among them “Oda,”.“ Straszny many, stopping at Coburg, where she was met strzelec,” and “Krol zamczyska.” In "So. by the Emperor William. The purpose of this botka” he described the celebration of St. visit was said to be the regulation of the suc- John's day in the Carpathian Mountains, and cession to the throne of Saxe-Coburg, Prince under the title of “ Trzy struny” (1839, 3 Alfred being the prospective heir of the duke, vols.) published a number of revolutionary who has no children. Nothing official, however, poems. His last large poem was “Poslanie was stated about the results of this journey. do Polski” (“ Epistle to the Poles," 1871).

GLASSBRENNER, ADOLF, a German hu GRANGER, General GORDON, died at Sanmorist, born March 27, 1810; died September ta Fé, New Mexico, January 10th. He was 28, 1876. In his twenty-first year he became born in New York in 1823. He graduated at the founder and editor of Don Quixote, a hu- West Point in 1845, and took part in the prinmorous journal, which gained great popularity, cipal battles of the Mexican War, being brebut was suppressed by the Governinent after vetted lieutenant in 1847, and, soon after, capan existence of three years. He then devoted tain. When the civil war broke out, he behimself to the description of the humors of came Colonel of the Second Michigan Cavalry, popular life, in a series of papers entitled " Ber- lle took part in the campaign in Missouri, and lin wie es ist und- trinkt,” “Buntes Ber- distinguished himself at the battle of Wilson's lin,” “ Berliner Volksleben,” “ Leben und Trin- Creek, August 10, 1861. In 1862 he was made ken der feinen Welt,” “ Aus dem Leben der brigadier-general, and commanded a cavalry feinen Welt," etc. In these sketches he created division in the operations under General Hala number of characters which became prover- leck, which led to the fall of Corinth in May. bial in Berlin, and are still living among the He became a major-general in September, 1862, people, notably among them“ Eckensteher and in the spring of 1863 he was in command Nante." In 1840 he married Mademoiselle of the Army of Kentucky. Ile distinguished

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West African settlements..

3+ 45 789 850 25.5 2.8

himself in the battle of Chickamauga in Sep- 21 dukes, 19 marquessės, 129 earls, 32 viscounts, tember, 1863, and was soon after assigned to 24 bishops, and 262 barons. Of the total numthe command of the Fourth Army Corps. He ber, 16 were representative peers of Scottook a prominent part in the operations around land, elected for the twenty-first Parliament, Chattanooga and in the battle of Missionary and 28 Irish representative peers, elected for Ridge, November, 1863. He commanded a di- life. The Speaker of the House of Lords was vision at Fort Gaines, Ala., in August, 1864, Lord Cairns, the Lord High-Chancellor, and and was in command of the Thirteenth Army the chairman of committees, Lord Redesdale. Corps in the operations which resulted in the The members of the House of Commons are fall of Mobile in the spring of 1865. He was elected by the people. The number of electors now made brevet-major-general in the U. S. on register in 1876 was 2,340,763 in England Army. Leaving the volunteer service, he be- and Wales, 295,420 in Scotland, and 230,773 in came Colonel of the Twenty-fifth and subse- Ireland. The following table gives the area and quently of the Fifteenth Infantry in the regu- population of the British Empire, according to lar army.

He was on duty with the latter the latest official statements and estimates : regiment at the time of his death. GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND, a

Population. kingdom of Western Europe. The Queen, Vic- Great Britain and Ireland ., 121,609 33,450,237 (1876) toria, was born May 24, 1819. She is a daugh- Heligoland, Gibraltar, and

172,660 (1878) ter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent, the fourth son of George III. ; succeeded her uncle, Wil

33,622,997 · liam IV., as Queen of Great Britain in 1837; married, in 1840, Prince Albert of Saxe-Co- British Katfraria.

Cape Colony..

720,984 (1875)

8,403 burg-Gotba.

Basuto Land

8,450 75.000 (1571) Children of the Queen.—1. Princess Victo- East Griqua-Land (inclusive

West Griqua-Land.

16,032 20,477 (1873) ria, born November 21, 1840; married to the of Kaffraria*).

210,000 (1856)

807.241 (1674) Crown-Prince of Germany. 2. Prince Albert Natal

17,115 633,317 (1871) Edward, heir-apparent, born November 9, 1841; St. Helena.


6,241 (1871) married in 1863 to Princess Alexandra, daugh- Ascension:

27 (1671) Tristan d'Acunba.

85 (1575) ter of King Christian IX. of Denmark. Issue, Mauritius

839,871 (1971) two sons and three daughters ; eldest son, Al- Dependencies of Mauritius.

18,891 (1871)

New Amsterdam bert Victor, born January 8, 1864. 3. Princess

St. Paul..... Alice, born April 25, 1843; married in 1862

AFRICA...... to Prince Ludwig of Ilesse. 4. Prince Alfred,

274,104 2,331,234 Duke of Edinburgh, born August 6, 1844 ; Australian Continent..

2,915,257 1,865,724 (1874-6) married in 1874 to the Grand-duchess Marie Tasmania

104,176 (1874)

104,272 of Russia. He is heir-apparent to the Duke

421,826 (1875)

Chatham Islands. of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. 5. Princess Helena, Norfolk Island.

481 (1871)

196.7 born May 25, 1846 ; married in 1866 to Prince Auckland Islands..

Lord Howe's Islands.

87 (1869) Christian of Schleswig - Holstein - Sonderburg. Feejee Islands,


142,150 (1874) Augustenburg. 6. Princess Louise, born March Fanning Island.

Caroline Islands 18, 1848; married in 1871 to the Marquis of Lorne. 7. Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught

3,084,639 2,534,044 and Strathearne, born May 1, 1850. 8. Prince

British India...

190,540,848 (1872) Leopold, born April 7, 1853. 9. Princess Be

Native states of India.

656,952 48,058,500 (1871) atrice, born April 14, 1857.


24,154 2,418,741 (1874)

1,206 805.097 (1871) The cabinet was composed as follows in


121,955 (1874) 1876: First Lord of the Treasury, Right Hon.

4.598 (1871)

5,000 (1957) Benjamin Disraeli , Earl of Beaconsfield ; Lord Nicobar Islands..

18,500 (1874) High-Chancellor, Right Hon. Lord Cairns; Laccadive Islands.

6,800 Lord President of the Council, Right Hon. Curia-Muria Island. Duke of Richmond and Gordon; Lord Privy Perim, Mosha, Kamaran,

22,707 (1672) Seal, the first Lord of the Treasury ; Chan and Keeling Islands.. cellor of the Exchequer, Right Hon. Sir S. H.


1,491,891 241,831,976
Northcote, Bart., M. P. Secretaries of State:
1. Home Department, Right Hon. R. A. Cross;

Dominion of Canada.. 8,513,825 8,577,953 (1971)

91,163 (1874) 2. Foreign Affairs, Earl of Derby ; 3. Colonies,



161,386 (1974) Earl of Carnarvon; 4. War, Right Hon. G. Bermuda

15,309 (1871) Honduras..

13,500 Hardy, M. P. ; 5. Colonies, Marquis of Salis

24,710 (1570) West Indies..


1,070,698 (1871) bury. First Lord of the Admiralty, Right Hon.

215,200 (1571) George Ward Hunt, M. P. Postmaster-General, Falkland Islands..

933 (1574) Right Hon. Lord John J. R. Manners, M. P.


8,670,955 5,160,952 Parliament composed of two Houses, the

BRITISH EMPIRE... 8.643,842 285,480,500
House of Lords and the House of Commons.
The number of peers in 1876 was 494. Of these,

+ That part of Kaffraria which had been independent up to

the present time was united with the Cape Colony by procla6 were peers of the blood royal, 2 archbishops, mation of June 22, 1876.


New Zealand







Straits Settlements..


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The figures in the above table differ some- rected returns for India were not at hand. what from the last official statement on the Another point of difference is that the native area and population of the British Empire states of India are not included, nor the native (“ Census of England and Wales," vol. iv., population in the transatlantic colonies, nor 1873), as it contains territories not enumerated the different colonies added since 1873. in the official census, and, in some cases, later The following table gives the area and popufigures. (See Behm and Wagner, Bevölkerung lation of the United Kingdom according to the der Erde, iv., Gotha, 1876.) The official fig census of 1871, as well as the estimates of the ures are as follows:

Registrar-General (who does not include the isl

ands in the British waters, nor the soldiers and COUNTRIES.

Square Miles.
Population. sailors abroad), for 1874, 1875, and 1876. The

islands not enumerated in the official work are Great Britain and Ireland...

81.629,299 India and Ceylon


the Laccadives and the Curia-Muria Islands in Colonies and possessions 6,655,021 9,420,937 Asia ; the Northern Territory, Auckland Isl. 7,769,449 234,762,593

ands, Lord Howe's Island, Fanning Island, and

Caroline Island, in Australasia; and New AmAt the time this estimate was made the cor- sterdam and St. Paul in Africa :

962. 20


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The number of emigrants from the United Kingdom during the years 1853–'75 was as follows:

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ENGLAND AND WALES. 1971.. 1572. 1673. 1974. 1575..

190,112 797.428 614,979 292,519
202,267 825,907 492,265 333,642
205,615 829,778 492,520 337,258
21 2.010 854,936 526,032 325,324
200,980 850,187 516,317 303,570

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English.... 43.867 9.044 20.749 10,90 84.540

5,593 1,571 5,750 1.172 14.65 Irish.

81,133 1,891 8,251 87+ 41,449 Foreigners. 23,028 5,016 707 2,736 81.847 Not specified... 825 56


1,757 Total...... | 105,046 17,878 85,525 15.560 178,519

The total number of emigrants from the United Kingdom from 1856 to 1875 was 3,992,955. Of these 403,720 went to the North American colonies, 2,799,597 to the United States, 624,654 to Australia, 164,984 to other places.

The number of persons belonging to each religious denomination is estimated as follows:

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