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esting discovery was a jasper mould or form- of Christ. Here he came upon the remains of stone with six sides covered with curious pat- a Greek temple, with inscriptions indicating terps for gold and silver ornaments, and among that it was dedicated to the goddess Demeter them the inould for the small glassy cone with Paralia, in which many smalĩ figures in terraspiral lines which was frequently found. Axes cotta, some of them belonging to a ripe period of jasper or green-stone and many whorls of of Grecian art, were found, and, in a tomb outblue-stone were found here, and a large num- side, a bronze jar containing some six hundred ber of tine vases in terra-cotta, covered with gold staters of Philip and Alexander; and also paintings of warriors in dark-red on a yellow discovered the ruins of a Phænician temple ground. These warriors wear coats of mail, containing broken marble bowls and pateræ girdle-belts, sandals, greaves, and either shaggy with dedications to Melkart and another Phehelmets, which look like the skin of a porcu- nician divinity inscribed in Phænician charpine, or helmets with long crests; a protuber- acters, besides a marble sarcophagus with a ance like a horn stands out from the front of Phænician head in high-relief, and two alabasthe helmets; the warriors also carry large, ter vases with an inscription on one in Pheround shields, with a crescent-shaped hole at nician. The Greek tombs were more richly the bottom, and lances with the object looking furnished with funeral relics than the Phænisomething like an idol, seen on the represen- cian, and yielded numerous lamps, bronze mirtation of a warrior upon one of the tombstones. rors, and glass ressels, which were not iridesThe men have an Asiatic cast of features. In cent like those found in other places. Going teresting also are the vases with three handles next to the site of Idalium, on which stands the in the form of crocodiles. There are other modern Dali, Signor di Cesnola opened 15,000 vases with rows of circles and rows of signs graves, most of them Phænician, containing which may be writing. In this house were thousands of terra-cotta vases of the most vaalso found a large brazen tripod and another rious sizes and shapes, but decorated in the vessel of brass.
earliest style of art with simple zigzag lines General Count Luigi Palma di Cesnola, and concentric circles, but some of them Greek who has been engaged for the past ten years containing glass objects of a beautiful iridesin extensive antiquarian explorations upon cence. Going next to Golgos, he met with a the island of Cyprus, is an Italian nobleman of richer success than had yet attended his labors; Turin, of military education, who entered the the burial-place and two temples of the ancient service of the United States at the breaking city were explored, in the larger and more reout of the civil war, and, after serving with cent of which were nearly one thousand statues, distinction, was, at its close, appointed Ameri some of them from the earliest and best period can consul to Cyprus. His explorations have of Egyptian art, and some statues and bassbeen prosecuted amid the greatest difficulties, reliefs in Assyrian style, and a few examples of and have been rewarded with discoveries of Greek and Roman art, but most of them belongthe highest historical and artistic value. ing to a period of which few other examples are
He commenced his investigations in 1865, in known, and illustrate the birth of classic art an amateur sort of a way, having obtained a and the development of the Greek ideal from firman from the Porte for the purpose ; but he the rigid conventionalism of the Egyptian and soon became so engrossed in the archæology Assyrian models. These statues are most of of the island, and so convinced that valuable them in a remarkable state of preservation. relics could be unearthed, which would shed a They were evidently produced by native artists, new light upon the early history, art, and cult- being cut from the calcareous stone of Cyprus, ure of the classic races, upon this spot, which which was quarried but a short distance from was the portal between the ancient world of Golgos. These most interesting sculptures are the East and the ancient world of Europe, that contained in the Metropolitan Museum of Art notwithstanding the slender success of his first in New York, where, when they shall be exexcavations, he declares that his enthusiasm posed to the public, they will afford a comwas aroused to such a point that he could not parative view of the origin and early develophave brought himseif to give up the pursuit.
ment of classic art such as cannot be found He commenced his diggings at Kitium, the elsewhere. Chittim of the Bible, upon the burial-place of It was at Golgos that Cesnola found the which stands the modern town Larnaca. At bulk of the collection which he carried to the end of a year he had identified the sites London for view in 1872. The reception to of four ancient cities, Idalium, Salamis, Gol- the treasures, of whose great historical value gos, and Kitium. At Kitium he opened, first he was convinced, was at first cool and disand last, over 2,000 graves, but found most of couraging; but other archæologists soon recthem empty, they having been probably de- ognized their importance. Efforts were made spoiled in some former age, perhaps by the to secure the collection to the British Museum Crusaders, as a rude painted figure, somewhat by purchase, but they were obtained by the resembling a knight of the middle ages, which more forehanded managers of the New York was found in one of the graves, would indicate. Museum at the price of $61,888.22. EightyThe tombs of Kitium belong for the most part eight cases of the treasure had, however, been to the period between 400 B. C. and the time presented by General di Cesnola to the Ot
toman Museum of Constantinople as an ac a second unknown temple. He was attracted knowledgment of the rights of the sovereign especially toward one spot where eight colover the soil which had concealed this rich umns were imbedded in the soil, and upon treasure trove.
excavating here he came to a mosaic paveAfter finishing the explorations at Golgos, ment of Assyrian device, a large piece of he went to Salamis, but his excavations here which is preserved in his collection. There were fruitless, and it is probable that the ex were marks of some former search for treas. ploitation of the ruins of that famous city took ure, as the pavement was broken up and a place at an early period. In the vicinity of space dug to the depth of six or seven feet Cape Pedalium, the modern Cape Greco, he below it. Cesnola dug deeper, encouraged explored the ruins of Leucolla, where were by a hollow sound produced by stamping: found the débris of a temple with statues in At the depth of twenty feet farther down Greek style; the tombs here contained each a Cesnola came upon an arched passage in the coffin of terra-cotta covered with three tiles, rock, four feet wide by five high, which he foland ornamented simply around the rim with a lowed out till he reached a slab which was the wreath of colored flowers; here he explored a door to a small chamber. He was gratified by strange burial-place, a rock cavern, whose only the discovery here of objects of gold jewelry ; approach was from the sea, in which were the loose earth which was in the compartment petrified human bones in great numbers. was removed and carefully sifted. He then
The succeeding explorations enabled him to came to a second chamber opening into this, identify the sites of Throni, Carpassia, Aph- which led to a third and a fourth cell. In the rodisium, Acte-Achæon, Lapethus, Soli, and first were found articles of gold almost exArsinoë, in which he found several temples clusively; in the second, of silver; in the third, and burial-places. Then crossing the moun of terra cotta, caskets, vases, and groups of tains he made excavations on the sites of Neo- statuary; and in the fourth, works in bronze. Paphos and Palæo-Paphos, and at Visuri and This secret depository he concluded was the Amathus, and thence proceeded to Curium, hidden treasury of some unknown temple, the exploration of which completed his labors. where, as he inferred from the somewhat disAt the latter place, in the treasure-chambers of orderly manner in which the objects were an unknown temple, he came upon his richest stowed, the priests had hastily conveyed the discovery, this being votive offerings of the precious furniture of the temple upon the occamost diverse materials and styles of workman- sion of some Persian invasion. Each of the ship, comprising some of the finest specimens rooms measures about fourteen and a half feet of antique gem-engraving and delicate metal- in height, by eleven in width, and twentywork ever recovered. He was led to the site three in length; there were no inscriptions of this city by a vague indication on the chart nor carvings upon the walls; the pavement of Strabo, which author, with Pausanias, he was of blue pebbles, bedded in sand and plasused as uncertain guides in most of his explo- ter. In the gold vault there were sifted out of rations. The spot indicated was the summit of the mould 550 objects, embracing diadems, a rock 300 feet high and five hours' ride from bracelets, necklaces, finger-rings, signet-rings, the west coast, west of the ruins of Amathus, ear-rings, armlets, etc. The second room yieldor Palæo-Limisso, as it is called. was à ed only objects of silver, very imperfectly prestrong position, inaccessible on three sides, served, as are all specimens of ancient silvertwo of which were artificially scarped, the work, some of them so eaten through by oximarks of the chisel being still visible. About dation as to be almost ready to crumble at a 40 feet above the base a terrace was found touch; but still constituting the largest and hollowed out in the form of a ditch, 100 feet finest collection of antique silver in the world. wide and 25 feet deep, and this was the an Two hundred and seventy articles were taken cient burial-place of the city. Thousands of out, some of them remarkably well preserved, tombs were found cut into the rock, some of but most of them in a corroded and fragarched form and roughly hewn, and others mentary condition. The third room disclosed rectangular and very regular, some of them a great variety of products of the fictile art, containing sarcophagi chiseled out of the and the bronzo chamber afforded 500 specisolid rock. The graves were found to con mens of bronze-work. tain skeletons, a number of earthen lamps, Among the objects of historical interest in four Phænician amphorw, a copper mirror, the collection is the official seal of Thothmosome rings of gold, and ear-rings and bracelets sis III., the Egyptian king who conquered of silver. General di Cesnola noticed in seven- Cyprus about fourteen centuries before Christ, teen places the broken shafts of columns, and a finely-incised intaglio still resting on the bar detected the steps to an ancient fountain; which runs through its centre, with its gold broken pottery and fragments of pavement mounting intact, and the movable silver with ruts worn by wheels lay scattered about handle seldom found preserved in ancient sig. the whole ground, and in hundreds of small nets. Most interesting are the Babylonian mounds ho detected the places of ancient cylinders of meteoric, calcedony, hematite, and dwellings. He located the great temple of carnelian, with incised inscriptions, said by Apollo, and struck the treasure-chambers of Sayce and Rawlinson to refer to the dates 1600,
1200, and 809 B. C. Another seal has the effigy silver gilt, with engraved and repoussé patof the Egyptian divinity Anubis, and an in- terns-the guilloche, fillets, and conventional scription in Phænician. Most of the seals still Egyptian designs of trees, animals, deities, and remain pierced by the bar on which they cartouche patterns. A calyx, five inches in turned; those of gold are nearly perfect and diameter, retains traces of á vine pattern. highly ornamented, while the silver ones are Another patera has a gold boss in the centre, black and much corroded; the majority are in and a circling band of honeysuckle and lotus the latter metal, which was probably in that ornament. Several others have repoussé flutage more precious than gold. Among the first ing and engraved geometrical ornaments; and objects brought to light in the gold-room were one finely-preserved specimen has a circle with two massive gold rings, bands with overlap- star-points in the centre, and lines radiating ping ends, probably armlets, with the inscrip- from the points. The action of oxygen has tion
in the ancient Cypriote dialect, "Eteavópos caused a pile of pateras to cohere in one solid Tov Ilaoov Baolhews,” Eteander, King of Paphos, mass, so that they cannot be separated. upon each of them. This king lived, it is sup The most beautiful, interesting, and valuable posed, in the sixth or seventh century before portion of the treasure is the collection of enChrist, and as these were probably an offering graved stones, some of which are perhaps made by him to the deity of the temple, they superior to any specimens of the glyptic art in assist in fixing the date of the deposit. A large existence. The materials are carnelian, calnumber of coiled rings were found, some of cedony, sard, onyx, agate, and jasper, the usual them with the asp's head at the ends, in gold, stones employed by ancient engravers. The silver, and bronze, some of which were too finest of these are: a sard, seven-eighths of an small to fit on any finger; and hence Gener- inch in its longest diameter, representing al di Cesnola conjectures they were a kind of Boreas abducting Zephyr, a masterpiece of ring-money. Many richly-ornamented finger- bold artistic treatment and fine moulding of rings display designs of exceeding beauty ; the nude figure; a specimen of the archaic some of them still retain their gems of stone manner representing the rape of Proserpine, or antique paste; remains of enamel are seen rendered with strikingly forcible naturalistic on others, both in the ancient method, with effect; a bathing Venus with streaming hair, imposed bands, which is called cloisonné, and and a Mercury, boldly-drawn figures of ex. in the champ-levé method, with incised field. quisite finish, in the most perfect Greek style. Numbers of the gold clasps and pendants are Several intaglii in hard stones represent Egypbeautifully incrusted by the granulated pro- tian deities and priests adoring the winged cess, familiar in Etruscan jewelry. Several orb and serpent-head of the Egyptian triad. necklaces are exceedingly elaborate and beau- It would seem from the style, designs, and intifully designed; one of them has clasps repre- scriptions, on many of the objects, that they senting lion's-beads, of masterly execution. were of Egyptian and Assyrian or Phænician Thin diadems of gold, such as were found in work, although it has always been supposed some of the tombs clasped about the foreheads that those peoples, except the Babylonians, of skulls, were found in the first vault.
were ignorant of the art of cutting hard stones A calyx of thin gold, five and a half inches in intaglio. Alabastra in rock-crystal and in diameter, is engraved within with circular alabaster very finely cut were also discovered ; bands, on which are traced in wavy lines one in crystal, of handsome form, six and a half figures of stags and huntsmen, with palm-trees inches long, has finely-curved handles and a and water, designed in the conventional Egyp- neck fitted with a gold cap and stopper, contian manner; it is a design of singular beauty nected with a fine chain, and is finished inside and rare interest, and is in a perfect state of with a high degree of polish. Some in alapreservation. Many of the large rings and baster bear Phænician inscriptions. There are other articles were produced by overlaying others in terra-cotta with inscriptions in the silver or copper plates with coats of gold; but same language painted upon them. A fine in the case of such specimens the oxidation and sceptre head is carved out of onyx, as are also consequent distention of the inclosed metal numbers of small amulets, representing the have burst the outer coat and destroyed the tortoise, an emblem of Venus, the patron godornament. This class of articles is still worse dess of the island. Of the bronze objects there preserved than those made of solid silver, were five hundred objects, consisting for the which, though blackened and wasted, are some most part of lamps, lamp-stands, mirrors, and of them still quite strong and heavy. A cor various other utensils. A magnificent vase, nucopia, about fifteen inches in length, is made four feet in height and six in circumference, a of thin silver overlaid in spots with gold plate. wonderfully fine example of the archaic Greek In the silver collection the most perfect speci- style, was discovered in fragments, but has men is a large bulb-shaped lecythus or unguent- been very perfectly restored. A bronze sceptretlask, with the lip and handle preserved, seven head is formed of three bull's-heads, with eyes and five-eighths inches in height, with parts of of glass, and stones inserted in the foreheads. its surface still bright and smooth, but with A finely-worked mirror-case is ornamented most of its ornamentation gone. Very im- with concentric circles. Bronze mace-heads portant and interesting is a large patera in are ornamented with the lotus design. Among
VOL. XVI.—3 A
Minister of Finance..
the various articles of this large collection is a ty leagues north of Puntarenas, and the whole twisted snaffle-bit of bronze. There are four of the remainder to the Argentine Republic. lion's-heads of powerful design and fine work (For detailed statistics concerning area, popmanship, which probably formed part of a ulation, etc., see previous volumes of the ANfountain.
NUAL CYCLOPÆDIA, and especially that for the General di Cesnola has retired from the pur- year 1872.) suit which he has followed so energetically and The President of the Republic is Dr. Don Niwith such distinguished success. The results of colás Avellaneda (succeeded Señor Sarmiento the last three years' investigations have been in 1874); the Vice-President, Dr. Don Mamuch more fruitful than those of his first seven riano Acosta (elected in the same year); Minyears. The field cannot be supposed to be yet ister of the Interior, Dr. Don Simon de Iriondo; entirely exhausted. His later investigations of Foreign Affairs, Dr. Don Bernardo de Irigóhave been prosecuted with the proceeds of the yen; of Finance, Señor Victorino de la Plaza; sale of his first great find. Many of the sur- of Justice, Public Worship, and Public Instrucface diggings were purely experimental, on tion, Señor Don 0. Leguizamon; of War and spots where there were no signs of human Marine, Señor Don Adolfo Alsina. Argentine art above-ground. The city of New York has minister to the United States, Señor Don Masecured this most valuable collection. The ob- nuel R. García; secretary of legation, Señor jects represent a wide range of time, from the Don G. Videla Dorna. earliest beginnings of art to a period of late The following is the list of the governors antiquity. The greater part of them may prob- of the fourteen provinces: ably be referred to the transition period in Buenos Ayres..
.Carlos Casares (May, 1875). which took place the birth of the true Greek
Minister of the Interior.. Dr. A. del Valle.
.Rufino Varela. art, the first departure from the conventional
M. Molina, types of the Egyptians and Assyrians.
Dr. E. Rodriguez.
Dr. J. L. Madariaga ARGENTINE REPUBLIC (REPÚBLICA AR
.Dr. R. Febre. GENTINA), an independent state of South Amer
.C. Aparicio. ica, lying between latitude 22° and 41° south,
F. Civit. and longitude 53° and 71° 17' west. It is Salta,
M. F. Araoz. bounded north by Bolivia; east by Paraguay,
S. Bayo. by Patagonia, the dividing line with which is Santiago.
T. Padilla, the Rio Negro; and west by Cbili, from which country it is separated by the Andes.
The provincial governors are elected by the The territory of the republic is divided into people, and their period of office is three years. fourteen provinces, which, with their capitals, The amount and various branches of the and their estimated population for 1875, are national revenue and expenditure for 1875 are as follows:
expressed in the subjoined tables:
$12,898,532 68 Export duties..
2,616,610 29 Public warehouse fees.
527.954 04 Buenos Ayres
382,529 19 Santa Fé 95,000 Santa Fé. Post-Office
214,807 70 Entre Rios 120.000 Concepcion del Uruguay Telegraphs.
79,553 40 Corrientes 151,500 Corrientes, Lighthouses.
85,878 98 La Rioja. 46.250 La Rioja.
Dividend of Central Argentine Railway Co... 189,280 00 Catamarca 79,551 Catamarca. Sundries ...
825,100 56 San Juan.
60,530 San Juan. Mendoza.. 75,550 Mendoza. Total...
$17,206,746 84 Córdoba ..
248,800 Córdoba San Luis.. 61.500 San Luis.
EXPENDITURE. Santiago del Estero... 163,400 Santiago del Estero.
Ministry of the Interior,
$7,240,207 18 Tucuman.. 123,000 Tucuman.
Ministry of Foreign Relations.. Salta
9,413,524 82 46,600 Jujuy.
Ministry of Finance...
1,560,498 76 Total...
Ministry of War and Marine. 1,768,681
10,161,116 46 Total...
$28,570,566 20 The population of the capital, Buenos Ayres, set down in the official census of 1869 at 177,
The Minister of Finance, in his report to 787, is calculated by Dr. G. Rawson to have Congress, in August, 1876, states: been not less than 230,000 in 1875.
The Government, under the most extreme pressure The question of boundaries with Chili, in and surrounded by difficulties that almost threatened regard to the disputed territory of Patagonia, public-works loan for purposes alien to those authorstill remains unsettled. Chili is reported as ized, but I must also state that the Government has likely to propose a compromise, based upon met, and will continue punctually to meet, the serthe assigning to that republic the whole of vice of said loan with the ordinary national revenue, Tierra del Fuego, and that portion of the Pata- and the national creditors need have no alarm; notgonian territory comprised between either all its obligations. I recommend Congress to order ocean and a line drawn from east to west thir- all the surplus and unplaced public-works bonds to
be destroyed, as a measure calculated to diminish The following is the text of the contract of the service of the loan, and to improve our credit in the national loan referred to by the writer the London market.
just quoted: The total amount of the public-works loan
FINANCE DEPARTMENT, October 3, 1876. was $24,000,000, of which some six millions Dr. Victorino de la Plaza, Finance Minister, on the were still in the hands of the London bankers one part, and Don Rufino Varela, Provincial Finance as late as September last.
Minister, on the other part, being duly authorized, The foregoing tables show the existence of have ugreed on the following terms:
ARTICLE 1. The national Government authorizes an ever - growing deficit in the Argentine the Provincial Bank of Buenos Ayres to emit for finances, as may be observed by comparing national account ten million hard dollars in the exthe amount of the deficit of 1875 with that of isting form of emission. 1874, and previous years. Nevertheless, the already emitted by the Provincial Bank, shall re
ART. 2. Said new notes, as well as twelve millions aggregate revenue for the year 1875 is about ceive a special stamp from the national Treasury to one million in excess of that for 1874. On guarantee the payment of said notes according to the other hand, the single department of War the law of September 23, 1876. and Marine consumed in 1875 no less a sum
ART. 3. One of the national accountants shall regthan $10,181,116, against $8,006,801 in the ister the number and amount of the various notes,
as the officer of the Treasury stamps them. year immediately preceding, or an increase of
ART. 4. All notes must be so stamped before issue, nearly two and one-fourth millions. It should including those required by the bank to exchange for also be noticed that the expenses of that de- old torn notes, partment, even in 1874, were far above the
ART. 5. Holders of present currency of specie-notes normal standard, save in the case of such a change same for new issue.
may apply at the bank within a certain period to war as that which was terminated at Aquida ART. 6. It, at the expiration of said term, the numban in 1870.
ber of notes does not reach twenty-two million hard The general state of the Argentine finances dollars, the bank will proceed to emit up to that has been exceedingly discouraging for the last amount, to supply any lost or destroyed.
ART. 7. Any specie-notes presented afterward shall three years; but there is a decided tendency be taken charge of by the bank. to improvement. There is, however, reason ART. 8. The above notes for twenty-two million to apprehend that the true condition of affairs hard dollars shall be legal tender throughout the will be found in the subjoined lines, under republic, and be received in full payment of taxes, date of Buenos Ayres, August, 1876 :
except in the custom-house, where they shall be re
ceivable for half any amount of duties. Said notes The crisis in Buenos Ayres continues; trade is so
shall not be legal tender for any contracts outside depressed that we believe twenty years ago there ber 25th.
the province of Buenos Ayres previous to Septemwas more business done in this market than at
Art. 9. The Provincial Bank will hand over ten present. Stocks and real estate show no signs of recovery. Gold is at a high premium, notwith- million hard dollars to the national Government, as
follows: standing that it is hardly required for trade. We ste no failures in this market caused by the pre
$2,000,000 in October, 1876.
2,000,000 “ November, “ mium on gold. Paper-money is dearer, scarcer, and
600,000 “ December, " tighter, than before the promulgation of the legal
600,000 “ January, 1877. iender act. Many think that the proposed loan to
600.000 - February, the national Government will cause a new emission
600,000 “ March, and flood the market with paper, but they err; the
600.000 “ April, Provincial Bank, which is admirably managed, has
600,000 “ May, withdrawn from circulation close on five million
600,000 “ June,
600,000 “ July, hard dollars' worth of its specie notes, and thus is
600,000 “ August, prepared, if the Chambers so order, to advance to
September, the national Government without making a fresh ernission. When the wool season begins, gold must In case of necessity the minister may arrange with be imported, owing to the few takers of exchange, the directors to draw two months in one. For all and the probabilities are that paper-money will rap- advances on this loan the Government will pay 4 per idly rise in value. Our produce is steadily increas- cent. per annum. ing; our wool-clip last year shows fully 24,000 bales ART. 10. From November 1, 1876, the national over the clip of 1874, and this year we look for a Government will begin to pay the Provincial Bank similar increase. The great depression in River one-twelfth of the custom-house receipts, or more, Plate trade is entirely restricted to the branch of if convenient, until the complete payment of this our imports, and our exchange and money transac- loan with interest, as also of the balance due by tions are reduced to legitimate business operations. Government to the bank, viz., $75,294,103, with inWe contess we see much to induce the greatest con terest till paid. At the end of every quarter after filence in the country, and believe that the worst November 1, 1876, the Provincial Bank will burn, of the crisis is over; a crisis the like of which was in presence of the national accountant und treasurer, liever before witnessed in these countries, and the a sum of the new notes equal to the amount received eifeets of which can be read in the four thousand from the custom-house, until all the ten millions tenantless houses in this city, and the almost innu- be destroyed by fire. merable evidences of badly-employed capital; we ART. 11. As soon as the national Government have splendid and costly stores in the city lying shall have paid off the present loan and the balance idle, strong rooms with nothing to lock up in them, due the bank, this contract shall be at an end. barracas, custom-house stores, hotels, breweries, ART. 12. The sums received from the customtramways, even railways, all lying idle, the flotsam house each quarter shall be applied in the following and jetsam of the great crisis-wave that has swept order: 1. To redeem the ten-million loan now adover the Plate ; but the waters are at last subsiding, vanced; 2. To pay off the balance and interest and business will be sounder and better than bofore. already due to the bank; 3. To meet the agreed