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contention in the courts with the Delaware at Tandjong-Priok, to be formed by two break& Lackawanna Railroad Company. The tun- waters, 1,963 and 1,743 metres in length renel company has come out victorious in the spectively, and rising 24 and 13 metres above litigations, and nothing now lies in the way low-water mark, with two inner harbors, of of the enterprise. The works were begun which only one is to be constructed for the a long time ago, and now will probably be present, each having a length of 1,100 metres, pushed forward to a speedy completion. The and a basin 77 metres deep and 175 metres in capital stock of the company is to be $15,000,- width. The entrance to the outer harbor will 000, of which, it is said, $10,000,000 has already be 250 metres wide and 8 metres deep at low been subscribed ; Senator Jones, of Nevada, is water. There will be 1,500 metres of quay, said to be an active promoter of the enterprise. and a channel 50 metres wide leading to a The project was first advanced by D. C. Has- coaling station. Between the harbor and Bakin, of New York, who is the president of the tavia a canal, five miles long, and a railroad, are corporation. The beginning of the work was to be built. The cost of the entire works will the sinking of a vertical shaft lined with brick be $15,000,000; but for the portion to be conmasonry of three or four feet thickness, having structed forthwith the estimate is something a diameter of 30 feet, in Jersey City, at the more then half that amount. junction of Jersey Avenue and Fifteenth The first wire carried across between the Street. When the shaft shall have been sunk towers of the Brooklyn Bridge was fastened on to the depth of 65 feet, the horizontal cutting the 22d of September. This great work, after will be commenced. The direction of the tun

seven years of labor and the expenditure of nel will be northeast and southwest. It will $6,750,000, is still a long way from completion. have a length of about two miles; the terminus The entire estimated cost of the completed on the New York side will be near Washington structure is now set at about $11,250,000, or Square. It will descend from both ends tow more than double the original estimate. ard the centre in a gradient of two feet in 100. The contract for the construction of the proThe diameter of the tunnel is to be 26 feet. posed railroad-bridge at Poughkeepsie, over the Its roof will be nowhere less than 35 feet Hudson River, has been taken by the American below the bottom of the river, so that there Bridge Company, of Chicago. The main part will be no danger from the anchorage of ves over the water will consist of five spans of 525 sels. Little blasting will be required, and the feet each between the centres of the piers, two or three veins of rock which will have to whose breadth will be 25 feet. The bridge be penetrated are of soft substance; the first will be of the description called the undervein of rock to be encountered crops up about grade or deck bridge, and will have two tracks 1,100 feet from the New York side. After a and sidewalks, and an under and upper deck, few feet of the lateral tunnel shall have been the latter carrying the two railroad-tracks, excavated, an iron cylinder will be introduced, and the other a carriage-way of 16 feet clear. in which the workmen will be protected when width. Each span is to have two trusses, 25 driving forward the tunnel. The cylinder feet between centres, of the rectangular dewill have hinged doors, and be provided with scription, with double intersections; the maan apparatus and tubes for introducing com terial will be iron and steel combined. The pressed air from the surface.

trusses are to be 58 feet high, and the top of There is a proposal to carry a telegraphic the piers 135 feet above high-water mark, so wire across the African Continent, from Khar- that the elevation of the track above the river toom, where there is telegraphic communi- at high tide will be 193 feet. The approach cation with Alexandria, at a distance of 1,100 on the west side of the river will have one miles, to Delagoa Bay, the terminus of the span of 160 feet, formed by two trusses, 30 Capelines. The distance between these points feet in height. The long approach on the is 2,300 miles; but extensions are in progress other side, extending across the town, will be which will shorten it to 1,500 miles. It is composed, as far as Water Street, of iron tres. suggested that the trees might be utilized as' tling, formed by three post-bents strongly telegraph-poles, and that depredations of the braced, and four lines of stringers of iron latnatives, who might covet the valuable iron of tice, making spans of 20 to 60 feet. Across the wires, might be prevented.

the Hudson River Railroad grounds, Water The Dutch Government have issued pro- Street and Dutchess Avenue, will be two spans posals for the improvement of the harbor at of 25 feet depth. Beyond, as far as the oppo. Batavia, the capital of the island of Java and site side of Tallmadge Street, where the apof their East Indian possessions. The only proach ends, will be iron trestling, except at the communication between the town and the crossings of Tallmadge and Delafield Streets, present harbor, which has an excellent road- over which will be made two 90-feet spans. stead, has been by a canal 8 or 10 feet deep at The entire length of the bridge and approaches low tide. The present accommodations are will be 4,500 feet. The plan of the bridge entirely insufficient for the large steamers proper is a suspended girder, with parallel and which are employed in the Oriental trade, cradled cables, and two decks. The girder, since the opening of the Suez Canal. It is 1,680 feet in length, will be of wrought-iron. therefore proposed to construct a new harbor The supporting towers will also be of wrought

iron. The cables are to be of steel links and feet long between the centres of the eyes, and pins, which are required to posses a final break- as they approach the towers are to be longer ing strength of at least 80,000 pounds to the in such proportion that the horizontal distance square inch, and which will be subjected to a between the eyes shall remain 25 feet. The tension in the bridge of 20,000 pounds per largest links in their middle will not have a square inch. The pins are to have the form of greater sectional area than eight inches. The a perfect cylinder between head and nut. The towers below the track of the railroad will be links near the middle of the span will be 25 formed of cells of wrought-iron, and above the

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track will have eight columns 80 feet high and to 200 feet between the piers. Between the 11 feet in diameter. Each chamber in the city and St. Helen's Island, whose centre is of lower tower will have twelve saddles and two the same elevation as the roadway of the bridge, pairs of compensating levers. These and their there will be six spans of lattice, one of 550 attachments will be carried by a frame that feet and the rest of 300 feet. The roadway extends in both directions across the saddle- will have but a single track; but on the island chambers and over the heads of all the columns side-tracks and a crossing-station will be made. of the tower. All the parts of the saddles and From the centre of this island to the water's the lever attachments for the stay system will edge four spans of 240 feet will be required. be worked in together upon this frame; and so on the other side of the island there will be that the parts will move together sufficiently to twenty-one spans of 200 feet to the other compensate the expansion and contraction of channel, and over that five spans of 200 feet, the main back-stays beyond what the tower the roadway on this side having a falling itself sustains. The saddles will move by steel gradient of 1:100. On the lower side of the rollers upon steel faces under the carrying river embankments will be made, and connecframe. The anchorage of the cables will be in tions established with the Montreal, Portland the solid rock at both ends. It is expected & Boston, and the Grand Trunk Railroads. that this bridge will pave the way for a new At the other end there will be a junction with railroad to the West, with a route between the Quebec, Montreal, Ottawa & Occidental New York and Chicago only 921 miles long, a Railway; the distance between the two juncsaving of 50 miles over any existing line. tions is five and a half miles. In the navigable

A new bridge is to be constructed at Mon channel the piers, which will be like those of treal, about four miles from the Victoria the Victoria Bridge, with heavy ice-breakers, Bridge, which is to be called the Royal Albert will have to be put down with caissons, in a Bridge, and will be the longest structure of the channel 40 feet deep, where the current is seven kind in the world. Its whole lengtlı, includ- miles an hour. The superstructure will be of ing the portion built over the land, will be iron lattice-work, each pier being crossed by 15,500 feet, almost exactly three miles. It will four girders, placed 18 and 14 feet apart; bestart from the level of Sherbrooke Street in tween the inner girders will be two street-car Montreal, and pass through the town at the tracks; between them and the outer girders height of about 90 feet, with distances of 150 will be the roadways for teams, and on pro

VOL. XVI.-17 A

jecting cantilevers outside will be suspended Hirondelles,” which attracted but little attentwo walks for pedestrians. Upon an upper tion. This was followed by two novels, “Le boom, 15 feet above the street-car track, will Magicien” (1837), and “Charlotte Corday be the railway track, and on each side of it a (1810). At the same time he published, under roadway for carriages. The height of the upper the title of “ Évangile du Peuple" (1840), a floor will be 200 feet above the water. The philosophical and radical commentary on the estimated cost is $5,000,000. The maximum life of Jesus, for which he was sentenced to load which the bridge is calculated to bear is eight months' imprisonment and a fine of 500 12,500 pounds per lineal foot.

francs. During his imprisonment he wrote The Gilbert Elevated Railroad Company, another volume of poenis, “ Les Chants d'un after long contentions in the courts, is now Prisonnier," and 1841-42 published three in a position to complete its line of elevated small socialistic works. After the Revolution steam-railway for rapid transit in New York of 1818 he was elected to the Legislative City. The route is from the Battery, through Assembly from the department of Saône-etCollege Place, West Broadway, South Fifth Loire. Having made himself prominent by Avenue, Amity Street, and up Sixth Avenue. radical views, he was among those deputies Upon some portions of the line the supports who were expelled after December 2, 1851, have been erected for some time. The struc when he went to England. In 1869, having ture consists of two rows of iron columns returned to France, he was elected to the standing in the street, supporting parallel gird- Corps Législatif from the department Bouchesers, which are connected at intervals by cross-du-Rhône, where he sat on the extreme Left. girders, and having longitudinal floor-beams. After September 4, 1870, he administered for The outer girders rise above the track so as to a time the department of Bouches-du-Rhône, be a protection in case of accidents; the upper but, having disagreed with the Government at surface of their top-beams being on about the Tours, he was removed from ottice. In 1871 same level as the car and landing platforms. he was elected to the National Assembly, and The Sixth Avenue columns will be 37 feet in 1876 a Senator from Bouches-du-Rhône, apart lengthwise, and 23 feet distant across, taking his place on both occasions with the from centre to centre. The parts of the col- extreme Lett. Besides the works mentioned umns will be two channel-bars, 9 by 2} by above, he wrote ** L'Histoire des Montainches; two plates, 12 by Pinches; a plate gnards” (1847), “L'Enule du XIXme Siècle," fastened to the foot; and four pieces of angle ** La Vie future au Point de Vue socialiste" iron bars. The girders are pinned trusses, 6 (1857), “ La Vie des Animaux," etc. feet deep, and 5 feet 6 inches distance between EUROPE. The area of Europe, according the centres of the pins; the upper and lower to the latest dates (see Behm and Wagner, Bechords aro composed of two channel - bars, völkerung der Erde, iv., Gotha, 1876), was united by iron plates. Each span of the longi- estimated at 3,823,378 square miles (against tudinal girder has four panels. The cross- 3,824,456 in 1875), and the aggregate populagirders are made up of plates, 24 inches deep tion at 309,178,000, against 302,972,000 in 1875. by of an inch in thickness. At the junc- The transfer of 6.59 square miles from Switztion of Amity Street and Sixth Avenue there erland to Italy has changed the area of these will be a curve of 90 feet radius, and at South two countries, and new calculations have been Fifth Avenue and Amity Street another like made for several other countries. Gains of

Fifty-two feet in a mile will be the population are found chiefly in Germany, and steepest grade. In Amity Street, College Place, in Austro-Hungary, the Netherlands, Luxemand West Broadway the posts are to be placed burg, Finland, Sweden, Norway, Denmark, on the sidewalk, and in Sixth and South Fifth Belgium, Great Britain, Portugal, Italy, RouAvenues in the roadway. The cross-ties will be mania, and Servia, where new estimates were 19 feet 6 inches long, and will be placed 18 inches substituted. The figures of 1875 and 1876 apart.

Outside each line of rails longitudinal compare as follows: timbers will be bolted, letting down upon the cross-ties on the outside. The total load which

Pop'n in 1875. Pop'n in 1876. the structure is calculated to support is 15,000 Germany

41,060,816 pounds per foot on each track. The stations Austro-Hungary. will be situated at the intersections of streets Luxemburg... to the number of two per mile. The station- Finland..

4,853,291 platforms will be level with the car-floors, and


1.763,000 160 feet at least in length. The station-build- Denmark. ings will have iron frames, and will be roofed Belgium. and sided with galvanized sheets of corrugated Portugal.. iron. The tracks are of steel, weighing 56 Italy... pounds per yard.

1,835,505 1,877,063 ESQUIROS, Henri AlPHONSE, a French writer and politician, born in 1814; died May

165,259,971 14, 1876. În 1834 he made his debut as a The area and population of the divisions of writer with a volume of poems, entitled “Les Europe were, at the latest dates, as follows:






42,723.242 87.700,00) 8,509,527

205.153 1.592.622


Great Britain..

1.561.000 5,253,-21 32,773.00)

8,990,570 26,-01,154 4.500.000

1.502,592 1,903.000 5.336.634 33.150.040)

4.29.51 27.12.174 5,078.0W)




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1. Great Britain...

8. Netherlands 4. Russia..



120.293 372,997 703,365


6. France.

8, Denmark

47, 400


discussed in the early part of the year were Square Miles. Population.

the amnesty questions and the university bill.

The latter, which provided that the state uni2. Turkey

versities should have the sole right of confer

ring degrees, was adopted by the Chamber of 5. Spain

Deputies, but was rejected by the Senate. In

5.995,000 7. Portugal.

8,660,000 the latter part of the year the interment ques84,145

tion led to a ministerial crisis, in consequence 9. Sweden....

of which Jules Simon replaced M. Dufaure as Total, about....

13,165,100 292,820,000 prime-minister. With regard to the Oriental

question, the Duc Decazes, the Minister of ForThe Eastern war - cloud which hung over eign Affairs, declared on November 3d that it Europe during 1875 continued during the year was necessary for France to preserve peace, 1876, and at one time threatened to lead to a and it would not interfere in the Oriental general European war. The insurrection in question until its most vital interests dethe Herzegovina spread over the whole of Bos- manded it. nia in the early part of the year. All attempts In Austro-Hungary the Oriental question at pacification failed, the insurgents steadily re- caused considerable trouble. On the one hand, fusing all propositions of the foreign powers as the Slavic subjects of Austria showed their well as of the Turkish Government. On July sympathy for their oppressed brethren in the 1st, Servia, which had for a long time threatened Turkish provinces in many ways. On the other to make the cause of the insurgents her own, hand, the Hungarians, partly on account of declared war against Turkey, and was shortly their hostility to everything Slavic, and partly afterward followed by Montenegro. But, al- through race-affinities (being besides the Turks though the Servians were aided by Russian the chief representatives of the Mongolian volunteers, and contributions of arms and mon race in Europe), were entirely in sympathy ey, they were repeatedly defeated by the Turks, with the Turks. Several demonstrations to so that Servia was forced to invoke the aid of this effect occurred in Hungary, which were Russia to secure an armistice of two months. suppressed with considerable difficulty. The The Government of Turkey, in the mean while, conflict between the Government and the had undergone considerable changes. On May Catholic Church continued during 1876. The 30th the Sultan, Abdul-Aziz, was dethroned by marriage law which was passed by the Reichsthe Sheik-ul-Islam, and was succeeded by his rath was disliked by the bishops. The monasnephew, Murad V., who in turn was removed tic association law, after being passed by both by the Council of Ministers on August 31st, and Houses, was not signed by the Emperor, but was replaced by his brother Abdul-Hamid II. the ministry declared that the Government These proceedings had produced a deep im- would bring in a new bill in a different form. pression in the other countries of Europe, par. The differences between the two parts of the ticularly in England and Russia. In the for- empire were brought to a close in May by a mer country the excesses committed by the treaty in which all points except the bank Bashi-Bazouks, the irregular troops of Turkey, question were satisfactorily settled. The latter in Bosnia and Bulgaria, created a storm of in- continued to be a source of trouble, and was dignation, and called forth a decidedly hostile the cause of a panic. feeling to the Turks among all classes of the The Royal Title's Bill was, next to the Eastpopulation. Finally, in the latter part of the ern question, the most important subject disyear, the English Government proposed to the cussed in England in 1876. The object of this other powers of Europe that a conference be bill was to give to the Queen the additional held at Constantinople to settle all questions title of Empress of India, and thus strengthen arising out of the war. Russia, after having the English hold upon the natives of India. in every possible manner aided the Servians, The difficulties with China were brought to a and after a threatening speech from the Czar, close this year, after having threatened at a was obliged to accede to this proposition, and time to lead to a war, the Chinese Government the conference met at Constantinople on De- making some important concessions. An anicember 12th. The Governments of both Eng- mated discussion of the extradition treaty beland and Russia, however, had previously or tween England and the United States threatdered the mobilization of parts of their ar ened for a time to overthrow the Ashburton mies.

Treaty of 1842. In accordance with the provisions of the In Germany.the war of the Government with new constitution, the elections in France for the Roman Catholic bishops continued during the Senate and the Chamber of Deputies took the year. The Bishops of Münster and Paderplace in the beginning of the year, the Repub- born, and the Archbishop of Cologne, were licans gaining a decisive victory in both. The removed from their offices, and only saved prime-minister, Buffet, resigned immediately themselves by flight from imprisonment. The after the election, as he had been defeated in Arnim affair, or rather the conflict between four different districts, and he was replaced Prince Bismarck and his former embassador by M. Dufaure. The most important questions in Paris, Count Harry von Arnim, came to an

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