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recovering the Classes alienated from the tions may issue in greater peace and strength and Church" (Canon Murray, for Canon Ryle, J. energy to the whole Church of Christ. Anxiously G. Talbot, M. P., Lord Forbes, the Rev.' T. awaiting your answer, 1 remain your faithful brother
and servant in Christ,
A, C. CANTUAR. Hugo, Dean Fremantle, the Rev. J. F. Kitto, Earl Nelson, Mr. Paterson, of Bradford); "Aids
The General Synod of the Irish Church met to Spiritual Life” (Prebendary Clark, Canon in Dublin, April 20th. The Rev. Lord PlunBell, the Hon. Charles Wood, and others); ket offered a motion directing that an alter“ The Due Relations of Church and State native form of the service for the ministration (the Earl of Devon; the Rev. J. Bardsley, on of baptism to infants, shorter than that now the special topic of "The Court of Final Ap- in use, be added to the present baptismal peal; ” Dr. Phillimore, “The Supremacy of the formularies. The motion was supported by Sovereign over the Church; " Arthur Mills, nearly all the laity, but failed to receive the M.P.; the Rev. Bradmore Compton, and others). requisite majority among the clergy. The folPapers were also read on “Church-Bells" (in lowing declaration on the subject of baptism which competitions for prizes and ringings on was inserted in the new preface to the Prayer secular occasions were deprecated), the “Pe. Book : riodical and Daily Press of the Country” (in which ideal journals were delineated by which made no substantial change, though some have de
In the formularies relating to baptism, we have the Church was to attract all readers toward sired to alter or oniit certain expressions touching herself), and "Ministrations to the Sick.” Res- which diversities of opinion have prevailed among olutions were adopted declaring " that the faithful members of our Church. At the same time, promotion of the reunion of their. Noncon- ing these formularies hitherto allowed by the genformist brethren with the Church is a duty eral practice of the Church, affirmed on occasion, by binding on all faithful churchmen,” and com- judicial interpretation of law. And as concerning mending to hearty sympathy and active sup- those points whereupon sucha liberty has been alport the “ Home Reunion Society," an organi- lowed, we hereby further declare that no minister
of this Church is required to hold or teach any doczation having for its object the promotion of
trine which has not been clearly determined by the unity without compromise of the faith or con Articles of Religion. stitution of the Church.
The Archbishop of Canterbury in September, The rubric which required the reading of 1876, sent the following letter to the Colonial the Athanasian Creed on certain occasions was Bishops, in relation to the calling of a Pan- removed, but, in connection with this act, a Anglican Synod, to meet in 1878:
declaration was passed, that in removing the
rubric the Church did not withdraw its witness Right REVEREND BROTHER: A wish has been ex to the truth of the articles of the Christian pressed by many bishops of the Protestant Episco- Faith contained in the creed. pal Church in the United States of America, by the bishops of the Canadian Dominion, and by the West
The annual meeting of the Church MissionIndian bishops, that a second Conference of our ary Society was held in London, May 2d. The brethren should be held at Lambeth. Before I de- Earl of Chichester presided. The ordinary incide upon the important step of inviting the bishops come of the society for the year, from asof our communion throughout the world to assemble at Lambeth, I have thought it right, after consulta-sociations, benefactions, legacies, and other tion with the bishops of England, to give all our
sources, had amounted to £189,457 178. id.; brethren an opportunity of expressing their opinion the society had also received funds for special upon the expediency of convening such a Confer- objects, sufficient to make the total income ence at this time, and upon the choice of the subjects which ought to engage its attention it it be convened.
£195,116 88. 1d. The expenditures had been I therefore beg leave to intimate to you our readi
£191,237. The report of missionary operaness to hold a Conference at Lambeth in or about tions showed that the society had at present the month of July, 1878, if it shall seem expedient 170 stations, 211 European clergymen, 181 after the opinions of all our brethren have been ascertained; and I need scarcely assure you that your and lay agents, 11 European women-teachers
native clergymen, 38 European schoolmasters considered. May I ask for our guidance whether (exclusive of missionaries' wives), 2,411 native you are willing and are likely to be able to attend Christian catechists and teachers, and 24,550 the Conference yourself? Those who were present communicants. The society had withdrawn at Lambeth in 1867 thankfully acknowledge that, from 78 stations, which had been added to through the blessing of Almighty God, the bishops of the various branches of the Anglican Communion parochial establishments in the West Indies, were drawn together in closer bonds of brotherly
or transferred to the native Church in Sierra love and sympathy. The help and comfort which Leone, containing 10 native clergy, 4,356 comare due from the branches of Christ's Church tomunicants, and 12,866 scholars. New missions each other are more readily rendered the more fully each is made acquainted with the wants of the rest.
had been opened in Persia, and in the Nvanza In this time of religious activity and increased inter- district, Africa; and the missions in China, course between all parts of the world, there is greater Japan, to certain classes of the population in need than ever of mutual counsels among the bishops India, on the west coast of Africa, in the transof our widely-extended communion. The bishops Jordanic districts of Palestine, and in the dioof England, therefore, earnestly ask you to join with them in prayer that we may all be guided to a wise
cese of Saskatchewan, Northwest America, had decision on this important matter, and it it should
been extended. At home a conference had be resolved to hold the Conference, that its delibera- been held on missions to Mohammedan people;
liberal gifts had been made for the establish- len W. Gardiner, son of Commander Gardiner, ment of new missions. The sum of £12,000 commenced in 1861 a mission at Lota, Chili, had been subscribed toward the establishment to the European population. The report gave of a mission near the Nyanza Lake. The so accounts of the progress of the work in the ciety had determined not to interfere with the Falkland Islands, Tierra del Fuego, Uruguay, American missions to Mohammedan countries, Brazil, the Amazon River district, and Chili. but to confine its operations in those regions An important branch of the work was that to Palestine. A largely-increased number of which addressed itself to Roman Catholics. candidates for the society's college at Isling ANTONELLI, Giacomo, cardinal deacon of ton was reported, and the institution was now the title of St. Agatha della Suburra, and subquite full. Forty-six candidates had been ac- sequently of Santa Maria, in Via Lata (born at cepted during the year, of whom eleven were Sonnino, States of the Church, April 2, 1806; prepared to go forth at once.
died at Rome, November 7, 1876). His family The one hundred and seventy-fifth anniver was an ancient one in the Romagna, and had sary of the Society for the Propagation of the produced many priests and historians. He was Gospel in Foreign Parts was held in London, educated at the Roman Seminary and UniversiApril 27th. The Archbishop of Canterbury ty, and at twenty-one took the degree of Doctor presided. The report stated that the collec- in the Canon and Civil Law. At twenty-four tions and subscriptions during the year had he passed the examinations and showed the patamounted to £125,294, and that 528 mission- rimony requisite to enter the Prelature of Jusaries were engaged in various fields of mission- tice. After filling minor judicial offices, he was ary work. Among the speakers was Sir Bartle in turn delegate at Orvieto, Viterbo, and MaceFrere, who spoke of the impressions which rata. After the accession of Gregory XVI. he had been made upon him during a recent visit baffled the insurrection in which the subsequent to India. He could give a great amount of Napoleon III. and his brother took part. Antoencouragement to those who were interested nelli was then made Secretary-General of the in the spread of Christianity in India, for he Department of the Interior, and subsequently had just traveled over parts of that country Minister of the Treasury. He was made carwhere, when he first went to India, it would dinal deacon by Pius IX., June 12, 1847, and have been dangerous to send a inissionary or immediately afterward President of the Conany white man at all; now, in these districts sulta of State, and to his death was the masterhe had found teachers of all denominations of spirit of the administration of the Pope. He Christianity, busily employed in spreading the ceased to be minister during the year 1848, betruths of the gospel. No doubt could be en ing replaced by Mamiani and Rossi. After the tertained of the glorious results which would fall of the latter, Cardinal Antonelli advised follow this increase of missionary institutions, and carried out the flight of the Pope to Gaeta. for whererer he had traveled in India he had As minister of Pius IX. he appealed to France, found communities of Christian people living Spain, Austria, and Naples, and represented under the ægis of the British Government with- the Pope at the conference at Gaeta. When out exciting any feelings of jealousy or ill-will the Pope was restored to Rome, after the on the part of the native population. The French conquest of the city, Cardinal Antogreat safeguard of missionary enterprise was, nelli, as prime-minister, set to work to reform that there was no compulsion, or any use made the civil administration, and encourage agriof the temporal sword to enforce the ob culture and industry. The revolutionary party servance of the principles of the religion dis was, however, active, and an attempt to asseminated. He found, everywhere, that the sassinate the cardina), in June, 1855, showed missions were in the most flourishing condi- how obnoxious he was to them. When, in tion, although the cry was still for more hands 1859, revolts began, and Piedmont evidently to assist in the work. The Archbishop of Can- aimed at seizing the Papal States, the task of terbury spoke of the appointment of two new Cardinal Antonelli became one of great diffibishops in the diocese of Madras, which had culty. All admit the consummate ability with been made during the year, and said that steps which as a statesman and a diplomatist he enwere being taken with a view to the founda- deavored to avert the blow. When, with the tion of other bishoprics.
capture of Rome, the last of the temporal posThe annual meeting of the South American sessions of the 'papacy was wrested from Pius Missionary Society was held in London, April IX., Cardinal Antonelli remained as Secretary 24th, the Earl of Shaftesbury presiding. The of State to the Pope, but, of course, chiefly ensociety is constituted for the purpose of making gaged in the management of the difficult relaknown the gospel to the inhabitants of South tions forced upon the Holy See by the new America, and it is conducted in conformity order of things. In these he manifested great with the doctrine and discipline of the Estab- ability and skill. His appeals to the various lished Church of England. A mission was powers for a restoration of the Pope's authorfounded in Patagonia, in 1844, under Com- ity failed to effect the result. He died after a mander Allen Gardiner, R. N., but it did not brief illness. Though holding so high a posucceed after the death of its founder. The sition in the papal court, and a cardinal, he society was reformed in 1852. The Rev. Al never was ordained a priest, or was named to
any bishopric. He was possessed of great the historic truth of the “Iliad” than would wealth, derived entirely from his parents, as the recovery of an authentic record, or the he solemnly declares in his will, and at his location of all the places mentioned in the death left his property mainly to his family, epic. He was a man of taste, had a fine gallery and Heinrich Schliemann, whose parents were a remarkable collection of gems, which he be- not wealthy, acquired the knowledge of the queathed to the Vatican Museum. He was in- Greek_language first when he was well adterred in the cemetery of San Lorenzo, with- vanced in years. Though always showing a out the walls of Rome.
love of study, he received no academic educaARCHÆOLOGY. The excavations of Dr. tion, but entered the employ of a mercantile Schliemann in Mycenæ and General di Ces- house at an early age, and in the progress of nola upon Cyprus have brought to light mon an industrious commercial career acquired a uments of ancient art and culture, affording a considerable fortune in St. Petersburg: In the revelation of the early Greek world, as impor- mean time he had learned several modern lantant and interesting as any archæological dis- guages, Greek among them, and gained a good coveries made in modern times. These dis- store of general information, and, when at last coveries were not in any manner accidental. he had leisure, he devoted himself to the study The two explorers are zealous students of of ancient Greek, for which he had a longarchæology, who pursued their investigations cherished inclination. Impressed with the with an intelligent preconception of the re- vivid narrative of the Homeric epos, he besults, amid many difficulties, and only achieved came fired with the purpose of restoring to the their great discoveries after long and arduous province of history the stories of the " Iliad,” and expensive preliminary labors. Both ex- which over-critical modern scholarship had plorers, with disinterested generosity, relin- relegated to the land of fable. To this purquished the pecuniary profits which they might pose he devoted his leisure and his means and have reaped from their long and difficult inves- energetic abilities, acquired in the school of tigations, whose expense they had borne un- practical affairs. aided, and in which they had em! rked thei Seeking the ancient Ilion, he excavated in private fortunes. Dr. Schliemann has presented the hill of Hissarlik, which the mass of ancient his treasure outright to the Greek Government, testimony pointed out as the site of Troy. and General di Cesnola has abated a consider. Here he indeed discovered the remains of a able profit, in order that, in the interest of great city of high antiquity, which may very science, his collection might be preserved en- probably have been the Troy of Homer, though tire, and has delivered it by preference to the that can hardly be proved. His excavations study of his fellow-citizens of America. Archæ- were laboriously pursued on a large scale ological research has been prosecuted with between 1870 and 1873, his method being to activity of late also at Pompeii, Rome, and else- sink vertical shafts and then cut transverse where. The wealth of art which lies concealed galleries underground. There were found under the soil of Cyprus is probably far from traces of two different cities. The upper one exhausted ; and the treasures buried in the ruins was Greek; and near the surface coins were of Mycenæ are still being unearthed by the found of the time of Constantine. From forty energetic German Hellenist. These extraor- to fifty feet below the surface were found the dinary discoveries will probably stimulate an- remains of an older town, which the doctor too tiquarian investigation to new efforts, and fur- positively asserts to have been Troy, and which, ther revelations of the life, art, and history of in his much-criticised book, “ Trojanische Althe great nations of antiquity may be yet sifted terthümer" (1874), he endeavors to prove. out of the secular dust of buried cities.
Among the objects disinterred were a rich Dr. Heinrich Schliemann, whose archæo- store of pottery of Oriental form and ornamenlogical discoveries in Asia Minor, and much- tation, articles of jewelry, etc. A treasure was doubted identification of the site of ancient found in the ruins of a palace which seemed Troy, brought to the enthusiastic explorer to have been abandoned in haste; an abunrather unmerited ridicule than the honor which dance of red ashes bears witness to a conflagrabelongs to an attempt so disinterested to clear tion; a large number of helmeted skeletons, up the history of those races whose splendid found in what Schliemann identifies as the deeds were the burden of Homer's song, has temple of Athene, the patron saint of Ilion, made further archæological discoveries this show that the city was captured and destroyed last year in Argolis, which cannot fail to win in war; but there is too little evidence, and the applause which his enthusiastic purpose the evidence is too inconsistent, to establish its has amply deserved. In excavating upon the identification with the Homeric llion. The insite of Mycenæ, Dr. Schliemann has discovered habitants of this ancient city were of Aryan the remains of a well-built city of prehistoric stock, as is proved by an abundance of Aryan date, and in richly-furnished dwellings and symbols among the relics. tombs of the same has found relics of a fine Dr. Schliemann next transferred his operaart-culture. These discoveries, in confirming tions to Mycenæ, the capital of Argolis and Homer's accounts of the culture and advance- seat of Agamemnon. Ilere again he has been ment of the Argives, go further to establish rewarded during the past year, after extensive
and difficult excavations, with rich discoveries umns or statues. There stood until modern of much greater value and interest than his times a column on either side of the entrance, others.
covered with richly-sculptured ornaments, in a Dr. Schliemann made his first visit to Mycenæ style similar to the sculptures at Persepolis. in 1867, but did not then undertake any ex The marks of bolts and hinges are seen in this tended investigations. He found the well-de- portal likewise. The interior consists of two fined ruins of the ancient Acropolis, which the compartments, the first cone-shaped of fifty villagers call to-day the fort of Agamemnon, feet diameter and fifty feet in height, the secwhile they show the treasury of Atreus as ond quadrangular in form, twenty-one feet Agamemnon's tomb. The citadel is of irregu- square. The walls consist of hewn stones lar triangular shape, about 1,000 feet long, and joined without cement, which are pierced with stands upon a small steep hill, between two many little holes, in some of which the bronze mountains. The outside walls still exist, stand- nails, which they were made to receive, are ing from sixteen to thirty-nine feet high, ac still remaining. These held the plates of polcording to the nature of the ground, and hav- ished metal, with which the chamber once was ing a thickness of from sixteen to twenty-three lined. feet. They are built in some places of immense Dr. Schliemann carried on his excavations at irregular blocks of stone, with the interstices the citadel rapidly, employing 125 laborers. filled up with smaller stones, but oftener of Around the outer wall of the Acropolis he dispolygonal blocks, so hewn as to fit snugly to- covered a circular wall about twelve feet in gether; and in the neighborhood of the great height, topped with two rows of large slabs, gate and in some other places they are of quad- which he supposed to be tombstones. Inside rangular dimensions, five to fifteen feet long, this circular wall the space had been filled three to five high, and three to six in thick- up with rubbish. Within this circle and near Dess. Within the walls there are terraces the two rows of slabs were uncovered two rising toward the centre, supported by the parallel lines of upright slabs, of which seven outside walls. A passage between the wall of only are still standing, being about three feet the citadel and an external wall, built to guard apart, three in one row and four in the other, the passage, leads up to the great gate, which the latter containing sculptures. One of these is situated on the northwest side. The gate is has below two circles with spiral ornamenconstructed of two large slabs surmounted by tations, and above a design representing a another. The gateway is ten feet high and man drawn in a chariot by a horse in rapid nine wide. Upon the cross-piece rests a trian- motion; in front of the chariot is another degular stone twelve feet long and nine high, sign of a man with a long lance, near whose upon which are carved in low-relief the images point is an object resembling an idol; and beof two lions standing upon their hind-legs, with hind it is carved the head of a spear. Another their fore-paws resting upon an altar, upon slab contains representations of serpents whose which stands a column, with a capital formed coiled folds form regular designs of great of four circles inclosed in parallel chaplets. beauty. This column is said to be the symbol of Apollo Pausanias speaks of the sepulchre of Atreus, Aggieus, the protector of portals. These fig- and the tombs of the companions of Agaures are executed with great finish and fine memnon who were slain treacherously by artistic feeling, in a manner more primitive, or Ægisthos, and that of Agamemnon and his rather more Oriental, than the sculptures of charioteer, Eurymedon, in which were also classic Greece. The pavement shows the ruts buried the twins, Teledamos and Pelops, chilworn by chariot-wheels, and the stones of the dren of Cassandra, which were destroyed by gateway bear the marks of the bolts and hinges. Ægist hos, and that of Cassandra, which was Another gate on the northeast side, formed doubted by the Lacedæmonians. Ægisthos also of three stones, without sculptures, is seven and Clytemnestra, he says, were buried withfeet high by four wide. The surface was cov out the wall, being deemed unworthy of resting ered with potsherds and tiles, and the soil within the sacred inclosure. Pausanias could below was full of these remains, as Dr. Schlie- not have seen these tombs, which had long bemann had an opportunity to observe in the sides fore his day been buried from sight. There of a ditch dug by the peasants. The treasury of is every probability that these tombstones were Atreus, shown by the inhabitants as the tomb erected on the spots indicated by tradition as of Agamemnon, is cut into the side of a hill the tombs of Agamemnon and his companions; about three-quarters of a mile from the Acrop- the sculptures are apparently of the same style olis; it faces a deep ravine. A passage 147 as the lions of the gate, and different from any feet long by thirty wide, between two walls other Greek remains. of hewn stone about thirty feet high, leads to Below the row of three tombstones he came the grand entrance, which is thirteen feet high, upon a square tomb, 26} feet by 11f feet, at a with a width of six feet, and is covered with a depth of fifteen feet or more below the surface neatly-dressed solid block of stone, above which of the rock, and fifty-three feet at least below is another opening of triangular shape twelve the Acropolis. The wall which supports the feet in height and the same in breadth, with circular parallel rows of slabs traverses this traces at the base of the pedestals of little col- tomb, and hence belongs to a later age. The
contents of the tomb were probably removed with round bodies; and female forms with when the wall was built. Thirteen gold but- cow's-heads were found on vase-handles. A tons only were found remaining, on which porphyry form-stone had upon it the patterns pretty spiral ornaments were engraved, and of fifteen different descriptions of ear-rings and on some of them the sign sometimes called the other articles of jewelry. In bronze, five Svastika or Arani, from its similarity to the knives, two small wheels, two lances, two Indian symbols of those names. Numbers of double-edged hatchets, two vases and four gold blades were also found scattered about in others mutilated, a tripod, and hairpins, were confusion, containing indented circular and found together. A nuinber of perforated spiral ornaments. Under the other row of agates showed figures of animals in intagtombstones was, beneath two of them, an ob- lio, done in an archaic style, some of them long excavation, 11f feet broad by 21 in length, quite artistically, which evidently belonged and 144 feet deep. Around its four sides is a to necklaces. Vases were found in great numcyclopean wall, five feet high and two feet bers, and painted with the greatest variety of thick. This contained bodies, surrounded by design. Most of them had both outside and black ashes and covered by a layer of large inside paintings. Small balls of white glass stones, which shows that they had been burnt. and perforated pieces of a black kind of glass, One of the corpses was covered with five great which probably served as wall-ornaments, leaves of gold, forty-seven to sixty-three cen were found in numbers, as well as small cones timetres long and some six and a half centi- with spiral lines upon them. Large, tall gobmetres in breadth, upon which were crosses lets with one and two bandles recall the of gold-foil eighteen centimetres long and four goblets mentioned by Homer. A disk and broad. There were also four gold blades of a two idols were found containing inscriptions round shape, and numerous other ornaments. which have not yet been deciphered. Among
About this spot he found twelve different the pottery were pieces with the forms of men, sepulchres, and a cyclopean house which also holding their horses' necks with both hands, had once served as•a tomb. In this house he modeled upon them, and horses rudely painted found ashes of wood and animal matter, some upon their bases. A portion of a necklace baked grain, a jasper weight, whorls of blue with three beads of different materials strung stone, and some archaic vases, one of which upon a copper wire was found in the treasury. contained an interesting painting of two swans. The fragment of a white-marble frieze has He conjectures that each of the slabs in the spiral ornaments. Above the entrance to the double circular row marks the place of a tomb. treasury were the remains of a dwelling, apThe circumference of the circle is 555 feet. parently of the Macedonian epoch. Of archaic sculptures he found two fragments At the gate of the lions, beneath the ruins of porphyry columns, one of them with a of a Greek dwelling, there was a series of anfrieze of gray-stone, the former bearing a bass- cient walls and corridors, one of which leads relief representing a hall with seats and at each to the cyclopean house excavated near the end a rose, and the latter covered with spiral tombs. Here Juno idols were found in abunornamentation.
dance, and some interesting arrows, one copNear the gate of the lions he discovered a per-headed, and one with a head of iron. great treasury containing many precious arti- Next the circular rows of slabs, at another cles. It is dome-sliaped like the treasury of point, were found a wooden fish, a sceptreAtreus, with an entrance thirteen feet long, head of green-stone carved in the form of a and a roof of four slabs eighteeen and one-half human countenance of Egyptian type, and feet in length. It was evidently covered up at numbers of Juno idols, some of them in the an early period, and was probably a secret form of a cow, standing or sitting, hornless subterranean royal treasure-chamber. In the and with a female head-dress, and other idols treasury there were many ancient Juno idols, of new forms. Two knives and two arrows a feinale shape, rudely made, with a head either of obsidian, many perforated glass beads, and a round or oblong, and large eyes, some having a small glass disk with a finely-executed imdiadem, and some with, others without breasts. pressed image of a fly, were also found here. Other idols represent a female form with hands To the south of the circle of tombstones a stretched out, with horns starting below the vast cyclopean house was excavated, of five or breast and meeting in the form of a semicircle. more chambers and four intersecting corridors, Male idols of Oriental type have bare heads and a deep cistern and conduit. Traces of the with incised diadlems and a star in front, a long clay coating still adhere to the walls in parts. aquiline nose, and an Assyrian beard. There This building, the doctor pronounces, was the were also very ancient Juno idols in the form royal palace. In this house many most interestof a cow, with painted red or black ornaments. ing implements and articles of jewelry were disThe idols were mostly found about the treas- covered. A finger-ring of onyx has an intaglio ury, except the Juno idols, of which several of two figures of cows without horns, in an hundreds were collected in different parts of the archaic but elaborate manner. Disks of serAcropolis, and a bird-headed idol with a bowl- pentine and agate, which were evidently neckshaped protuberance, on which, sometimes, a lace-beads, contain incised spiral ornaments cross was painted. There were other idols and the figures of horses and deer. An inter