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the new court. About 400 claims and com- defendant (the Khedive). The Khedive, how. plaints of Europeans against Egyptians, or ever, refused to permit the judgment to be exagainst the administration of the Khedive's ecuted against him, whereupon Mr. Hackman, estates and the members of his family, which president of the Court of Summary Justice at hitherto had been prosecuted diplomatically, Alexandria, refused to hear any more cases, were awaiting final decision by commissioners closed the court, and resigned his office. Mr. to be appointed by the European members of Antoniadis was appointed to succeed him. In the court, May 23d. While the court at Al- November the judges of the Court of Appeal, exandria was engaged in hearing complaints by a majority of three-fourths, dismissed Mr. against the daira, or private estate of the Hackman. The vice-president of the court, Khedive, its proceedings were interrupted by Mr. Lapennu, and Mr. Scott, the English the appearance of persons claiming to be judge, however, declined to take part in this counsel of the viceroyalty. They protested proceeding. that, while the Khedive recognized the author On the 4th of January, Rhazeb Pasha was ity of the court, he had not surrendered the appointed Minister of Commerce.

The apfunction of making the laws, and asserted that pointment was in effect the creation of a new the court was pledged to recognize every de- office, as this bureau had previously been cree of his as of legal force. In the category joined with that of Foreign Affairs.

At the same time Nubar Pasha resigned, or was dismissed from, the office of Minister of Foreign Affairs. The causes of the retirement were not known. A number of reasons were assigned for it, some of which were contradictory to each other, and all of them speculative. Nubar Pasha had proved himself to be one of the most far-sighted men in the country, and a valuable servant and adviser to the Khedive. He was progressive in his views. He had been largely instrumental in the production of the plans for the reform of justice by the institution of regular courts, which went into actual operation almost simultaneously with his retirement from office. Sherif Pasha was appointed to succeed him as Minister of Foreign Affairs.

The ports of Zanzibar seized by the Egyptians in November, 1875 (see ANNUAL CYCLOPÆDIA for 1875), were collectively known as Bemader, or “the ports." They would be of great service if they were in the nds of some strong power, but the hold of the Sultan of Zanzibar upon them was very weak. The object of the Egyptian operations against the district was to connect the country in which Colonel Gordon was operating with the sea, by means of the river Juba, the only navigable river on the east coast of Africa between Capes Guardafui and Delgado. On the 13th of January the Egyptians had evacuated Kismayo and the Juba River country, and eventually withdrew their entire force. Mention was made in the ANNUAL CYCLOPÆDIA for 1875 of the occupation of Harrar by the Egyptians. Subsequently to this act the Sul

tan of that country formed a conspiracy with of such decrees were the new financial con- the Gallas to surprise the Egyptian garrison vention and the arrangements made in con at the capital, put them to death, and free the nection with it for the consolidation of the city from foreign occupation. The Sultan had floating debt, both of the state and of the a brother whom he had kept in prison for daira. They therefore protested against the fifteen years, on account of some former oppocourt taking proceedings or entering judgment sition against him, but had released him and against the daira which should not be in ac- sought reconciliation with him, and had incordance with his decrees in reference to these formed him of this plan to deliver the city. matters. The Court of Appeal, May 24th, as- The brother, in revenge for the Sultan's forserted its jurisdiction in the case of the daira, mer treatment of him, informed the comand crdered judgment to be issued against the mander of the Egyptian garrison of the plot,

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A STREET IN CAIRO.

whereupon the Sultan was seized and be The grant asked by the British Government headed in the presence of his brother, and the for the payment for the purchase of the shares chiefs, his fellow-conspirators, about 100 in of the Khedive in the Suez Canal was voted number, were also put to death.

by the Parliament early in the year, with but Up to the 15th of December, 1875, Colonel little opposition, and without a division. Gordon, of the Egyptian expedition to the The general meeting of the shareholders of country of the Upper Nile, had formed mili- the Suez Canal was held in Paris, May 28th. tary stations at Lardo, Ragerts, Bedden, M. de Lesseps presented a report showing that

the total receipts of the company for 1875 had been 30,827,194 francs, and its expenditures, including all the charges of the undertaking, and the payment of the interest on the capital stock, had been 29,727,047 francs, leaving the sum of 1,100,147 francs to be distributed as dividends. Fourteen hundred and ninety-four ships, of an aggregate of 2,940,708 tons real measurement, had passed through the canal. The work of improving the canal had been carried on to a certain extent during the year. The British Government had been given a representation on the board of the company of three directors. M. de Lesseps stated, in a communication made to the French Academy of Sciences in May, that the work of the dredging-machines on the canal had been attended with good and permanent effects. The Serapis, a vessel of 4,582 tons, which had brought the Prince of Wales back from India, and her con

sort, the Raleigh, drawing twenty-six feet of RUINED MOSQUE OF TULUN, CAIRO.

water, had passed through the canal without Moogi, and several other places. He had met any difficulty. A merchant of Marseilles, M. with much hostility from the Moogi sub-tribe Amelin, in a pamphlet advocating the neutraliof the Baris, and had had several conflicts with zation of the canal, publishes the following them, in one of which his companion Linant estimate of the relative proportion in which bad been killed. He finally subdued the each country is represented in the Suez mariMoogi tribe. The rapids of the river offering impassable obstructions to his boats, he had a steamer and two boats taken overland and set afloat again. While this work was going on, he undertook a journey overland from Fatiel to Anfino, on the left bank of the Victoria Nile, and thence to M'ruli, the capital of the chief Kaber Reger. Colonel Gordon affirmed in his reports that during his whole expedition he had striven to avoid hostility, and to exercise the kindest demeanor toward all the natives with whom he came in contact. July 22d Ishmael Pasha Ajub, Governor-General of Soodan, arrived in Cairo in

AULO the unprecedentedly short time of twenty days from Khartoom, bringing dispatches from Colonel Gordon's headquarters at Lado, on the Upper White Nile, dated only six weeks previously. On the 2d of August Colonel Gordon reported that, at the request of King

MOSQUE OF MEHEMET ALI, CAIRO. M'Tera, he had left a garrison of 150 men in his capital. He had also established military time traffic: Germany, 1.64 per cent; England, stations at Urodogani and Kasitza, and had 74.16; France, 9.21; Italy, 2.63 ; Holland, 4.35; reached Maynugo, July 19th, in seven days from Austria, 3.47; Spain, 2.9 ; Russia, 0.50 ; SweDuffli. He found the river navigable, the den, 0.27 ; Norway, 0.56 ; Turkey, 0.56; Greece, shores well peopled, and the soil tillable. Colo- Egypt, Belgium, Denmark, Portugal, and Janel Gordon returned to Cairo early in De- pan, only furnish together a total traffic of 0.66 cember, after an absence of three years in per cent. equatorial Africa. He was cordially received The viceregal library of the Darb-el-Gemaby the Khedive, and was decorated with the miz was founded in 1870, in pursuance of a grand cross of the order of the Medijie. decree addressed by the Khedive to Ali Pasha

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Mubarak, Minister of Worship at that time. his return to Berlin he was appointed erThis decree directed that a building be erected traordinary professor in the university, and in in the ministerial premises, of a capacity for the the following year he was created a member proper accommodation of 30,000 volumes, in of the Academy. In 1829 he took part in which should be collected and preserved the Alexander von Humboldt's journey to Asia. books, maps, scientific instruments, and papers, Having become Secretary of the Academy in belonging to the public benevolent institutions 1842, he was appointed ordinary professor at and public offices of the country, in such a the university in 1847. A sketch of his first shape as to be convenient for the use of the journey is contained in “ Naturgeschichtliche public. The library will include the “Old Reisen durch Nordafrika und Westasien in den Library,” founded by Mehemet Ali in 1838, Jahren 1820–25, von Hemprich und Ehrenconsisting principally of works printed at the berg.” The scientific results of this journey public printing-office. Of the libraries of the are contained in “Symbolæ physicæ public benevolent and religious institutions to Icones et Descriptiones Mammalium" (1828– be incorporated in it, a writer in the Allge- '33), “Symbolæ physicæ Avium " (1828), meine Zeitung names as known to him those “Symbolæ physicæ Insectorum" (1829–'34), of thirty-one mosques, three Talijne, or der- and “Symbolæ physicæ Animalium Evertebravis cloisters, one school, and three private torum sepositis Insectis” (1829–'31). His great residences, containing in all 16,562 volumes, scientific fame is based chiefly on the knowlexclusive of the collection in the mosque of edge of microscopic organisms, which was Al Azhar. The library will be made as com- considerably promoted by him. Although his plete as possible in the special departments of observations have been superseded by more * Egyptology," of which all works published, recent ones, he must be regarded as the founder in all languages, will be procured, and of Orien- of this school. Among his works pertaining tal literature. The collection of Arabic works to this subject the most important are: “Orgawill be carefully looked to, and it is antici- nisation, Systematik und geographisches Verpated that this department of the library of hältniss der Infusionsthierchen ” (1830), “Zur many valuable writings, now practically out of Kenntniss der Organisation in der Richtung the reach of European scholars, will be made des kleinsten Raums” (1832–'34), “ Zusätze accessible and useful. It is intended also, in Erkenntniss grosser Organisation im the scientific departments, to provide the kleinen Raum" (1836), and his principal work, works necessary for the pursuit of the profes-“ Dic Infusionsthierchen als vollkommene sional studies of engineers, architects, and Organismen, ein Blick in das tiefere Leben others, to professional men, without their hav- der organischen Natur” (1838), with 64 coping to go out of the country. The library is perplates engraved from his own drawings. open to every one for consultation, on the ile was led by the discovery that many firesingle condition of his presenting a certificate stones, chalk, and other mineral substances consigned by his consul or some prominent man sisted of layers of microscopic organisms, to the of the city ; but books cannot be taken out. observation of the smallest fossil creatures. The collection has already become very valu- On these researches he reported in “Die Bilable. During 1876 it was enriched by the ad- dung der europäischen, libyschen und uralidition of a large portion of the works, chiefly schen Kreidefelsen und des Kreidemergels Oriental manuscripts, of the late Mustafa Fazyl aus mikroskopischen Organismen" (1839), Pasha, of Constantinople.

“Die fossilen Infusorien und die lebendige The Assembly of the Delegates of Egypt Dammerde” (1837), and his principal work on was opened on the 23d of November. The this subject, “ Mikrogeologie” (1854). Among Khedive recommended the establishment of his later works are: “Uebersicht der seit 1847 an Egyptian national bank.

fortgesetzten Untersuchungen über das von The war with Abyssinia, commenced in der Atmosphäre unsichtbar getragene reiche 1875, continued through the greater part of organische Leben" (1871), Nachtrag zur 1876, being in its results rather disastrous to Uebersicht der organischen Atmosphärilien" the Egyptians. (See ABYSSINIA.)

(1872), and “ Mikrogeologische Studien über EHRENBERG, CHRISTIAN Gottfried, a das kleinste Leben der Meerestiefgründe aller German naturalist, born April 19, 1795; died Zonen (1873). June 27, 1876. He entered the University of ELECTRICITY. Electricity and the TheLeipsic in 1815, studying at first theology, and ory of Comets. Reitlinger and Urbanitsky then devoting himself to the study of the have addressed to the Paris Academy of natural sciences and of medicine. In 1816 he Sciences a memoir on a new electrical repulwent to Berlin, where he graduated as doctorsion and its application to the theory of comof medicine in 1818. In the following year ets. It is known that the luminous column the Academy of Sciences furnished him and produced in a Geissler tube gives rise to a his friend Friedrich Wilhelm Hemprich with phenomenon of attraction, when the finger the means for a long scientific journey. They or any conductor whatever is brought near went to Egypt and its neighboring countries, the tube. The authors experimented with two from which Ehrenberg returned alone in 1826, tubes that had contained, the one bromine Hemprich laving died at Massowah. Upon and the other perchloride of tin. The light

movements.

obtained was greenish and of peculiar aspect, creases with the width of span of the arch. The in which the spectroscope showed neither the principal length-line, then, is the sum of the most rays of bromine nor those of tin perchloride, tion is the most positive point of the leaf

at the

negative points of each leat-halt; while in opposibut only the three well-known bands usually fore-end of the hindermost third of the midrib. attributed to the spectrum of carbon. These And, as in the whole leaf all is symmetrical on bands are the same which Vogel and other the two sides of the midrib, so in each leat-half all observers have designated as forming the is symmetrical on the two sides of the middle crossspectruin of comets. Besides, the luminous be disturbed only in that the most positive point in

line. The complete symmetry of the leat seems to column thus produced gave rise, not to a the midrib is displaced back from the middle. phenomenon of attraction, but to a very well The examination of the upper surface of the leaf defined repulsion. The authors, after re offers great difficulties, owing to its sensitiveness. peated experiments, are firmly convinced that These having been overcome, it is found that the

same distribution of tensions prevails as on the these curious phenomena are due to the ex under surface. treme rarefaction of the gases employed; and,

The source of the electro-motive action he since the gas forming the tails of comets is undoubtedly in a state of high rarefaction, supposes to reside in the interior of the leaf

, they conclude that this is the cause of the

nor can it, according to him, arise from heterorepulsion of the sun on the comet's tail, the geneity of surface. The primary organs of the sun being then considered simply as a good hairs, the fibro-vascular cords, nor the epider

electric forces are neither the disk-glands, the conductor. Electrical Phenomena in Plants.—The leaf in the halves of the leaf and in the midrib.

mis, but the cylindrical cells of the parenchyma of the plant Dionæa muscipula, one of the These cells are endowed with forces of such a carnivorous plants, has been found by Dr. kind that the positive electricity is driven from Burdon-Sanderson to possess an electro-mo- the middle of the cell to each of the two poles, tive action. The same author has shown that which are positive poles to the middle. when contraction takes place in the leaf there is a negative variation of the current; he has two kinds : stimulation movements, and resorption

The mechanical movements of the plant are of also observed in the leaf something corre

In the former, the leaf closes very sponding to the latent stimulation of muscles quickly after stimulation, within a minute or so, all and the electrotonus of nerves. This subject parts moving simultaneously. In a few hours it has lately been investigated by Hermann Munk, begins to open again, und is quite open after

twentywhose results have been published in Der Na- four to thirty-six hours. It is then susceptible of

further stimulation. The resorption movement, on turforscher. Briefly they may be stated as the other hand, is more rare, and occurs when a follows:

small piece of Hesh, albumen, or the like, is care

fully laid on the leaf-surface, avoiding the sensitive Applying the unpolarizable electrodes to the under hairs. The closure which follows is very slow, not surface of a leaf, a current appears in (say) an up- beginning for some hours, and being completed only uard direction, i. e., flowing in the leaf from the end in one to two days. The movements of the two of the petiole or leaf-stalk (call it the fore-end of the halves are irregular and unsimultaneous, and depend leaf) to the free end or point of the leaf (which on the place of contact, from which they spread may be called the hinder end). Points situated sim- outward. The reopening begins after several days, ¡larly on the two halves of the leaf are homogeneous, and takes several days to be completed; and during hence on the two sides of the midrib all is symmet- this time the leaf is not, or is very little, susceptible rical. Conceive the midrib divided into two un of either stimulation or resorption movements. The equal parts, a shorter hinder part and a longer fore leaf may die after one such resorption movement, part; then in each of these parts every point nearer and two or three always prove fatal to it; it opens the inner end is positive to every more distant point. no more. The most positive point of the midrib lies about the We now come to the electrical phenomena in stimfore-end of its hindermost third, and with increas- ulation, of which Dr. Sanderson said that they ing distance from this point the positivity decreases presented a negative variation similar to that of the toward both ends.

muscle-current. The electrodes were placed on the Suppose lines drawn on the surface of a half-leaf under surface of the midrib, as being the only part at right angles to the midrib; and call these cross of the leaf which, during movement of the latter, lines of the leaf. Every point of such a cross-line does not alter in position. On stimulation through proves negative to the corresponding point of the movement of the sensitive bair, there occurs, not a midrib; and regularly the negativity of these points simple negative variation, but, as the author exincreases first to a maximum, and then, on to the presses it, a positive variation with negative primary outer leaf-border, decreases. The most negative impulse, which he calls double variation. This point of the cross-line never coincides with the mid- electrical phenomenon occurs even when, notwithdle of the line, but is always nearer the leat-border standing stimulation, there is no movement of the than the midrib.

leaf. The latter circumstance renders possible an By connecting the most negative points of all the examination also of the leaf parenchyma; and the sections, we have a principal line of length nearly same double variation is here observed. parallel to that of the midrib. All points in this As to the explanation of this double variation, the fine are homogeneous. So also are related points supposition that all the cells pass first through a of other lines of length running parallel to the mid- negative, then through a positive variation, is to be rib, and lying inward from the principal length- rejected, the process is rather (the author thinks) line. Of the middle parts of two cross-lines, which that through stimulation the cells of the upper are both in the fore or both in the hinder halves of halves of the half-leaf parenchyma and of the upper the leaf-halves, the middle nearer to the fore or to midrib parenchyma experience a negative variation, the hinder leaf-border respectively is always posi- those of the under halves of the half-leaf parenchytive to the more distant middle, and the force, down- ma and of the under midrib parenchyma a positive; ward in the former case, upward in the latter, in- that is, the negativity of the middle of the cells to

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their poles increases in the former cells, on stimula- bright-blue, dark-blue, and violet glass, the plate tion, and decreases in the latter.

was equally negative. Variation in the Electrical Condition of the In free sunlight the illuminated strip was first

Strongly-oxidized copper strips were next tested. Ileart.-It is known that during every revolu- strongly positive, then weakly negative, then the tion of the heart its muscular tissue undergoes action ceased. Behind red glass the plate was pretty singular variations of temperature and excita- strongly positive, but the deflection of the needle bility, a diminution of excitability, and a rise the strip was very strongly positive, but very soon the

soon fell off considerably; behind bright-yellow glass of temperature, coinciding with the systole, action diminished; on darkening, a strong negative while during diastole the opposite phenomena deflection occurred. Behind dark-green glass the are manifested. Supposing it to be probable plate was first weakly positive, and then negative; that corresponding variations of the electrical behind dark-blue glass it was also negative, and condition of the cardiac muscle could be de- sunlight; behind violet glass the action was similar.

this change was more considerable than with free tected, Marey has made a series of experi The author describes also the behavior of copper ments to determine this question. The gal- in sulphate-of-copper solution, and the behavior of vanometer, owing to the inertia of its needle, silver, tin, brass, zinc, and platinum, which metals

were examined in the same way. is unsuitable for the observation of sudden changes in the intensity of currents. Hence, Effects of Lightning on Different Species of in Marey's experiments, Lippmann's elec- Trees.-The effects of lightning on different trometer was employed. The heart of a frog species of trees have been made a subject of was placed on two non-polarizable electrodes, investigation by Daniel Colladon, who has one of which supported the apex of the ven- communicated to the Geneva Society of Nattricle, while the auricles rested on the other. ural History the results of his observations. Two successive negative variations of the cur- He states that when a poplar is struck all the rent were indicated by the electrometer during upper part of the tree remains perfectly sound each cardiac systole: one of these was sudden, and green. The height above the ground at and corresponded with the abrupt contraction which the injuries appear does not, in large of the auricles; the other was more gravlual, poplars, exceed one-third of the tree's height. and coincided with the slower morement of These injuries commence immediately below the ventricle. The phases of electrical varia- the junction of the strong branches with the tion are thus seen to be similar to those of the trunk. In general, they do not reach quite to work done by the muscle.

the ground. It is always the tallest poplar of Influence of Light on the Electrical Be- a group that is struck. In some cases the havior of Metals. In order to determine the storm will pass over trees of other species and action of light upon the electrical behavior of will burst on poplars, though they be of less metals in water-a subject which many years height. The author has never met with any ago engaged the attention of E. Becquerel— traces of carbonization. The cases in which Hankel, a member of the Leipsic Gesellschaft several poplars are injured by a single disder Wissenschaften, employed two carefully- charge of lightning are rare. One such case is cleaned and newly-scoured strips of copper, recorded by M. Colladon, where three poplars one of which he tired in a porous clay cell by were damaged by the same stroke. These trees means of a cork stopper. This cell was filled stood in a straight line, and about twelve feet with water, and placed in a larger vessel of distant from each other. glass containing some water, in which the Magnetic Properties of Nickel and Cobalt.other copper strip was so immersed as to have The researches of Hankel into the magnetic one of its surfaces turned toward the source properties of nickel and cobalt are worthy of of light. The two strips having been con- being recorded here. The bars of these metals nected with the wire of a galvanometer, the used in his investigations were large and pure, glass, with its contents, was placed in a black the nickel-bar being 168 millimetres long, 41.1 case having a slide for the admission of direct millimetres broad, and 13.1 millimetres thick; sunlight or colored light to the outer strip of the cobalt-bar was of nearly the same dimencopper. The results were as follows:

sions. A bar of iron, of like dimensions, was

examined at the same time. Comparing the On access of free sunlight, the strip exposed to the iron with the nickel, it was found that, within light was negative to the one in darkness, though

the limits of current-strength used, the magonly moderately so; with red glass interposed, the action was inconsiderable; with yellow glass, a little netism in the former increased proportionally stronger; with green and dark-blue successively, to this strength; the nickel at first, i. e., with still stronger; with very dark-violet glass it was weak currents, showed nearly the same magless again.

netic force as the iron; very soon, however, The copper strips were now oxidized by moderate its magnetism increased in less degree than in heating, and the following results were obtained : In free sunlight the illuminated strip was strongly the iron, so that with the greatest strengths of negative; on darkening again, the deflection grad- current it was little over a half of that in the wally disappeared; behind red glass the action was iron. The cobalt behaved like the nickel in less; behind light-yellow glass the plate was first that, eren with moderate currents, the magpositive, then negative; on darkening still more negative, and then the action disappeared; netism increased in less degree than the intenbehind dark-green glass the behavior was similar, sity of current; but it differed in showing a but the first positive deflection was less; behind much less strength of magnetism within the

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