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Fourteen German states have a Diet consisting of one chamber only, and one of these, the duchy of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, has, besides the common Diet for the entire duchy, two particular Diets, one for the former duchy of Coburg, and one for the former duchy of Gotha. In the majority of these states the
members of the Diets are chosen partly by 1: 59,400
the owners of Rittergüter, or noble estates, 1: 34.500 partly by the cities, and partly by the rural
districts. In several, the sovereign has the i: 17,60 right of appointing a few members. The fol
lowing table exhibits the composition of all 1:43,000 these Diets :
There is one Repre
Prussia, Bavaria.. Saxony.. Würtemberg Baden. Hesse.
Members ( Lübeck....
662 of the Bremen... 150 1: 900 Mecklenburg-Strelitz...
7 com'n'ity Hamburg 88
208 258 466 1:1,260 In Bremen, 16 representatives are chosen by The number of professors and students at the those citizens who have studied at a university. German universities, in 1876, was as follows:
In all, twenty universities, of which nine are German universities. It had, in 1876, 29 proin Prussia, three in Bavaria, two in Baden, one fessors and 436 students. At the following each in Würtemberg, llesse, Saxony, 'Saxe- universities, outside of the German Empire, Weimar, Mecklenburg, and Alsace-Lorraine. the German language is exclusively or preSometimes the Academy of Münster, which dominantly used, and in the province of litcontains the two faculties of Catholic theol- erature they may therefore be counted as Gerogy and philosophy, is also counted among the man universities:
The budget of the German Empire for 1876,
Marks, 1. Chancery of the empire.
4.033.660 as declared by law of December 25, 1875, 2. Imperial Diet..
819.150 estimates revenue and expenditure each at 8. Foreign Office.
4. Administration of the Imperial Army. 216,205,735 474,256,998 marks (1 mark = 23.8 cents).
5. Administration of the Navy.
21.06.491 The revenue was derived from the following 6. Interest of the debt of the empire..
39,465 7. Chamber of Accounts.. 8. Imperial Supreme Court of Trade
8.23,370 Marks. 1. Customs and excises of consumption.....
9. Railroad Office of the Empire.
276,421) 242,629,170 10. General Pension Funds.
23,108,141 2. Stamp-duty for bills of exchange.
2,525.611 3. Administration of postal affairs and telegraphs. 10.562.236 4. Administration of rallroads.
Total....... 5. Imperial Bank, and other receipts. 1,510,000
403,245,002 6. Receipts of various descriptions..
1.565,114 7. From the imperial funds for invalids
The extraordinary expenditures are thus es8. Surplus of the years 1574 and 1575.
31,56 866 timated : 9. Profits from the coining of imperial money.. 10,20,000
Marks. 10. Interest of invested capitals
2,000.239 11. Extraordinary receipts.
80.000 12. Matricular contributions...
474,256,998 4. Postal administration, and administration of
1.462.900 The matricular contributions were divided
5. Army of the empire..
83, 53.612 6. Administration of the Navy.
4,769.300 among the particular states as follows:
7. Chamber of Accounts
40,000 8. Railroads of the empire
9. Mint reform.. 31,730.096
600,000 10. Manufacture of Empire Bank notes.
71,011,936 8,676,779 Würtemberg
The following table gives the military forces Hesse.
1,162.731 of the empire in time of war: Mecklenburg-Schwerin.
758, 196 Saxe-Weimar....
I. FIELD ARMY. Mecklenburg-Strelitz.
Officers. Men. Horse. Brunswick.
266,346 Saxe-Altenburg 204.711
863 Iligher staff.
5,170 5.070) Saxe-Coburg-Gotha.
10,190 453,621) 17.905 Anhalt
2,144 59.14 63,605 Schwarzburg-Sondershausen.
20,917 Reuss, older branch
46.017 Reuss, younger branch.
2,326 10,564 Schaumburg-Lippo....
17,810 657.594 233,592 Lübeck
Officers. Men. Horses. 474,256,998 Substitutes of the staff...
875 1,36 892 The common expenditure of the empire is de- Infantry.
2,912 179.524 1,136 104
SINS frayed, according to Article 70 of the Constitu- Cavalry.
405 23,994 19.716 tion, from the revenues arising from customs, Artillery.
810 18,281 5.107 certain branches of excise, and the profits of
20) 4.9.54) Train...
240 11,522 8,903 the posts and telegraphs. The regular expenditures of the empire were estimated as follows:
4,426 213,095 80,530
The extension of electric telegraphs is shown by the following table (in kilometres, 1 kilometre = 0.62 mile):
1,071,214,146 816,609,318 2,342.149,034 4,260,032,493 715,756.740) 40,393,104 135,139,330 $91,590,014 307.149.251 81,135,056 187.59030 476,12,47 826,705,581
2,287,764 825.998,045 316,024,905 11,461,182
167,905,967 205,658,:49 23.561,290
5,400,000 29,251,290 42.960,708 42.960,708 95,963,746 95.963,746
63,855,699 63,855,699 327,186,645
327,186,618 3,126,054,113 929,659,390 2,993,040,778' 7,048,754,281 at Bern, embraced at the close of 1876 an area of 46,000,000 square kilometres (= 17,760,000 sq. m.), with 628,000,000 inhabitants. Among the states belonging to the Union are all the states of Europe; in America, the United States and the French colonies; in Asia, Asiatic Russia, Asiatic Turkey, British India, and the French colonies; in Africa, Egypt, Zanzibar, Tunis, Morocco, the French, Spanish, and Portuguese possessions; in Australia, the French colonies.
The postal statistics of the empire were, according to the latest official publications, as follows:
The German Reichstag, after its recess for terpellation of the Government by Herr Freithe holidays, resumed its labors on January tag, one of the leaders of the Catholic party, 19th. The first question of importance that who assumed that the Bavarian Government came before it was a consideration of the railroads were also to be bought by the emamendments to the penal code. The conflict pire. Against such a plan (the assumption of • between the Liberal majority and Prince Bis which was, however, entirely unwarranted by marck, which had begun in 1875, continued in the facts), Herr von Pfretzschner, the Presi1876. On January 27th a spirited debate en dent of the Ministry, declared himself with sued on the amendment to section 130, directed great precision, making particular reference to against acts inciting hostility between different the reserved rights of Bavaria. In the beginclasses and attacking national institutions, in ning of March similar interpellations were the course of which Count Eulenburg, the Min- raised in Carlsruhe and Dresden, and were anister of the Interior, stated that the paragraph swered in both states with equal decision as in was directed against the Social Democrats, Bavaria. In Dresden a resolution was passed against whom the Government was in need of at the same time by a vote of 66 to 7, requestmore effectual weapons.
He declared their ing of the Government to oppose every deaim to be the “Red Republic,” with com mand for the sale of the Saxon railways, while munism and atheism. The paragraph was a resolution in favor of a strong railroad law finally rejected by a unanimous vote. On the for the empire was rejected by a vote of 53 28th the Reichstag rejected the addition pro- to 15. In Stuttgart the Chamber of Deputies hibiting the publication of political pastoral passed a resolution by a vote of 88 to 6 against letters and encyclicals, and on the 29th they the purchase of the railroads by the empire, adopted the so-called "Arnim paragraph," re but also one demanding a stronger railroad law lating to offenses similar to that of Count Ar- for the empire. In Bavaria the conflict between nim. The second reading of the amendments the Catholic majority of two against the midwas finished on the 29th, the other paragraphs istry, and particularly against Herr Lutz, the besides those mentioned being of minor im- Minister of Religious Affairs, continued durportance. In the third reading the “pulpit ing 1876 with the same want of success as paragraph,” which had been rejected in the during the previous year. The King effectusecond reading, was also passed, and on Feb. ally aided the ministry, while the more liberal ruary 10th Prince Bismarck read an imperial faction of the Catholic party, under Dr. Jörg, message, closing the session, and, in the name avoided extreme measures. The action of the of the Federal Council, thanked the House for Catholics in invalidating the election of Libtheir labors. Besides the amendment to the erals in several districts resulted in the repenal code, the House in the session passed, election of the Liberal candidates by increased among other laws, the law against the copy- majorities. In Saxony the Government brought ing of works of art, of models and patterns, in several bills, which had for their object the and of photographs.
restriction of the power of the Catholic clergy. Soon after the close of the Reichstag in Feb- On May 17th the Landesausschuss of Alsaceruary the Parliaments of the different German Lorraine met for the first time in Strasburg, its states began to assemble: in Weimar, on Feb- labors being approved both by the Governruary 14th ; for Mecklenburg, in Sternberg, on ment and the people of these provinces. In the February 16th; and in Munich and Dresden, Lower Chamber of Baden a very spirited debate on February 21st. The all-absorbing question ensued, when, in considering the budget, the in all of these states was the scheme of the Im- title “Catholic Church” was reached. As the perial Government for buying up all the Ger- archiepiscopal see of Freiburg remained vacant man railroads. In the Bavarian Chamber of during 1875, the Government had made no deDeputies the matter was brought up by an in- mand for the 13,400 florins usually appropri
ated for the table of the archbishop, with the The reason for this step was stated by Herr reservation that if, in 1876 or 1877 an appoint- Delbrück to be his shattered health, although ment should be made, to pay the usual dota- it was rumored that differences of opinion with tion from the day of appointment. The Cler- Prince Bismarck, particularly on the railroad ical party made an amendment to this, that question, were the real causes. These rumors the usual dotation be again inserted. This were emphatically denied by Prince Bismarck was voted down after a lively debate.
in the Prussian Chamber of Deputies. As his The Imperial Government lost one of its successor the Emperor appointed Herr Hofoldest and most efficient members by the resig- mann, formerly Minister of Hesse-Darmstadt. nation of Herr Delbrück, the President of the The fourth and last session of the Reichstag Imperial Chancery. The resignation was ac- elected in 1873 was opened on October 30th. cepted in the middle of April by the Emperor. The speech from the throne was read by Herr
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Hofmann, the Emperor being absent on ac- for the renewal of commercial treaties. Ger. count of indisposition. The imperial speech many's foreign relations, notwithstanding the mentioned the general depression of trade and difficulties of the present political situation, industry in Germany and throughout the were fully accordant with the Emperor's paworld, and stated that the object of the Gov- cific policy. His constant endeavor was to preernment's commercial policy would be the pro serve friendly relations with all powers, estection of German industry from the preju- pecially those connected with Germany by ties dicial effects of one-sided customs regulations of neighborhood and history, and, as far as in other countries. This object would be kept peace might be endangered among such, to specially in view in impending negotiations preserve it by friendly mediation. Whatever