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tion, or are bnilt up by the application of suc- bright-colored plumage, the jewelry set with cessive layers of the varnish, which is the green and blue beetles, the excellent work in viscid sap of the tree Rhus vernicifera. The leather, including some saddles of embossed collection of screens was large and highly in- leather, the light furniture from native woods, teresting, containing paintings on silk, some an ingenious combination bed, table, washitimes combined with embroidery, in the best stand, and chairs, for travelers' use, and the style of Japanese art, affording an opportunity crockery-ware. of studying their peculiar manner of art-treat From the Argentine Republic was sent a ment, and, in the subjects, giving glimpses of mineral collection of great variety. The textile the inner social life of that remarkable peo- fabrics embraced cotton, woolen, silk, and ple. The display of carved wood, inlaid, and some unusual materials. There was a fine disupholstered furniture was remarkable, embrac- play of skins and manufactured leather. The ing some articles in the European style, which, weapons and clothing of the natives were an for taste and fine workmanship, were not sur attractive feature. passed. Of the special products of Japanese Chili also sent silks, leather, etc., with stuffed industry the ivory carvings, the buckskins animals and specimens of antiquities and native printed with colored patterns, the stamped handiwork. bronzed leather, the peculiar sorts of paper, Antiquities and the weapons and dress of and the elegant silk patterns, were worthy of the natives formed part of the Peruvian exattention. There was also a fine government hibit also, which included manufactures of exhibit of ores, minerals, grains, medicinal leather, soap, and sugar, valuable metals and plants, stuffed animals, etc.; and a group of minerals, and a considerable range of tropical plaster images showing the costumes worn by products. the different classes.
The Mexican Republic made a large exhibit The Chinese exhibition was handsomely in- of minerals and native woods, besides some cased in a showy structure carpentered by creditable manufactures—leather, silks, cloththeir own workmen. Though not so large as ing, etc.—a collection of medicinal plants and the Japanese exhibit, it was well selected, and of textile fibres, some richly-embroidered deermore representative, including the more or skin garments, and a considerable collection of dinary products and manufactures of the Ce- Aztec antiquities. The Mexican exhibit, though lestials. The porcelain was worthy of their interesting, was not nearly so full as was exhigh reputation in the art. In lacquer-work pected. they must yield the palm to the Japanese. The In the carriage annex were exhibited a large silks and embroideries were beautiful in colors variety of carriages, parts of carriages, chiland design. Handsomely-embroidered sereens dren's carriages, etc., and a Pullman-car in the were framed with wood elaborately carved. American department; a luxurious railwayThe ivory carvings were wonderfully delicate coach from Brazil; drags, coupés, barouches, and finished. The carved and inlaid furniture, broughams, etc., from England, of substantial particularly the former, was marvelous in its make and elegant finish; and some liandsome elaborateness and detail of ornament. Among sleighs from Canada. The French exbibit of the fine collection of bronzes were some of carriages in the Machinery Building was also great age and rarity. The model of a joss. fine. house was a conspicuous object. Among the The educational exhibits of several different products exhibited were cotton and hempen countries were very complete and instructive, fabrics, calico prints, shoes, hats, and clothing, and illustrated fairly the present stage of edufancy-leather articles, paper, musical instru- cation, particularly of primary education, in ments, woods, wine, grain, wax, cotton, wool, those lands where the most attention is paid and hair. To judge from their different dis- to it, and also gave a comparative view of plays one would say that, although the Chinese different systems. The American system of may be behind the Japanese somewhat in popular education was adequately exhibited artistic invention and the appreciation of form, by several of the States. The Belgian schools they are fully their equals in the understands have been a bone of contention between the ing of colors and in technical skill.
liberal and clerical parties in that country, and The Brazilian people and their Emperor took this rivalry has given an impetus to education. great pains to set off the products and re- The model of a juvenile school-house exhibited sources of that vast tropical empire to the best was exceedingly complete and commodious in advantage, and the presence of the latter at its appointments, containing a lavatory, gym. the Exhibition gave additional éclat to the dis- nasium, and a school-room with graduated play. The most noticeable of the contents of desks and seats, well lighted, and warmed by their showy Moresque colonnade, besides the the fresh-air system, by which the air is eneducational exhibit and the large collections tirely renewed every half-hour: the desks of minerals, entomology, and natural products, when opened in one way present a writingwere the Paraguayan tea or maté, an herb table; another turn discloses a slate affixed to which yields a decoction similar to tea, but the stand; and when turned another way a less injurious, which was described in a special lace cushion is exposed; when opened wide pamphlet; the artificial flowers made from they form a lunch-table. The teachers pro
In the upper
vide a luncheon for the poorer children. The atory in certain districts of Japan. Of the educational apparatus comprises the abacus, States, Pennsylvania and Massachusetts made the higher apparatus of the Froebel system, the fullest educational exhibits, while most of and pictures and specimens of every descrip- the other States exhibited the workings of tion which can convey instruction through their systems of public instruction. The Kinthe sight, stuffed animals, mechanical models, dergarten system was illustrated by two model specimens of raw materials and manufactured school-houses, in which instruction was improducts, exhibiting the methods of the silk, parted to classes of little children by two excotton, woolen, metal industries, etc. Hol- perienced lady teachers. land exhibited the work of the scholars of her technical and industrial schools. The Swedish model school-house was exhibited with much pride, and was a pattern public school. All their school-houses are constructed and furnished after the same model. It was of pinewood, solidly made and finely finished; the seats have comfortable backs; the lighting and ventilation are excellent. story is the lodging of the teacher. The school-room contains maps and pictures, representing the national industries and productions, globes, books of reference, zoological specimens, herbaria, and a musical instrument. In Sweden education is obligatory. In the afternoon the scholars are taught some trade or domestic occupation. Every parish con
WOMEN'S PAVILION. tains its regular school, except the less populous parishes, which are supplied with circuit The Women's Pavilion, 208 feet square, corteachers. The books and implements of study ering about an acre of ground, was designed are provided by the Government at a minimum to receive the products of female industry and price. When a scholar shows a special fitness ingenuity of every class. The American exfor any particular occupation, he is enabled to hibitors occupied three-fourths of the floorpursue his further studies at the expense of space. The other nations represented were the state. The Swiss with their genius for Great Britain, Ireland, Canada, and the coljuvenile instruction have devised a vast variety onies, France, Netherlands, Denmark, Sweof appliances and processes of teaching, which den, Norway, Italy, Germany, Spain and her were amply exhibited at the Exposition. Nor- colonies, Brazil, Mexico, Tunis, Japan, and way, Jamaica, and Cape Colony, exhibited their Egypt. This was the first collective display systems of primary instruction. The colony of women's work ever attempted, and much of Ontario presented its compulsory system, in of its incompleteness was due to its novelty: which the Catholic and Protestant schools are nor was it a complete collection of all feininine both sustained at public expense, and answer- products exhibited, as many of the best proable to the Bureau of Education. The Ha- ductions of female art and invention were inwaiian schools, the Art-School of Cairo, and cluded in the other collections. In the centre technical and primary schools in other parts of the building, grouped about a flower-borof the world, sent specimens of their pupils' dered fountain, was an abundant display of work. The Japanese Commission exhibited ornamental needle-work. The Royal School with great complacency the status and method of Needle-work, patronized by the Queen of of education introduced into Japan of late England, set up here, as well as in the Main years after European models. They have uni- Hall, a representation of their skill, which versities, intermediate and common schools; contrasted strongly in the mediæval manner in Tokio is a special advanced school for wom of the designs with the productions of Amerien, and also schools for the exclusive teaching can ladies in the same field. Two embroidered of foreign languages, in one of which French, flags worked by the ladies of New York hung English, German, Russian, and Chinese, are down from the rafters. Designs for woven taught, and in another the English language fabrics, made by ladies trained in the Massaalone. In their exhibited model school were a chusetts School of Technology, showed study gymnasium, a school library, the apparatus of and invention. Wood-work carved or inlaid Froebel adapted to their special requisitions, by ladies in the West bore graceful but simple maps, anatomical, zoological, and botanical spe- patterns. The Women's Medical College of cimens, etc. Their text-books are copied after Philadelphia presented a materia medica, very those of the best European schools; they fol- complete and accurate. A combination-desk, low English methods in science and German invented by Mrs. Stiles, has found great favor, methods in languages. They learn to use the and is a very ingenious and practical contrivabacus universally in calculations, and acquire ance for the economy of room, presenting, great skill in its employ. Education is oblig- when closed, the appearance of a cabinet, 6
feet wide and 18 inches deep, and, when cellent representation of modern English art. opened, taking up an horizontal space, 6 by 7 The American exhibition bore an equally hisfeet, and affording accommodations for half a torical character, containing good examples dozen persons. Mrs. Mountain's life-preserv- of all of our early painters. ing mattress has been adopted for general use There were in the American section portraits as a supplementary life-saving appliance by the and historical paintings by Gilbert Stuart, CopUnited States Supervising Inspectors of Steam- ley, Washington Allston, Rembrandt Peale, boats. Mrs. Coston's telegraphic night-signals, Waldo, Thomas Hicks, Wilson Peale the elder, an invention which originated with that lady's Colonel John Trumbull, Prof. Morse, Smibert, husband, but which was practically perfected and Stewart Newton; and, in the modern porby her after the death of Mr. Coston, have tion, paintings by Boughton, Colman, Gray, been introduced into the United States Navy, Suydam, Irving, Hubbard, Wood, Loop, La and have found great popular approval. The Farge, Hamilton, Edward and Thomas Moran, Women's Pavilion was enlivened by the spec- Eastman Johnson, De Haas, Cropsey, Whitttacle of ladies engaged in weaving, candy- redge, Gifford, Kensett, Charles N. Miller, making, and other manufacturing processes. Healey, Huntington, Rosenthal, Thomas Hill, The power was supplied by an engine managed Prof. Weir, Smilie, Bierstadt, Sonntag, Bridgeby a lady engineer, Miss Allison.
man, Charles Elliot, Harry Fenn, Winslow HoThe Art Building, which was called Memorial mer, Inman, Kendrick, Page, T. B. Thorpe, TifHall, was intended as a permanent monument fany, Jerome Thompson, and others of the bestand gallery of art. It occupies a commanding known artists. A large and striking painting
by Rothermel was only introduced after some opposition, on account of the subject, which was the battle of Gettysburg. Among the American statuary were pieces_by Story, Margaret Foley, P. F. Conelly, Preston Powers, Palmer, Rogers, and Haseltine.
In the English collections the most noteworthy works Gainsborough's portrait of the Duchess of Richmond, a small scene of country - life by Constable, Sir Joshua Reynolds's portrait by himself, two Wilkies, examples of Turner, Calde
ron, Maclise, C. R. Lessite on the Lansdowne Plateau, 116 feet above lie, Mulready, Stanfield, Calcott, Creswick, Benthe river. It was built after a noble design in jamin West, a painting by Fuseli, Sir James the modern Renaissance style, with a central Barry's “Temptation in Paradise," portraits tower rising 150 feet above the ground, sur by Sir Thomas Lawrence and Opie, five small mounted by a great bell, on which stands a Landseers, and Frith's two most famous procolossal statue of America, and at the four cor ductions; and among the more recent artists ners of whose base are four colossal figures of were represented Leighton, Alma Tadema, Milsmaller proportions representing the four quar- lais, Prinsep, Faed, Orchardson, George Leslie, ters of the globe. The building is 365 feet in Holman Hunt, Saut, Fildes, Cope, John Gilbert, length by 210 in width, and 59 in height. Its Louis Haghe, Knowles, Armitage, Croft, Northfoor is 12 feet above the ground, with broad cote, and Arthur Hughes. The only statues of stone stairways leading to it. The material is note in the English department were Gibgranite, with glass and iron. Connected with son's" Venus" and Chantrey's portrait of Benthe central portion by arcades at each end are jamin West. two pavilions parallel with it, with abutting, The French department contained hardly tower-like extremities.
a single painting of value, and not a name The art exhibition consisted for the greater of the first eminence. “Rizpah protecting part of works of inferior merit. This was her Sons from the Vultures," by George Becknotably the case with the French, German, er, was the most striking picture; other paintand Belgian exhibits. The English section, on ings which showed some imagination and the contrary, was a carefully-selected and ex- technical handling were Prion's "School for
VOL. XVI.-18 A
Young Satyrs," a figure-piece by Sain, Cle- and ointment-boxes, combs, scrapers, etc., all ment's “Death of Caesar," and several paint- elaborately ornamented, like the caskets. The ings from the nude. Some fine Gobelin tapes- Etruscan jewelry included ornaments in cutry and Sèvres porcelain were exhibited here. pulated and uncupulated gold, bronze, silver,
The German exhibit was still more barren amber, glass, and precious stones. Some of and insignificant than the French. The best them belong to the earliest and rudest period pictures were an historical piece by Schrader of Tyrrhenian art, while many of them are inand one by Folingsby of Munich, portraits by comparably fine in their artistic taste and deliRichter and Begas, a sea-piece by Achenbach, cacy of tinish. The engraved gems comprised genre paintings by Boser and Meyer von Bre- 270 specimens illustrating the entire history men, and a landscape by Wilberg.
of ancient glyptic art, and including some of Austria, however, sent specimens of her best the most famous examples extant. The rings art-productions, including one of the master numbered 350 articles, many of them of rare pieces of Makart, her most famous painter, types, while the collection in its completeness * Catarina Cornaro receiving the Homage of possesses great historical worth. Venice," a work of surpassing power and The art-collection embraced interesting prodbeauty; some good landscapes by Russ, Thoren, ucts of the engraver's art, decorative work in Lichtenfels, and Schaeffer; a piece of flesh- all kinds of material, good collections of waterpainting by Felix, and other paintings strong colors, particularly in the English and Ameriin color and conscientiously executed. can departments, architects' designs, and orna
Spain sent one or two old masters and a mental devices for all purposes, and every vagood number of fairly-done modern paintings, riety of art-workmanship. showing the characteristics of the Spanish In a photographic annex many of the best school in color and treatment.
photographers combined to make up a large Sweden also exhibited some fair work, strong- and tine exhibition. Several new processes ly tinctured with the German manner.
and styles of finish were shown. Norway sent soine coast-scenes of moderate Next in size to the Main Building was the merit.
Machinery Hall, 1,402 feet long by 360 wide, The Netherlands made a considerable dis- covering with its annex, 208 by 210 feet, an play of paintings, many of them carefully area of 12.82 acres, with about 14 acres of exexecuted, but none of them marked with any hibition-space. It was constructed of wood decided qualities.
with iron ties and struts in the roof trusses, Belgium, besides a tery unsatisfactory dis- upon piers of solid masonry. The architectplay of mediocre paintings, exhibited some ural effect was plain, but it was an excellent good art-work on brass and faience, and some structure for the purpose intended. Steam fine statuary.
and water power and shafting were provided Italy exhibited a number of insignificant by the Commission. Next the building was an paintings, and a large collection of marbles by annex intended for hydraulic machinery, conher best artists, mostly genre subjects, handled taining a water-tank with 10 feet of water, 60 with spirit and great technical knowledge in feet broad and 160 long. The double-acting many cases, and in a manner unfamiliar in this duplex vertical engine which furnished the country, which is more accustomed to the power for driving the machinery in Machinery earlier classical school.
Hall was erected and exhibited by George H. The Italian section contained also the note- Corliss, of Providence. The cylinders were 44 worthy collection of antiquities made by Ales- inches in diameter and 10 feet stroke, and it sandro Castellani, of Rome. This important was rated at 1,400-horse power. The gearcollection consists of marble statuary of Greek wheel, 30 feet in diameter, 24 inches face, and and Roman workmanship, artistic bronze uten- weighing 56 tons, making 36 revolutions per sils of Etruscan production, a large collection minute, had 216 teeth cut by special machinery of ancient jewelry, many wonderfully tine en- also exhibited by Mr. Corliss. The crank-shaft graved gems, a collection of rings dating from was made of hammered iron. The cranks the earliest Tuscan period to the end of the weighed over 5 tons each. The beams were 9 sixteenth century, and one of the finest collec- feet wide in the centre, 27 feet long, and tions of early majolica ever got together. The weighed each 11 tons. The connecting-rods statues were seventeen portraits and busts were made of worn-out horseshoes, the best from the imperial epoch, a colossal Dionysius material. The piston-rods were of steel. The or Indian Bacchus, being a repetition of the weight of the entire machine was about 700 piece in the Vatican called the “Sardanapalus,” tons. à comic mask of Hercules, a mask of Bacchus, In Machinery Hall a conspicuous exhibit was and an exceedingly realistic treatment of the the sewing-machines, all the American houses subject of the boy with a thorn, the position taking part, together with French, English, being the same as that of the Spinario in Canadian, German, Russian, and Belgian makFlorence. The collection of bronzes included The chief novelties were: a universal twelve of the caskets found in the ruins of feed-apparatus for embroidering, from France, Præneste, one of them containing all its fit- by which the cloth can be turned in any directings of mirrors and mirror - cases, oil-flasks tion without touching it; an automatic em
broiderer, of American device, for about a six-roller stop-cylinder, roller-drum, and perdozen special patterns; a machine with two fecting presses exhibited by Cottrell & Babneedles, capable of sewing or embroidering cock, of New York, with C. E. Johnson's autowith different colored threads at the same matic paper-feeder ; and the various kinds of time; and the machines which sew from spools amateur hand-presses. A curiosity in this disdirectly, without requiring the thread to be play, which was much larger than that at reeled off. Ingenious knitting-machines were Vienna, was the original press used by Benjaalso exhibited. There was likewise a curious min Franklin. M. Alisoff, a Russian inventor, machine for engraving patterns for lace and exhibited an admirable type-writer, which ex
cels all other contrivances of its kind, in the variety of characters that can be used and in the neatness of the impression, and the mechanical adjustment, but does not admit of the rapidity of the American machines exhibited. The same inventor exhibited a rapid and ready process for photo-lithographing music. The process of setting up music-types was shown in the American department. A variety of American machines for paper - cutting, book-binding, copperplate printing, lithographic printing, electrotyping and
stereotyping, and type - founding, was embroidery. In the Singer exhibit, which was shown. Howell & Brothers, of Philadelphia, contained in a separate building, the wax exhibited a large machine for stamping paperthread lock-stitch, button-hole, and book-bind- hangings. Other manufacturing processes ilers' machines, and one capable of making 30,000 lustrated were those of cracker and candy different kinds of stitches, were among the nov- making by machinery; of envelope-making elties shown. Among the interesting manu- by an automatic machine, which cuts, folds, facturing processes was that of paper-making, and counts the envelopes at the rate of 120 the operation by the mechanical method being per minute; of envelope - printing, of glass shown in all its successive stages. The process cutting and engraving, of making paper collars of making rubber shoes was also exhibited. and of drying the stock by machinery, of brickMost interesting too was the exhibition of making by a machine which turns out ready for wateh - making by the Waltham Company. baking 40,000 per diem, of paper-box making Numerous weaving processes were exhibited; by machinery, of cork-cutting, of cutting tacks several power-looms were kept at work weav with the Weaver machines, which make 400 ing carpets, ingrain and Brussels; the opera- tacks per minute, and can produce 2,500 differtions of cloth, cotton, and silk mills were also ent sorts; of nail-cutting by an entirely autoillustrated by several different exhibitors; and matic machine, etc. A gang of Virginian nea Jacquard loom, a corset-weaving loom, a groes showed the old-fashioned process of workjute loom, a Murkland carpet-loom, a suspend- ing up tobacco for the market. There were er-weaving loom, and the Lyall positive-motion butchers', bakers', and millers' machines; coffee loom, were seen in operation. Other mech- and spice grinding machines; French burr-millanisms used in texile industries were: the stones and meat-cleaning machines; washing, powerful and huge direct-acting steam and wringing, and mangling machines for hand and hydraulic cotton-press from the Taylor works steam power; a ditching and draining machine of Charleston, which works without pumps, for horse or steam power, exhibited by Ranand has but a single valve; apparatus for mak- dolph Brothers, of New Jersey, by which a pair ing and winding spool-cotton, exhibited by the of horses can be made to do the work of forty Willimantic and Hopedale Companies; the ma men; machines for charging soda-fountains; a chines for winding machine twist and spool- planing machine exhibited by W. Sellers & Co., silk and labeling spools; a variety of wool- of Philadelphia, of 81 tons' weight; a novel saw carding machines; the Garnett machine, which for cutting stone, with teeth formed of pieces works over the waste of woolen-mills; ma of coal, sent from Pittsburg; an arrangement cbines for drying dyed goods; the silk-thread for separating particles of iron-ore occurring spinning-machines from Paterson, N. J., and in gravel-banks; two kinds of machines for other interesting processes. A New Haven cutting through several folds of cloth for clothcompany showed a machine for putting pins ing-manufactories; a great variety of machininto the papers. The exhibition of printing- ists' tools, of saws, grindstones, files, nuts, machinery was an important and interesting bolts, screws, metal presses, and dies; pianogroup, embracing the great Bullock presses making machinery exhibited by the Steinways; which printed off the New York Herald and a varied display of scales and balances; machine Sun in the building at the rate of 20,000 im- for bending heavy beams for ships' keels, sent pressions per hour; the improved Hoe press, by J. W. Griffiths, of New York; fax-seed chaswhich was working on illustrated work; thé ing-mills; coal-breaking machines; and a col