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in 1573..

of schools in 1575,.

school-fund of the State had been diverted to 300 able-bodied convicts to be employed in other purposes. As a consequence, there were the coal-mines of Dade County, and a permano schools supported in 1872, but in 1873 the nent prison has been established there for new system was put into operation. The their accommodation. Each of the other comfollowing statistics of attendance show the ad- panies agrees to take one-half of the remaining vancement made since 1871 :

convicts, and a prison for No. 2 has been esSchool attendance in 1571, whites.

tablished about five miles west of the city of Albany, and one for No. 3 near Skull Shoals in

Greene County. Each company gives a bond, Attendance in 1573, whites,

63.922 with sureties, for the control and safo-keeping

of the convicts, and guarantees humane treat

ment. Attendance in 1574, whites..

The earnings of the Macon & Brunswick colored.


Railroad, which belongs to the State, were, Total...

135,341 for the year ending November 30th, $317,829.Attendance in 1575, whites.


18, while the expenses were $307,054.78.

There was also due, from connecting roads, 156,819

$47,701.32. The State Board of Directors Attendance in 1976, whites. colored


had advertised at the close of the year for

sealed proposals for the purchase or lease of 179,405

the road. The North & South Railroad was Increase of attendance over that of 1875..... 23,011

in the hands of a receiver, and operated on The following statement shows the amount behalf of the State. The expenses exceeded of money raised for the support of schools:

the earnings by a few hundred dollars. The Amount raised under act of 1872 for pay

$174,000 ment of school-debts of 1571...

Memphis Branch Railroad was seized on beAmount apportioned for support of schools

half of the State in May, on account of its

250,000 failure to pay interest on bonds indorsed by Amount apportioned for support of schools

265,000 in 1974...

the State. It was placed in the hands of RobAmount apportioned and paid for support

ert T. Fouché, as agent of the State.

291,319 The work of making a geological survey of Amount apportioned and paid for support of schools in 1576...

291,319 the State is progressing favorably. It is re

ported as one of its results that foreign capital Total.....


has been attracted to the State and employed Besides this, there is evidence of increasing to advantage in the abandoned mines of the zeal in the local authorities for the support of “gold-region.” Immense beds of marl and popular education. The State University, at valuable deposits of fertilizers have been disAtlanta, and the North Georgia Agricultural covered. A geological map is in preparation, College, at Dahlonega, are in a flourishing con- showing the various formations, and the disdition. There is an Academy for the Blind at tribution of minerals and soils. It is believed Macon, which had 57 pupils during the year. that the information furnished by the survey The Lunatic Asylum, at Milledgeville, con will have an important effect in attracting tained 605 patients at the close of the year, capital and settlers to the State. and the cost of maintenance for the year was The regular annual session of the Legislature $88,816.65. Appliances for furnishing the in- began on the 12th of January, and came to a stitution with pure water have been put in, at close on the 24th of February. There was an expense of $20,000. A fire in the asylum, very little legislation of importance. The subon the 15th of December, destroyed the work- ject which occupied by far the largest share shops, and caused a loss of $9,000. Additional of attention was that of holding a convention buildings, equal to the accommodation of 125 to revise and amend the constitution of the patients, are in contemplation.

State. Several bills were introduced and reThe number of convicts in the penitentiary ferred to a special committee, and an act ras at Milledgeville, at the close of the year, was reported and discussed providing for an elec1,108, of whom 114 were white and 994 col- 'tion in April, at which the people should vote ored. The convicts were distributed among at once on the question of having a convenseven lessees, and were kept employed in min- tion, and for the delegates. By amendment. ing and agriculture and on public works. Under the time was postponed to 1877, and, finally. the provisions of the act of February 25th, a the measure was defeated altogether. During contract has been entered into with three com the debate on the question of having a conpanies, designated as Penitentiary Companies vention, some remarks were made which called No. 1, No. 2, and No. 3, to take effect on the forth sharp criticisms in the North. In reexpiration of existing leases. These contracts sponse to these, the following resolutions wero are for twenty years from April 1, 1879, and adopted : the three companies agree to take all the State convicts during that period, and pay to the

Whereas, It has been charged, on the floor of the State $500,000 in twenty annual installments press of the Northern States, that it is the design of

United States Senate, and by a portion of the public of $25,000. Company No. 1 contracts to take the Legislature of Georgia to abrogate or abridge

the privileges or rights now enjoyed equally by all Governor submitted a detailed statement on citizens of the State under the Constitution of the Cnited States: therefore

the 14th of February. The amount realized Be it resolved, as the sense of this General Assem- from the sale, under an agreement entered bly, That the equal political rights of all citizens of into by acting-Governor Conley, was $243,000, this State, regardless of previous condition, are per. of which sum $50,400 was paid in cash, investmanently fixed and secured by the Constitution of ed in seven per cent. bonds of the State, and the United States, which is recognized by this body turned over to the State University. The reas the supreme law of this land, and that no abridy mainder was payable in eighteen months; and, or contemplated, or desired, in any action of the under the resolution of 1872, authorizing the General Assembly, or by the people whom we rep- discount of the purchaser's notes at seven per resent; and that any and all legislation in contra- cent., about one-half of the remaining scrip vention thereof, either by the Legislature or by a convention of the people, would be null and void.

was surrendered, and $90,202.17 realized and Resoloed further, That the political relations of paid into the Treasury. Under a resolution of all classes in this State have been harmoniously ad- 1873 this was kept as a separate fund, but justed upon the basis of the present provisions of not invested, and it still remains in the Treas. the Constitution of the United States; that peace and good-feeling between the races prevail througby in July, 1873, and $96,000 invested in eight

ury. The last payment of $96,192 was made out the State; and that it is neither the desire uor to the interest of the people of this State to reopen per cent. bonds of the State, and turned over these questions which have been thus permanently to the trustees of the university. settled beyond the power of agitation to disturb. The political canvass of the year opened ear

The Supreme Court having decided that, ly in the spring. The Democratic Executive under the homestead act of the State, the Committee decided to have no State Convenexemption from sale of $2,000 of realty, for tion for the appointment of delegates to the the benefit of a family, could be waived by ex. National Convention, but directed the calling press agreement of the head of the family, a of conventions in the congressional districts new act was passed providing for the recovery of April, and in each district two delegates to

for this purpose. These were held on the 26th of property sold, which had been set apart under the homestead and exemption laws. This the nominating body at St. Louis were chosen, authorized courts of equity to confirm the sale and four delegates at large were voted for. on proof that the proceeds were invested anew

The State Committee consolidated the votes of for the benefit of the family, or in so far as

the district conventions, and determined who they were so invested; but enacted—

had been chosen as delegates at large. This That, in cases where any portion of the proceeds method of proceeding gave rise to a good deal of of property sold as aforesaid has neither been in- dissatisfaction in the party, but there was a genvested in other property, nor applied to the benefit eral acquiescence in the result. Governor Smith of said family, the court shall ascertain the amount headed the delegation to St. Louis. The Rethereof and the interest of said tamily therein, and publicans held a State Convention at Atlanta, shall frame a decree to protect the rights

and inter; occupying two days, the 4th and 5th of May. the same time, to protect the rights and interests of Of the twenty-two delegates chosen to the the purchasers in the reversion of such property af- National Convention, thirteen were white and ter the particular estate aforesaid shail have been nine colored. A resolution was adopted exdetermined, and shall require parties complainant to do complete cquity in the premises before ob pressing approval of the Administration of taining equity.

President Grant. A Democratic Convention SECTION 7. Be it further enacted, That in cases

for the nomination of candidates for State of. where a portion or all of the purchase-money officers and for presidential electors was held at property so sold has not been paid, the court may Atlanta on the 2d of August. Governor Smith confirm the sale and order the reinvestment of the and Judge Herschel V. Johnson had both deproceeds, or may cancel and set aside the sale, and clined to have their names used as candidates compel the restoration of any part of the purchasemoney which may have been paid, and may grant for Governor. Alfred H. Colquitt was nomirelief to the parties according to the principles of nated. The Republican Nominating Convenequity.

tion was held at Macon on the 16th of August, The investigation into the alleged indebted- and Jonathan Norcross, of Atlanta, was made ness of the State to Henry Clews & Co., of the candidate for Governor. Resolutions were New York, in the sum of $170,043.05, on ac- adopted approving of the national ticket and count of services and transactions during the platform of the party, favoring free, non-sectaadministration of Governor Bullock, led to a rian schools, expressing abhorrence for lawlessreport, submitted to the Legislature, that a ness and disorder, and opposing a convention careful examination of the books and corre- for the revision of the constitution of the State. spondence of Clews & Co. showed that, in point The State election occurred on the 4th of Ocof fact, the firm owed the State $170,228.42, tober, and resulted in the choice of Colquitt for with interest from November 16, 1871. Governor. The total vote was 144,839, of which

In response to a resolution of the House of the Democratic candidate received 111,297, Representatives, asking for information re and the Republican 33,444, making the magarding the proceeds of the sale of lands do- jority of the former 77,853. At the presidennated by Congress for the establishment of a tial election, November 7th, there were 180,College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts, the 534 votes cast, of which the Tilden and Hen

VOL. XVI.-22 A

dricks electors received 130,088, and the Hayes of our noble State furnishes the safe guide for our and Wheeler electors 50,446 ; majority for the

own action in this solemn emergency: “Wisdom, former, 79,642. All the nine members of Con- justice, moderation.". It is not for us to lead, or even

to suggest, but to follow. It is the plain duty of gress chosen on the same day were Democrats. Congress, by adhering to law and established preThe Legislature of 1877 consists of 43 Demo. cedent, to give effect to the clearly and legally excrats and i Republican in the Senate, and 168 pressed will of the people. But if Congress should Democrats and 7 Republicans in the llouse; unhappily fail to do this, then it is believed that the Democratic majority, 42 in the Senate, 161 in confronting us can, in the last resort, be safely left

proper determination of the grave questions now the House, and 203 on joint ballot.

to the soberjudgment of the right-minded people in In his message to the Legislature in January, the Northern States. If it cannot, then we are pow1877, Governor Smith used the following lan- erless, and they as well as ourselves will have lost guage regarding the political atfairs of the the inestimable right of freemen-the right of self

government. When they shall have decided what country:

is proper to be done for the preservation of this Before closing this, my last annual communication right, it is assuming but little to say that the people to the General Assembly, I cannot forbear a brief of Georgia will be found ready to cooperate with reference to the grave circumstances which now sur them, and to do their whole duty under any and all round us, and seem to threaten the existence of the circumstances. liberties of the people. On a given day, over eight millions of freemen,

GERLACH, Franz, a German scholar, born representing nearly forty-five millions of people, July 18, 1793; died in November, 1876. He came forth from their abiding-places and quietly pro- studied theology and philology in Göttingen, ceeded to the ballot-box for the purpose of choosing received a position in the gymnasium in that their rulers for the next four years. This grave pro- town upon graduating, became professor in ceeding was characterized by the utmost good order, notwithstanding the presence, in many places, of the

the cantonal school in Aarau in 1817 and in military forces of the Government, sent thither to the University of Basel in 1820, was appointed overawe the weak and ignorant, and to seeure the member of the Educational Council in 1835, election of particular candidates. The law pointed and was pensioned in 1875. Among his philoPresident of the United States. The question as to logical works are the editions of Sallust with who should fill these high offices had been referred a commentary (1823–'31, 3 vols.; 1852, 2 vols.; to the ballot-box. The true result of that reference 1870, 1 vol.), of the “Germania” of Tacitus no candid man can doubt „The election was held in (1835), which was followed by a translation pursuance of the laws of the United states and of with a commentary (1837), and the critical the several States. It was peaceable and orderly, and free from intimidation and violence. And yet im- edition of Nonius Marcellus (1842), which he mediately after the election we find a few adventur- published together with Roth. He also pubers, acting under the direction of ambitious leaders lished the “Schweizerische Museum für hisat the Federal capital, and backed by the military torische Wissenschaften” (3 vols., 1837–39), forces of the Government, attempting, by fraud and chicane, to set aside the eminent statesinan chosen

with Hottinger and Wackernagel; “Historische by the people, and to force into places persons whom Studien” (vol. i., 1841; vols. ii. and iii., 1847the people, after a fair trial, had refused to elect. ?63), and "Die Geschichte der Römer" (vol. i.,

The question arises here: Shall the candidates 1851), with Bachofen. fairly and legally elected by the people be placed in office, or shall persons rejected at the ballot-box be lished January 18, 1871. The Emperor, Wil

GERMANY, an empire in Europe, reēstabelevated to power? Shall law and order prevail, or shall fraud and violence have the mastery? Shall liam I., was born March 22, 1797, and was the people of the United States choose their own married June 11, 1829, to Augusta, daughter rulers, or shall political cheats and swindlers be per- of the Grand-duke Charles Frederick of Saxemitted to perform that vital office for them? We Weimar. have appealed to the ballot-box: shall the result of

The heir-apparent, Frederick Wilthis appeal stand, or shall it be set aside by force liam, born October 18, 1831, has the official and fraud? If the latter, then our free institutions title of Crown-prince of the German Empire, are already at an end, and constitutional liberty and Crown-prince of Prussia. He was maron the American continent has received its final ried January 25, 1858, to Victoria, Princess blow.

The right of the people to choose their own rulers Royal of Great Britain and Ireland, born Nois the corner-stone of a free, democratic republic; vember 21, 1840. Offspring of the union areand when they voluntarily abdicate this invaluable three sons: Frederick William, born 1859; privilege, or allow it to be wrenched from them, they Henry, born 1862 ; Waldemar, born 1868; and have already obtained their own consent to become slaves. No more sacred cause can engage the patrio born 1866; Sophia, born 1870; Margaretta,

four daughters: Charlotte, born 1860; Victoria, otic efforts of a nation than the firm maintenance of the fundamental right in all free governments to say

born 1872. Imperial Chancellor (Reichskanzwho shall rule over it. This right the people of ler), Otto, Prince von Bismarck-Schönhausen. Georgia, and, I trust, of every other State in our Fed- President of the Imperial Chancery (Reichseral Union, will never willingly abandon.. No divis- kanzler-Amt), Hofinann, Minister of State, apion of the dirty spoils of office, no promise of the pointed in 1876. sonal advancement, no engagement to withhold the iron hand of power, can ever compensate the people The following table exhibits all the states for the surrender of a right at once so dear to them- of the German Empire, the area, the populaselves, and so vital to the very existence of consti- tion, the number of representatives of erery tutional liberty:

The people of the United States are thus brought German state in the Federal Council, and the face to face with a most momentous responsibility. number of deputies who represent each state What shall be done? What shall we do? The motto in the Reichstag :

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Duchies. Grand-duchles. Kingdoma.

6, -21

28 17 1+ 9 6 3 8 1 8


1. Prussia (including Lauenburg)..
2. Bavaria..
8. Saxony.
4. Würtemberg
5. Baden.
6. Hesse.
7. Mecklenburg-Schwerin.
8. Saxe-Weimar..

9. Oldenburg.
10. Mecklenburg-Strelitz.
11. Brunswick..
12. Saxe-Meiningen.
18. Saxe-Altenburg.
14. Saxe-Coburg-Gotha.
16. Anbalt..
16. Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt
17. Schwarzburg-Sondershausen.
18. Waldeck
19. Reuss-Greitz, older line.
20. Reuss-Schleitz, younger line.
21. Schaumburg-Lippe.
122. Lippe-Detmold.
23. Lübeck.
24. Bremen.
25. Hamburg
26. Alsace-Lorraine (Reichsland).



95,078* 819.314* 827.498* 194.494* 145,844* 182.599* 218,689 76,676* 67.450* 64,711 46,985* 92.375* 83,133* 112,442

66,912* 141, 48 855.615* 1,529,408


510 760 906 864 883 483 123 820 171 435 109

97 158 5,596

1 2 2 1 1 1 1



1 1 1 1 3 15






In the following table will be found a full sovereign princes, their years of birth and acexbibit of the governments of the particular cession to the throne, and the name of the states, including the names and titles of all the heir-apparent :

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William I..

Louis II..


Grand-duke.. Frederick.
Grand-duke.. Frederick Francis II..
Grand-duke.. Louis III..
Grand-duke.. Peter..
Grand-duke.. Charles Alexander...
Grand-duke.. Frederick William..




Ernest II..



Henry XXII.

Henry XIV.





F. L. Grave.

1 F. M. C. Pfeiffer..

JK. F. Petersen..

H. A. C. Weber..
Burgomaster. Theodor Bebn..

Born 1797, succ. 1861.. Frederick William, son.

1845, 1864.. Otto, brother.
1828, 1873.. George, brother.
1823, 1864.. William, cousin.

1836., Frederick William, son.
152, 1842.. Frederick Francis, son.
1806, 1848.. Charles, brother.
1827, 1853..! August, son.
1618, 1-53.. Charles August, son.
1819, 1960.. Adolf Frederick, son.
1806, 1831.. Disputed.
131, 1571..Leopold, son.
1826, 1558.. Maurice, brother.
1919, 141.. Prince Alfred, cousin.
1926, 1666.. Bernhard, son.
1:24, 1865.. Hermann, brother.
1846, 159..
1932, 1667.. Henry XXVII., son.
1817, 1860.. George, son.
1839, 1859.. Günther, second-cousin.

1833.. Charles, son.
1881, 1952.. Frederick, son.
From 1973 to 1877.
From 1975 to 1879.
For 1876.
For 1876.

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Hamburg ... Lübeck.......

It will be seen from the above table that the Bundesrath represents the individual states of ducal line of Brunswick is likely to become Germany, and the Emperor must have its conextinct by the death of the reigning duke. sent to declare war not inerely defensive. The The succession is disputed by the ex-King of members of the Bundestag are appointed by Hanover and the Emperor of Germany. It is the governments of the individual states for also interesting to notice that in only twelve each session. On January 1, 1876, the Gerof the twenty-two sovereign houses which be man Bundesrath was composed of the followlong to the German Empire the heir-apparenting members : is the son of the reigning sovereign.

Prussia.-Prince Bismarck, President and The legislative functions of the empire are Imperial Chancellor; Hofmann, President of vested in the Bundestag, or Federal Council, the Imperial Chancery; the ministers Campand the Reichstag, or Diet of the Empire. The hansen, Count Eulenburg, Leonhardt, Kameke,

The figures marked * give the deflnite, the others only and Achenbach; Bülow, State Minister and the preliminary, statement,

Secretary of State in the Ministry of Foreign


Affairs; Stosch, Chief of the Admiralty; Von ulation of the largest cities, according to the
Philipsborn, Director in the Foreign Office; census of 1875 :
Bitter; Dr. Friedberg, Under-Secretary of

Population In 1875. CITIES. Population in 1875, State in the Ministry of Justice; Postmaster

969,634 Cassel ..

53.045 General Stephan; Hasselbach, Director-Gen- Hamburg .

261,675 Erfurt... eral of Indirect Taxes; Meinecke, Ministerial


239.050 Frankfort on the Oder 41,176 Dresden... 197.295 Mannheim

46.732 Director in the Imperial Ministry of Finance; Munich.

193,024 Metz...

4.1.673 Nathusius, Geh. Oberregierungsrath; Maybach, Cologne.

185,518 Görlitz,

45,349 Leipsic. 127,387 Potsdam.

43,4441 President of the Imperial Railroad Office; Königsberg

122.445 Würzburg.. Möller, Oberpräsident of Elsass-Lotbringen; Stuttgart.

107,278 Lübeck
106,64 Darinstadt

43.537 and Burghart, Director - General of Direct

Frankfort on the Main 103,815 Wiesbaden.

43,709 Taxes.

102,177 Carlsruhe

42.768 Bavaria.-The ministers Adolf von Pfretz

98,101 Duisburg

94,340 Kiel

87.270 schner, Dr. von Fäustle, and Georg Berr; Frei Nuremberg

91.017 Münster herr Gergler von Perglas, embassador in Ber Magdeburg

65.012 Rostock.

34.172 Barmen 86,330 Elbing

83,572 lin; Ministerial Councilor von Riedel; and

84,218 Gladbach..

81.962 Colonel Fries.

81.052 Zwickau..

50,750 Liegnitz.

81,497 Sarony.—The ministers Richard von Friesen

80.599 Ratisbon.

31,467 and Chr. W. L. Abeken; Oswald von Nostiz Aix-la-Chapelle..

79,765 Bromberg.

81.346 Wallwitz, embassador in Berlin; and Major Chemnitz

78,209 | Freiburg.

80.31 Brunswick 65,989 Ulm

30.229 Planitz,


62,549 Osnabrück. Würtemberg.—Minister von Mittnacht; Hu Posen...

61,169 Coblentz.

29,290) Halle 60.631 Plauen...

25.736 go von Spitzenberg, embassador in Berlin;

64,518 Bochum..

2,423 Colonel von Faber du Faur; and Councilor Mayence

57,847 Bonn

23,114 Hess.

57.763 Schwerin..

57,210 Halberstadt...

27,50) Baden.—Dr. Julius Jolly, President of the Essen.

51,552 | Stralsund..

27,796 Ministry; Rudolf von Freydorf, State Minister; and Moritz Elstätter, President of the

The movement of emigration from the ports Ministry of Finance.

of Bremen and Hamburg was as follows: Hesse.-Councilor Dr. Neidhardt, and Councilor Göring.


Bremen. Hamburg. Total. Mecklenburg-Schwerin.-Von Prollius, char. Germany.

12.620 15.826 29,146 d'affaires in Berlin, and Director Olden Other states..

11,888 15,984 27,567 burg.

Total, 1975..

24,303 31,910 56,313 Saxe - Weimar - Eisenach. Councilor Dr.


80,638 43,148 74,076 Stichling.


03,241 69,176 132.417 1572.

80.418 74,406 154,524 Mecklenburg-Strelitz.—Councilor von Prol


60,516 42,224 102.740 lius.


46,781 82,556 79,337 Oldenburg.-Councilor Mutzenbecher.

(1870-1874... 56,318 52.361 108 679 Bri oick.-Councilor Schulz.

1865–1969.. 62.098 45,379 107.672 Saxe-Meiningen. — Minister Albrecht Otto

1560-1564, 21,550 Average

20.1185 41.66.5

1955-1959.. 82,541 21,992 51.133 Giseke.


15.50-1854, 51,361 25, 504 71.103 Saxe-Altenburg.-Minister von Gerstenberg

1845-1849.... 31.290 5,416 36.706 Zech.

(1836-1814.... 12,949 1,704 14,653 Saxe-Coburg-Gotha.- Minister Freiherr von Seebach.

The following tables show the composition Anhalt.- Minister Freiherr von Krosigk. of the different classes of the Diets of the

Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt.-Dr. Hermann von particular states: Bertrab, State Minister.

STATISTICS OF THE DIETS OF THE PARTICULAR Schwarzburg-Sondershausen.-Councilor Ru

STATES. dolf von Wolffersdorf.

I. STATES WITH TWO CHAMBERS. Waldeck.-Director von Sommerfeld.

Reuss, older line.–Faber, President of the Government.

Reuss, younger line.--Dr. Adolf von Har-
bou, State Minister.

Schaumburg-Lippe.-Councilor Höcker.
Lippe Detmold.-Councilor Liebe.
Lübeck.–Dr. Krüger, minister resident.
Bremen.-Otto Gildermeister, burgomaster.
Hamburg.-Dr. Kirchenpauer, burgomaster.

4 100 11 38

802 Bavaria..

15 A comparison of the population of the large


45 German cities in 1875 with their population in Würtemb'g 36


Baden..... 1871 (see ANNUAL CYCLOPÆDIA for 1872, p.

29 Hesse....

84 350) shows almost throughout considerable gains. The following table contains the pop

Total.... 192
130 17


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