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The display of porcelain and pottery was ex- houses were not represented. Not a single pretensive. The iron-masters of the country made cious stone or piece of jewelry of value was sent. a good representative display. The watch-com- Artchison, of Edinburgh, made a large display panies exhibited their watches, and all the of Cairngorm stones, Scotch pebbles, among principal gun, scale, safe, scientific instrument, them the largest one ever found, and funcy arclock," telegraphic instrument, railroad-car, ticles. A new description of cutlery, in which glassware, furniture, piano-forte, organ, paint, the silver plating is made to penetrate the subchemical, paper, book, and stationery manu- stance of the steel, was exhibited, with a confacturing houses, and all the largest industrial- siderable variety of jewelry, by John Neal. ists in every branch did credit to themselves and The most interesting portion of the British to their country. The gas-fixtures were spe- section was the very fully represented class of cially admired; and the displays of silver-ware artistic manufactures, pottery, furniture, and and jewelry and precious stones by the leading domiciliary ornamentation, illustrating the exNew York and Philadelphia jewelers were the traordinary revival of art-feeling and good largest and in some respects the finest collec- taste which has been going on in England for tions of the kind in the fair.
many years. The English exhibition of ceThe British exhibition was the strongest in ramics, ornamental metal-work, and furniture, textile fabrics, embracing a great variety of probably engrossed the attention of the visitors dress-goods, of woolens, the broadcloths, che- more than any other separate collections in the viots, kerseymeres, and all the well-known Exposition. Doulton, of Lambeth, sent a vast materials for men's apparel; of poplins and variety of his famous earthenware and terralinens, lawns and laces, from Ireland; of cur- cotta fabrics. The Lambeth faience presented tain brocades, from Morris & Co., of London, all the rich soft hues of blue, green, brown, and and made-up ladies' garments from Hitchcock buff, which are peculiar to it, and all the quaint & Co., which were behind the French display in and graceful forrus, and the brilliant glaze, by the same line in taste, rather than in richness of which it is also distinguished. Many of the material. There was a very extensive display objects were covered with raised and painted of Axminster carpets, imported Indian carpets, devices, human and animal figures, flowers, oil-cloths, etc., which contrasted favorably fruits, leaves, and conventional ornaments, of with the still larger but cheap and badly-de- artistic conception, and spiritedly treated. In signed collection of American floor-coverings. terra-cotta, there were a pulpit and font, manThe display of chemical products represented tels, etc.; of the use of encaustic tiles in fireeighty-five houses, and contained crystallized place decoration, there was a striking exhibit; masses of caffeine, aloin, codetac sulphas, two tiled hearths had fenders of the same machlorate and bichromate of potassium, the es- terial, and were covered with clocks, vases, kence of egg, a novelty, a new indelible ink, plaques, etc., one of Doulton ware, the other soda, soaps, paints, inks, etc. The metallur- of Lambeth faience. One set of chimney-tiles gists and iron and steel workers of England represented scenes from Shakespeare. A series inade a very slender exhibit of her principal of plaques, painted by George T'inworth, conindustry; there were only nineteen exhibits, tained child-scenes of the Bible. The two the chief of which were models of Dr. Sie- Mintons and Maw & Co. had not less profuse mens's regenerating furnaces for iron and displays of painted tiling; conspicuous among glass, wire ropes, and a single exhibit of ores, the designs, wbich often covered a number of pigs, rails, and steel. The gunsmiths' exhibit blocks combined, were a water-view with was fine, seventeen exhibitors taking part; cranes and lily-buds, a large domestic scene, and there was a good display of the only two allegorical and grotesque figures, falcons, and of the Sheffield cutlers who thought it worth a series of genuine canine portraits. Many of while to exhibit. In literary manufacture, the figures were colored, some in outline, on Bradbury, Agnew & Co. had a good exhibit; grounds of all colors, but oftenest white, drab, Dickman & Higham showed a hexaglot Bible; or buff'; there were hand-painted, printed, enand the Illustrated London News and London
and majolica, glazed and unglazed tiles, Graphic made showy displays, the latter paper and ceramic tesseræ for coarse mosaic, in having a pavilion hung around with the origi- which work there was a copy of an ancient nal drawings of hundreds of its best engrav- fresco, and other examples. Daniel & Son exings, and a private office for the use of its hibited a good collection of finer porcelain, inartists and correspondents. There was a fine cluding a splendid Prometheus vase, and imitashow of scientific and philosophical instru- tions of antique vases decorated in pâte sur ments by the best English makers. The first páte, by L. Solon; also copies of Henry II. London and Liverpool watchmakers combined, ware, and of Limoges enamel, panels representto the number of fourteen, in a fine display; ing Shakespeare's seven ages, by H. S. Marks, M. F. Dent exhibited different systems of com- and a gorgeous display of table-ware richly pensating balances. Other articles exhibited decorated with Oriental and floral patterns, etc. were Aberdeen and Beesbrook granite, roof- The exhibition of the cabinet-makers was varied tiles, Portland cement-blocks, fire-brick retorts, and fine; specimens of fully-furnished apartchalk, whiting, emery, etc. British jewelers ments were shown in many exhibits; the Eastmade a very scanty show. The largest London lake style was prominent. Other styles exhibited were the Queen Anne, Jacobean, and materials for ladies' wear, and of dress-ornaAnglo-Indian. The materials were mahogany, ments and finished garments. The richest oak, satin-wood, ebonized wood, etc., heavily point-lace shawls and trimmings, beautiful carved, or lightly constructed, of uniform or embroideries, satin dresses richly trimmed, combined woods, inlaid or trimmed with wood, dresses with Oriental patterns combined in porcelain, or metal. It was the most solid and beautiful color - effects, daintily - embroidered tasteful exhibition of furniture in the Fair. A satin shoes, fans, ribbons, artificial flowers, great centre of attraction in the British section silk stockings with lace insertions, rich browas the regal display of silversmith's work, cades and heavy velvets, and all the sumptuous and electroplating, made by the famous house products of the Lyonnaise silk-industry, were of the Elkingtons. The Milton shield and grouped and combined, with such a masterly magnificent vase exhibited at Vienna, a row of understanding of effects of color and symelaborate dessert-sets, and a hundred other metry, that their beauties were enhanced by pieces, showed what wonderful work they can the arrangement. Forty Lyons silk-manuiurn out in repoussé, metallic inlaying, and en- facturers made a joint display, filling a large amel, and exhibited an immense wealth of court with their exhibits. One house exhibartistic ideas.
ited fifty varieties of silk-cocoons. The French The Australian colonies made a large and bronze-founders_made the finest show of ambitious display, revealing a vigorous and bronzes in the Exhibition, though few new solid development, fine public buildings, and works were shown in the Main Hall, and sevgreat works of engineering, a fine system of eral of the most celebrated dealers were not education, and the establishment of all the represented. Among the finest pieces were chief manufacturing industries on a firm basis. Grégoire's “Rape of Hersilia," exhibited by The immense production of the precious metals Susse, and Pradier's “Atalanta" and "Sappho, was exhibited, and the excellent grain and fine Jules Moignier's “ Pointer and Pheasant” and wool produced in most of the colonies. The the Comte de Nieuwekerke's “Duke of Clarindustrial exhibit showed that the colonists can ence in Combat with a French Knight" in supply themselves with nearly all the comforts brass and nickel, exhibited by the same house, of English life. The woolens exhibited were which also had fine salvers and clock-cases of of admirable material and texture. Cocoons beaten brass, and handsome objects ornaand skein-silk showed that the silk-worm has mented with Mexican onyx. Still finer was been naturalized here. Excellent manufactures the Marchand exhibit, embracing Bourgeoise's of leather were exhibited. Wine exhibits of “Snake-Charmer,” and his “Kabylean Washover a hundred kinds showed that all the best erwoman," Schönewerk's “ Boy and Tortoise,” varieties of the European grape will grow in and two figures of Egyptian dancers, besides a that friendly climate. of interest were the large mantel of black marble, elaborately orcollections of stuffed birds, minerals, orna- namented with verd-antique and figures in ments made from the great eggs of the emu, gilt bronze, and a circular settee, with a bronze weapons and tools of the natives, and the candelabrum in the centre, surmounting a photographs of towns and scenery.
fountain in red antique marble, and having a The Indian exhibit included the grains, cot- silver-gilt frame and green satin upholstery. ton, and natural productions of the great Kaffel, of Paris, had a large variety of fancy British dependency; its dyes, and silk, in the bronzes. A great variety of fancy articles of all cocoon, threads, and in the finished textures, kinds, materials, and uses, came from France. some of which were of rich patterns, and The largest Paris jewelers contributed no more some splendidly embroidered; also, a few fine than the great jewelers of Regent Street; yet Indian carpets, a curious collection of jewelry there were exquisite specimens of enamel and from Bombay, some furniture elaborately other curious ornamental work sent hy makers carved, elegant fans inlaid with jewels and who are alone in their specialties. Of French ivory, gold and silver cloth, native pottery and furniture there was a slender collection, though metal-work, and a collection of antiquities. three or four gorgeous articles were sent. Of
Canada made a very large and comprehen- 'porcelain there was a much weaker exhibit sive exbibit. Among the prominent classes of than in the English and German sections. products shown were cotton and woolen cloths, The Sèvres factory was not represented, exhosiery, leather goods, chemicals, sewing-ma- cept by a couple of splendid vases and one or chines, hardware, earthenware, marbles, and two other articles in the Art Hall, and a few made-up garments. The models of ships, and plaques in the collection of the bronzeur specimens of ores, petroleuin, plumbago, and Kaffel. A large variety of Palissy ware was .building-stones, were also exhibited. The dis- brought by Barbizet, the grandson of the Barplay of furs was prominent and fine.
bizet who rediscovered the process of Palissy Each of the other colonies of the British about fifty years ago. Montagnon, of Nevers, Empire sent a contribution of its products and exhibited fine copies of the Nevers faience of peculiar native industries, all of them curious, the seventeenth century. Faience de Gien, attractive groups of good industrial promise. table-sets, etc., consisted of imitations of an
The prominent feature of the French exhi- cient French and majolica faience. The Libition was the very extensive display of textile moges makers exhibited porcelain, decorated
with Oriental designs, and other fine speci- Aurora, one representing Otho in the tomb of
Charlemagne, after Kaulbach, a table-top, with The Netherlands exhibition was well selected a copy of Raphael's Poetry, and a vase with a and representative, having been organized by finely-rendered design of Klöber's, among a the Government. The educational, agricult- great number of other finely-painted and richural, and industrial methods of the kingdom ly-decorated pieces, in which the grounds and were well illustrated. There were a great flat colors were wonderfully even and brilliant. number of charts and drawings, illustrating A collection of gray and blue stone-ware winethe system of public works in Holland, and jugs and beer-mugs in the old German style the plans for draining the Zuyder Zee. There was interesting. were plans also of Dutch dwellings and public In the Austro-Hungarian exhibition the buildings, model working-men's homes, school- most noticeable group was the brilliant colhouses, etc. The book and music publishers lection of Bohemian glass. The finest specimade a good exhibit. In the small exhibition mens were in pure white glass, with flowers, of manufactures, woolens for male ware, fine leaves, arabesques, etc., ground into their surblankets, excellent imitations of Turkish car- face with the emery-wheel. There were also pets, handsome oil-cloths, clay-pipes, belting, fine examples of ruby and emerald ware, with and handsome tiles, after the old Delft manner, gilded ornaments, and cheaper samples of darkwere noticeable; and also some fine lacquered green glass in the ancient Vienna style. The work, particularly a screen, with illustrations Bohemian porcelain also is of very fine textfrom Goethe and Schiller. The colonial dis- ure, and the exhibited samples were tastefully play was fine, including the cereals, spices, decorated; and in the Hungarian exhibit of and woods of the Dutch East Indies, and the china-ware there were some fine imitations of weapons, embroideries, filigree, and rich webs Chinese and early European styles from the made by the natives.
town of Herend. From Innspruck were sent The Belgians made a good exhibition of their some fine stained-glass windows. The display excellent manufactures. Of special note were of meerschaum carving from Vienna was very the laces of Mechlin and Brussels, the cloths large and fine. Other exhibits were Russia of Verviers, the tapestries of Malines, the linens, leather from Vienna, the garnet jewelry of paper materials, fine glass, and wood-carvings, Prague, Hungarian fire-opals, Viennese silks notably an elaborate wooden pulpit, various and shawls, delicate laces from the Erzgebirge, fancy articles, and a large display of fire-arms. bent-wood and hollow-iron furniture from
The German exhibition was strong in cheap Vienna, woolens and cottons, ready-made and substantial textiles and articles of general clothing, buttons, chemicals, perfumes, musical utility, besides containing the best book ex- instruments, mirrors, with paintings on their hibit and the best display of fine porcelain in faces, and a fine collection of photographıs. the Fair. The Saxon and other cloth-makers In the Swiss section all the principal exports filled large booths with their cloths for male of the republic were shown. Forty-five watchwear, more durable than fine, their calicoes makers exhibited every imaginable variety of and mixed goods, velveteens; and scattered watches and chronometers, some of them so among these were some rich velvets and beau- minute as to be inserted in a finger-ring or the tifully-figured textures. Several piano-makers top of a pencil-holder. There were good exexhibited excellent instruments. The peasant hibits of scientific instruments, electrical clocks, clock-makers of the Black Forest, and their and music-boxes. Prominent exhibits also rivals in Freiburg, the toy-makers of Nurem- were the handsome laces and embroideries of berg and Magdeburg, the looking-glass man- Appenzell and St. Gallen, the carved-wood ufacturers, the pencil-makers (Faber and his trinkets from the Bernese Oberland, and the principal competitor), the manufacturers of public exhibits of education and engineering, cheap jewelry, the cutlers, and the dealers in including some masterpieces of chartography. common bronzes, all set up displays more or Other Swiss specialties were the silk boltingless extensive. Of the fine bronzes of Berlin cloths, braids for ladies' hats, red-cotton cloth none were sent. Of chemical products there for the Eastern trade, condensed milk, chocowas a considerable variety, including dyes, late, dyes, and liquors. gelatine, medicinal barks, essential oils, bronze The Swedish exhibition was one of the powders, soap, cologne-water, etc. One case largest in the Fair, and was to most people an contained all the varieties of amber found in unexpected revelation of the state of arts and the Baltic. A collection of surgical instruments manufactures in that country. The iron erand appliances included models of hospital hibit, embracing samples of pig-metal, rails, wards and a hospital train, and photographic railroad axles, nails, spikes, bars, and pipes. illustrations of operations, and all kinds of in- and ingots of iron and steel, and maps of the struments. The cheap gold and the imitation mining-regions, and drawings of furnaces and jewelry were very fine of their kind, and for machinery, was the largest one in the Fair. the most part tastefully designed. Conspicuous The exhibit of furs was fine. There was also in the magnificent display of the Royal Porce- a very attractive display of porcelain, showing lain Manufactory of Berlin were the Borussia rare and beautiful colors and rich ornamentavase, a vase containing a copy of Guido's tion: the Parian ware, with delicately-moulded vines and flowers, table-sets with black ground degrees of heat. There were some samples of and vines and arabesques in white, large vases gold and silver cloth, mixed with silks, or with paintings of flowers, a pair of vases with richly embroidered in colors, of dazzling splena ground of red and a dull metallic color, and dor. A collection of garments and table-covpictures from an ancient Saga, some reproduc- erings from Circassia, embroidered in silk, tions of Palissy ware, and a massive stove, and silver, and gold, was curious and pleasing. The a pair of candelabra, with a beautiful blue Russian display of furs, cured skins, and madeground of delicate shade, richly ornamented up garments, was the finest of the Exhibition. with white, gold, and dark blue, were promi- The exhibit of gutta-percha goods revealed a pent in this rare and fine collection. The ex- flourishing condition of that new industry. hibit of common industrial products, woolen The collection of minerals and fossils sent by cloths of the very finest, plain silks and cot- the Pedagogic Museum of St. Petersburg was ton goods, cutlery, kitchen-utensils of polished highly interesting. The exhibits of pianos, brass, hardware, and carpentry, all showed an scientific apparatus, amber, velvet cloaks, with advanced stage of industrial art, and solid, con- linings of the white fur of the Thibet goat, scientious workmanship. The peasant-figures or trimmings of sable-fur, chemicals, fans, ummodeled by Prof. Lödermann, and costumed brellas, and various other articles, spoke well in the genuine dress of the people, grouped for the industrial condition of Russia. to represent familiar scenes of popular life, The Italian section, though not very large, illustrated vividly the intimate liabits of the contained a tolerably good representation of Swedish folk. The inilitary exhibit was large, the ornamental industries and manners of art and showed an advanced condition of the mili- treatment for which she is distinguished. The tary art.
ancient Italian art of wood-carving was repreIn the Norwegian court the most attractive sented by a great number of elaborate speciexhibit was the beautiful silver filigree-work mens from half a dozen different cities, in which from Christiania. Other interesting groups the ornaments ranged from bold realistic figwere the textiles, metals, and various special ures to delicate floral designs in low-relief and manufactures. There was a series of costumed conventional Renaissance patterns. Articles figures of the inhabitants, and a collection of exhibited were immense mantels and bedGothic antiquities, arms, and utensils, of great steads, and tables, cabinets, and chests of all interest.
sizes. Inlaying with wood, the art for which The Dancs exhibited the furs, skins, woolen- Siena is distinguished, in floral and arabesque manufactures, etc., of their country, some patterns, was exhibited; and also wood inlaid Esquimaux curiosities, and two exceedingly with malachite, lapis-lazuli
, onys, etc., The attractive groups, terra-cottas, in Etruscan display of Venetian glass was not brilliant, style, and artistic silver-work from Copen- nor was that of miniature mosaic, called hagen, including a silver vase, which was one Roman mosaic; of Florentine mosaic there of the gems of the Exposition.
was a fair exhibit in jewelry and table-tops, The Russian section was organized and sup- and some fine pieces were placed in the art exported by the Government, and, as a national hibition. There were some admirable reprodisplay, was the most striking one in the ductions of majolica pottery, and numerous whole Exbibition. The fruits of the new na- copies of antique bronzes, armor, hammered tional school of arts, which cultivates the early metal-work, etc. Of Genoese filigree there Muscovite styles, were the most prominent was a fair representation. There was a good feature of this exhibition. The Strozonoff exhibit of the coral ornaments of Naples. The School of Technical Design in Moscow ex- jewelers of Turin and Rome made a brilliant hibited an interesting collection of casts and display of gold and precious stones, one of the drawings which are given its scholars to study. richest and most artistic in the whole ExhiTwo Moscow silversmiths exhibited some of bition. The finest part of this exhibit was the finest specimens of repoussé work and the show of tiaras and necklaces of Signor enamel, both ancient Russian arts, in the Castellani, of Rome, brother of the archæolwhole Fair. Their display embraced silver ogist whose splendid collection of antiques beakers, with historical and national designs, was exhibited in the Art Building; the manartistic bronze casts of Russian peasants and ner of the Etruscan jewelry was admirably soldiers, a silver plaque, with a copy of the reproduced, and even improved. Of the silks Last Supper of Leonardo, and several pieces of Turin and the velvets of Genoa the display of table-furniture of gilded silver, with the Rus- was almost nothing. In the more utilitarian sian napkin in white silver draped over them industries Italy made a very small, but in with wonderfully deceptive effect. There was some branches not discreditable, exhibition. a large exhibit of malachite, jasper, lapis- The Portuguese exhibition was a full one, lazuli, rhodonite, nephrite, etc., from the Ural and of considerable interest. There were some Mountains, made, combined with metals, into beautiful filigree-work, and examples of most ornamental pieces of furniture, and also worked delicate wood-carving; also specimens of fine up into smaller ornaments. A unique style of silver-work, and tasteful porcelain. And in jewelry was in the form of flowers, with petals the whole range of useful manufactures there of gold of different shades, colored by different was a creditable display. A kind of coarse
pottery of strange forms and ornaments, and tainly none represented more manual labor some little terra-cotta figures of country-folk, and skill and artistic invention. The promiwere curious features. There was a good ex- nent specialties in this exhibition were the hibit of printing materials from the Royal bronzes, the porcelain, the lacquered-ware, Typographic Establishment, and a large collec- and the pictorial screens; yet every other intion of minerals.
dustry exhibited is peculiarly Japanese, either The Spanish exhibition was one of engross- in its mechanical method or in the artistic ing interest, as revealing styles of ornamen- treatment which this æsthetic people bestow tation and workmanship strikingly different upon every product of their skill. The rare from those of the countries whose work is and costly ancient bronzes and porcelain vases better known to us. The tapestries, brocades, were fewer than at the Vienna Exposition; laces, velvets, shawls, scarfs, cotton and woolen yet the collection of vases was a large one of dress-goods, the glassware, pottery, and por- entrancing richness and variety, and the incelain tiles, all showed forms, colors, and finity of decorative devices would furnish devices, in a tine but unfamiliar taste. The study for a longer time than the whole period metal-work, silver and gold and iron inlaid of the Exhibition. Some of the Japanese with gold, the copies of ancient armor and bronzes are cast entire in the moulds; and in utensils, ornamented in the Moorish manner, others the ornaments are worked out with were beautiful beyond compare. The exhibit chisels and polishing-instruments. A large represented all the industrial activity and pro- number of them were inlaid with metals, ductivity of the country.
which is done in two manners: by incising The Turkish exhibition was varied and fine, the design and filling up the hollow with the including, notably, gorgeous embroidery, fine metallic inlay, or by filing, and then beating the linen and woolen fabrics, curious pottery and gold or silver into the roughened surface. A pipes, attar of roses, Oriental floor-cloths, and peculiar style of work called mokin-me is prointeresting ancient armor.
duced by soldering plates of several different In the Egyptian court the chief groups were metals together, chiefly gold, silver, copper, the magnificent embroideries, the goldsmiths' and a dark-blue amalgain, and then hamwork and brazen salvers, engraved with beau- mering, rolling, and working over the mass, tiful arabesques, fine inlaid cabinet-work, and and finally beating it out into a sheet, thus the displays of silk and cotton, and some fine producing a beautiful variegated surface of examples of ancient Saracenic art. There damascened appearance. The grotesque plays were magnificent caparisons, with velvet hang- the chief part in Japanese decoration. Ona ings, embroidered with gold-thread and mount- great number of the vases was seen the Japed with gold. The furniture was, much of it, anese dragon, and among the ornaments were of ebony, inlaid with ivory and mother-of- grotesque figures of birds, beasts, and human pearl. Many articles of daily use were orna- beings, and also many wondrously naturalistic mented with precious stones and metals. The representations of animal life. Some of the silken and embroidered stuff's were gorgeous artists reveled in ludicrous caricatures of popubeyond description. Table-ware of solid gold, lar and official manners. On many of them with beautiful engraved or open-work ara- gold or silver bronze was combined, somebesques, and a good display of porcelain, were times in raised figures worked out in highalso noticeable. The rugs and carpets were relief, and sometimes inlaid in delicate tracealso fine. The varieties of silk-cocoons and of ries, with the darker metal, which in the finest cottons were prominent exhibits, and the other examples was of a deep steel color. On the products of the soil were well represented. Japanese porcelain was lavished a wealth of
The Bey of Tunis displayed a collection of ornamentation not less prodigal. Noteworthy arms, beautifully engraved, inlaid, and jeweled, were the examples of Kaga ware, with scarlet jewelry and silversmiths' work, and rich gold- or green ground and gold ornamentation of thread embroideries, and decorated trappings. exceeding brilliancy; the white Yokohama
The Orange Free State in South Africa, with ware, delicately ornamented in gold and colenterprising spirit, sent a selection of its prod- ors; the Banko ware, with colors running ucts, comprising wool, fine wheat and corn, the through the material; the large pair of vases singular grain called Katfre corn, coal, dried with raised dragons in gold and finely-painted fruit, hides of the springbok and jackal-skins, landscapes on a blue-and-white ground, and a whips of rhinoceros-hide, the curious cream- collection of grotesque figures satirizing Japaof-tartar plant, ivory, diamonds, and stuffed nese manners sent from Tokio. In lacquerbirds.
work a wide range of articles was exhibited. The Hawaiian kingdom was represented by The ancient pieces are the best in color and sugar, coffee, corals, and shells, handsomely workmanship, of which class a wonderfnl marked woods, strange textile fibres, stuffed cabinet, three hundred and fifty years old, birds, and the contribution of the Queen, was the finest specimen. The art of lacquerfans, feather-work, and curious articles of na- ing is generally practised throughout the emtive use.
pire, but in the greatest perfection in Tokio Probably no national exhibit was so much and Kiyoto. The slightly-raised figures in visited and wondered at as the Japanese; cer- lacquer-ware are either carved in the founda