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During the festival of Ramadan, dervishes siduously to his musical studies, finding much and pilgrims from Mecca, and marabouts, went encouragement in the society of men like Robert about among the native population preaching Schumann, Kitte, and Veit. He was an active the holy war against the Christians.

contributor to Schumann's Neue Zeitschrift During the month of March the tribe of the für Musik, at first under the name of Flamin. Uled-Bopasog, in the province of Constantine, Among his first works was the overture to were incited to rebellion by a fanatical priest, “Genoveva,” which was received with great

& marabout by the name of Bu Ayach. Gen- enthusiasm in Prague. In 1846 he composed • eral Carteret was immediately dispatched to his overture to Shakespeare's “Othello," and

the scene of the disorder, and on his arrival after that played on the piano in several confound that the insurrection was confined to certs, and thus soon gained considerable repuone tribe, the others hastening to assure him tation. His first attempts as an author also of their fidelity. On April 11th he attacked appeared during this time, as he had taken the the natives, who numbered about 200 borse place for a short time of his friend Bernhard and 2,000 foot, and had taken position near Gutt as musical critic of the Bohemia. He also the oasis El-Amri. After a severe struggle, added some entr'acte music to his overture to the enemy was driven back, leaving 100 dead “Othello,” which was exceedingly well reon the field, among whom was Mohammed ceived. În 1856 his fame as a musical author Ben Yahia, the leader of the movement. The began to rise. His work, “Die Grenzen der French loss was very small. The insurgents Musik und Poesie," written in answer to Haussoon after made an attack upon the French, lik’s “ Vom Musikalisch - Schönen,” attracted but were repulsed. The French succeeded in great attention, and soon appeared in a second surrounding them by the end of April, and edition. This work was severely attacked by compelled them to surrender, thus ending the various parties, but on the other hand gained insurrection. The leaders were held as host- for him the warm friendship of Liszt. A lectages for the further good conduct of the tribes. ure, “ Die Musik als Culturmoment in der

In June their sentence was pronounced. Geschichte," attracted general attention, and Their entire property was confiscated, while caused the publication of his “ Culturhistothey were themselves disarmed and driven rische Bilder aus dem Musikleben der Gegenfrom their oases, and in addition a heavy fine wart” (1860). In 1858 he published a mewas imposed upon them. Nine of the leaders morial on the fiftieth anniversary of the Conwere tried by court-martial, and twenty-three servatory of Prague, of the Board of Direcwere interned in Corsica.

tors of which he was a member. Attracted by ALSINA, ADOLFO, a statesman of the Ar- his works, which gained for him considerable gentine Republic, born in Buenos Ayres in celebrity, the publishing-house of Leuckhardt, 1829. His father was likewise an eminent in Leipsic, proposed to him to write a history statesman, and a jurist of considerable celeb- of music. This he made the work of his life. rity. The subject of the present notice first The first volume appeared 1862, and the secattracted public attention by a series of lect- ond in 1864. In order to prepare the third ures, and by articles contributed to the periodi- and fourth volumes, he went repeatedly to cal press of his native city. He afterward be- Italy, receiving considerable aid from the Imcame deputy to the Provincial Chambers, and perial Academy of Sciences in Vienna for this was, of the number of the members of the purpose. There, in the libraries of Bologna, convention of 1872, most distinguished for fa- Florence, and Rome, he sought diligently cility and eloquence of address. From 1866 after old musical treasures. The third volto 1868 he occupied the post of governor ofume, which treated of the music of the Neththe province of Buenos Ayres, and that of erlands, appeared in 1868. The fourth vol. Vice-President of the Republic from 1868 to ume was to treat of Palestrina, the musical 1872 during the Sarmiento administration. He Renaissance, the origin of the monody, of the commanded a body of National Guards at the opera, and of the modern system of sounds, battles of Cepeda and Pavon. Dr. Alsina is a and was to close with Johann Sebastian Bach. man of much prestige, is energetic and ambi- In the fall of the year 1876 he intended to tious, and destined to play a conspicuous part undertake a trip to Italy to collect the last in the political affairs of his country. He is material for the fourth volume, but was internow, for the second time, governor of his na- rupted in this by his death. In 1869 he was tive province.

appointed Professor of the History of Art and AMBROS, AUGUST WILHELM, a German com- Music in the University of Prague. In 1872 poser and author, born November 17,1816; died he went to Vienna as musical critic of the June 28, 1876. He attended the gymnasium Wiener Abendpost, and as musical instructor in Prague and here commenced to study music of the crown-prince, at the same time receive under great difficulties. In accordance with ing an appointment in the Ministry of Justice. the wish of his parents he devoted himself to Besides the larger works noticed before, he the study of political science, graduated in composed numerous smaller pieces for the 1839 as Doctor of Laws, and soon after re- piano, and songs. He also wrote “Bunte ceived a Government appointment in Prague. Blätter” (first series, 1871), and numerous During his leisure hours he devoted himself as- traveling-sketches of Italian cities. An auto

biography prepared by him goes only to the placed himself at the head of an inconsideryear 1848.

able force against the Government of GenAMERICA. The great event of the year in eral Prado, but was promptly defeated. North America was the Centennial Exhibition Most of the countries here enumerated were in the United States, of which extensive de- worthily represented at the Philadelphia Extails will be found elsewhere in this volume, hibition, where the extensive and varied disThe presidential election was hotly contested, play of their rich and curious products elicited and the result very close; so that at the end no small degree of admiration. of the year it was not evident, in consequence ANASTASIUS GRÜN. (See AUERSPERG.) of disputed votes, which candidate would fill ANDRAL, Gabriel, a French physician and the office. A sharp battle was fought between author, born November 6, 1797; died February a body of United States soldiers and an Indian 13, 1876. He was appointed, in 1827, Profesforce, in which the latter were successful. sor of Hygiene in the Faculty of Paris, and The commander of the soldiers, General Cus- promoted, in 1839, to the chair of Internal ter, with several officers, was killed. The de- Pathology. Previous to this he had obtained pression in commercial affairs continued. great fame by his work “ Clinique Médicale,"

In the Canadian Dominion, some apprehen- which was published in four volumes. In 1839 sions of a Fenian raid were entertained, but he succeeded Broussais as Professor of Patholothey proved groundless.

gy and General Therapeutics. He was a very In the several Spanish-American countries, diligent writer, and has, in conjunction with war, either at home or abroad, has for thé Gavanet and Delafond, published some most most part prevailed throughout the year 1876. eminent works. Many of the productions of Mexico has been the theatre of a protracted his own pen have been translated into foreign and violent struggle for power between Señor languages. Lerdo de Tejada, the constitutional President ANGLICAN CHURCHES. The two bouses of the Republic, and General Porfirio Diaz, the of the Convocation of Canterbury met at Westformer having been driven from the seat of minster, February 15th. In the Upper House government, and ultimately captured by the the Bishop of Winchester presented resolulatter, who entered the capital triumphantly tions which had been adopted by the Angloearly in the month of December. Peace had, Continental Society in November, 1875, invithowever, not been entirely reëstablished at ing the attention of the Convocations to the the end of the year, owing to the existence of resolutions which had been adopted at a cona new complication which supervened shortly ference of Old Catholics and adherents of the before the downfall of the Lerdo Administra- Greek, Anglican, and other communions, held tion-namely, the pronunciamiento of Iglesias, at Bonn, on the subject of the Procession of President of the Supreme Court, who estab- the Holy Ghost. He moved : lished a new government, headed by himself, at Leon, State of Guanajuato.

That the resolutions lately adopted at Bonn by

representatives of the Old Catholics, certain memA war between San Salvador and Guatemala bers of the Eastern Churches and English Church, ended in the overthrow of the Valle Adminis- and other Christian communities, concerning the tration, and the appointment of Señor Rafael Eternal Procession of the Holy Ghost, be referred to

the Committee of the Lower House of Convocation Zaldivar as Provisional President of the first

on Intercommunion with Eastern Churches. named country.

A revolution in Honduras terminated in The Archbishop of Canterbury spoke on this July, 1876, in the deposition of Señor Ponciano resolution at length. He desired most heartily Leiva, and the establishment of a provisional to see a spirit of real Christian unity throughgovernment under Señor Marcelino Mejía, out the world. He thought it, however, of who was ultimately superseded by Señor Marco more importance to look first at the divisions A. Soto.

which existed near, which separated the Church The boundary questions between Costa Rica from those who were allied in language, and and Nicaragua, and between Chili and the in sympathy in regard to the same love of the Argentine Republic, still remaineil open, and Bible, rather than to those which existed in furnished matter for warm altercation between respect to people who were at a great distance the parties concerned.

locally. He could not help feeling that the Brazil continued in a state of enviable pros. first great desire of every Englishman should perity.

be that those who spoke the English tongue Colombia is still the scene of hostilities com and believed in the same gospel should be, as menced by the Liberals against the Govern- far as possible, united in their efforts to proment toward the middle of the year. The mote their Redeemer's kingdom. Therefore, most important encounters occurred in Cauca he should like to begin with those who were and Antioquia. Material prosperity has not about their own doors. He regretted that imhowever, been altogether destroyed by these portant political questions separated the Church events, as attested by the opening of a new from those with whom it was anxious to act railway line in the second of the belligerent in harmony at home, and that, year by year, states referred to.

the difficulties which stood in the way of a reIn the month of October, Nicolas Pierola union of the Nonconformist bodies with the

Church of England, instead of disappearing, of a gathering of bishops from all parts of the seemed to be magnified. Then, across the At- world, this subject should be brought before lantic, anxious as he should be to unite with them. He had also received a letter from the the three million persons who belonged to the Bishop of Pittsburg, suggesting that comProtestant Episcopal Church in America, still, mendatory letters be given to emigrants to the as a Christian man who desired the diffusion United States, introducing them to the pastors of the Lord's word, he could not shut his eyes of Episcopal churches in the towns where they to the fact that there were some thirty million might settle. By this means many would be persons, speaking, too, the English tongue, and prevented being drawn away from the influwho were Christians, but not members of any ences of their church. The principal subject Episcopal Church, with whom union might be considered was that of providing a service of sought. On the Continent of Europe, their burial for those who died unbaptized. The forefathers had coöperated with vast numbers Lower House adopted a resolution that it was of persons who were now, from one circum- not advisable to provide for such cases by any stance or another, more or less estranged. rubric in the Book of Common Prayer, but The Swedish and Danish Churches were ex- suggested that a service of consolation and inamples of these. And, if he could not un struction for the friends of the deceased might derstand why no union was sought with these be used immediately after the interment, the churches, still less could he understand why service being selected from the Holy Scripture the great church of Luther, to which England and the Book of Common Prayer. Both owed so much, was to be considered as less Houses finally agreed to a resolution providing connected with England than it was considered that in the cases of persons who die unbappossible for the English Church to be connect- tized or excommunicate, or in the commission ed with the Eastern Church. He should be of any grievous crime, " it shall be lawful for very sorry to have it supposed that, while the the minister, at the request or with the conChurch of England desired to coöperate with sent of the kindred or friends of the deceased, Christians of the far East, she was neglectful to permit the corpse to be committed to the of her more intimate relations with her fellow- grave in the churchyard or chapel-yard of the Christians of the West. The resolution of the parish without any services," and that "in Bishop of Winchester was adopted. His grace such cases the incumbent may permit the use the President was requested by resolution to at the grave of such hymns as may be approved appoint a joint committee of both Houses “to by him.” A petition was received from 14,000 consider what steps can be taken toward mak- working-men, asking for liberty for the clergy ing provision for clergymen who, from age and to conduct the services of the church without infirmity, are desirous of resigning their bene- obedience to the Privy Council. A comioittee fices, and retiring from the active duties of the was provided for to inquire into the law auministry.” In the course of the debate on thorizing clergymen to repel persons from the this resolution, the statement was made that Holy Communion on the ground of their holdthe number of benefices in England and Wales ing false doctrines or leading immoral lives, was 13,000, and the number of clergymen, of and to report if any further legislation was all degrees, was 23,000. Estimating the num- necessary. A committee was also appointed ber of clergymen having no cure of souls, as to inquire into and report upon the ancient masters of schools, etc., at 2,000, there were rites and ceremonies appertaining to the Chrislett 21,000 clergymen proper, beneficed and tian burial of the dead, and the discipline atunbeneficed; showing that 7,000 clergymen, tached to the use of them. or one-third of the whole, were unbeneficed. The Convocation of Canterbury met for the In the Lower House, the report of the com- third time during the year, July 18th. The mittee on “The Law of Burials” was made. Lower House adopted a resolution to have the It suggested an outline of the procedure to be synodical declaration respecting the import of adopted in case Parliament should pass a law the “damnatory clauses of the Athanasian declaring the churchyards open for interment Creed, which was passed at a previous session without religious services, or with services of the Convocation, appended to that creed in other than that of the Church of England. the Prayer Book. The following rubric in ref

The Convocation of Canterbury met again erence to the communion service was adopted : May 9th. A petition, numerously signed, was " When there is a communion a pause shall presented in the Upper House, asking that their here be made, during which those who desire lordships would take such measures as they may withdraw, and the communicants may be deemed best to attest the soundness of the conveniently placed for receiving the comagreement or scheme of concord arrived at at munion.” It was left to the discretion of the the Bonn Conference in August, 1875, and, if minister whether the pause should be made bepossible, to promote further friendly relations fore the offertory services or after the prayer and closer intercommunion with the Orthodox for the Church militant. In the Lower House Churches of the East. The archbishop state a resolution was passed in nce to the that he had received a letter from the presid- burial service, providing that “it shall be lawing bishop of the Protestant Episcopal Church ful for the minister, at the request or with the in the United States, asking that, in the event consent of the kindred or friends of the de

ceased, to permit the corpse to be committed wrote the minister a letter of protest. Mr. to the grave in the churchyard of the parish Cook then gave Mr. Jenkins warning that he without hymn, anthem, or address of any would consider a depraver of the Book of kind." The Upper House had voted that Common Prayer a hinderer and slanderer of hymns should be permitted at the grave. A God's word, and“ open and notorious evil conference of the two houses was held, with liver," and would refuse to administer the a view to the adjustment of the difference be- communion to him. Mr. Jenkins, after having tween them on this point, but without success. been retused the communion several times, A gravamen was signed by members of both brought suit against Mr. Cook in the ecclesiashouses deploring the barbarities alleged to have tical courts. The lower courts sustained the been exercised by the Mohammedans toward vicar, and Mr. Jenkins appealed to her Majesty the Christians in Bulgaria, and the asserted in Privy Council. The judgment of the latter sale of Christian children into slavery, and pray- court was given February 15th, and reversed ing " that effectual steps will be taken by the the decisions of the lower courts. Their lordGovernment, in conjunction with the Porte ships held that the evidence did not sustain and others, to prevent, as far as possible, such the allegation that the appellant entertained grievous scandal and offense to Christendom the doctrines attributed to him, and expressly and the civilized world." The Committee on declared that they did not mean to decide that Intemperance presented a supplementary re those doctrines were otherwise than inconport to the effect that the time had come when sistent with the formularies of the Church of Parliament might properly be urged to take England. into consideration the further regulation of

The only cause, they said, which will warrant a the traffic in intoxicating drinks, and suggest- minister under the rubric in repelling a parishioner ing that new legislation ought to embrace some from the Holy Communion is that he is an open or all of the following points :

and notorious evil liver," who thereby gives offense The extinction of grocers' excise licenses; the

to the congregation; and the only cause which will

warrant his repulsion under the 27th canon is that gradual suppression of houses for the sale of beer to

he is a

common and notorious depraver of the be consumed on the premises; the gradual reduction of the number of public-houses until a limit therefore, to consider whether the appellant came

Book of Common Prayer.” It became necessary, shall have been reached which shall correspond to

under both or either of these descriptions. As to the wants of a temperate population; a large restric- the first, there was absolutely no evidence whatever tion of hours for Sunday traffic, together with some

that the appellant was an evil liver, much less an measure for country places for earlier closing at night and earlier opening in the morning; and the liver,” according to the natural use of the words,

open and notorious evil liver. The term “evil admission of the principle of local control so far as

was limited to moral conduct, and the distinction to give the inhabitants of any locality some voice in the question of granting new licenses, of reducing in the canons, especially in the contrast between the

between conduct and belief was clearly recognized the number of houses, of Sunday closing, of earlier

109th and 110th. As to the charge against the apor later opening, and of earlier closing on week- pellant of being a depraver of the Book of Common days.

Prayer, this was founded on the fact of his having The Convocation of York met in York Ca- published a book of selections from the Bible for thedral, February 15th. It considered the reading at family prayer, from which certain parts

were omitted, as was alleged, on the ground of the fourth report of the Ritual Commission. The

doctrine which they teach ; and it was argued that, Upper House rejected the addition to the

as some of the parts so omitted were either found Athanasian Creed in the form of a synodical in the Book of Common Prayer or were the support declaration which had been agreed to in 1874 of doctrines found in that book, omission of them by the Convocation of Canterbury and the

was equivalent to rejection, and rejection of them Lower House of the Convocation of York.

to depravation of the Book of Common Prayer. In

none of these propositions nor in their logical con(For the text of this declaration, see the An- nection could their lordships concur. Omission was NUAL CYCLOPÆDIA for 1874.)

not rejection, otherwise the lectionary in the Prayer At the Judicial Committee of the Privy Book would be open to the grave charge, Nor was Council, January 19th, a special court was

it possible to establish the charge of depravation constituted for the hearing of an appeal from written by the appellant to the respondent in justifi

upon these omissions, even coupled with the letter the Arches Court of Canterbury, in the case cation of them. For even if there were anything of Jenkins vs. the Rev. Flavel Smith Cook, in the letter which amounted to a depravation of the rector of Christ Church, Clifton. In this case

Book of Common Prayer, which their lordships did the question was raised whether a parishioner not suggest or think there was, it would be still imcould be legally refused the Holy Communion possible to hold that the writing of such a letter in

answer to one addressed to him by the respondentbecause he did not believe in the personality in other words, not an open and spontaneous, but a of Satan and evil spirits, and the doctrine of private, friendly, and solicited communication, eternal punishment. Mr. Jenkins had several could make the appellant a common and notorious years before compiled a book of selections would therefore advise her Majesty to reverse the

depraver of the Book of Common Prayer." They from the Bible for devotional uses, from which sentence of the Dean of Arches, and in remitting were omitted all allusions to the doctrines of the cause to admonish the respondent, the Rev. the existence of the devil and eternal punish- Flavel Smith Cook, for having without lawful cause ment. On July 5, 1874, Mr. Cook preached a appellant to receive, the elements of the Holy Com

refused to deliver to the appellant, or permit the Rationalism,” to which Mr. Jen- munion; and further, to monish him to refrain from kins took exceptions, and against which he committing the like offense in future.


sermon on

In May, 1874, a daughter of the Rev. Henry case, February 2d, against the defendant. He Keet, a Wesleyan minister at Owston Ferry, decided that the incumbent had offended county of Lincoln, died, and was buried in the against the law in officiating in the chasuble parish churchyard. Mr. Keet ordered a tomb- and alb; that he had also offended in adminstone set up over her grave, to bear an in- istering the communion without having asscription, “In loving memory of Annie Au. sured himself that the number of persons regusta Keet, the younger daughter of the Rev. quired by the rubric, "four, or three at least," H. Keet, Wesleyan minister, who died at Ow- would participate in it; that the so-called ston Ferry, May 11, 1874, aged seven years Stations of the Cross, which were described and nine months. Safe sheltered from the as consisting of fourteen groups of " figures in storms of life.” The vicar of the parish for- colored relief, a plastic figure attached to the bade the erection of the stone on the ground walls of the church, purporting to represent that in the inscription the term “Rev." was scenes of our Lord's Passion, and such as are improperly assumed by Mr. Keet, a person not commonly used in Roman Catholic churches," in the orders of the Church of England, and were decorations forbidden by law; and that having therefore no right to bear it. Mr. Keet the erection of the crucifix, or figure of the appealed to the Bishop of Lincoln. The bish- Saviour on the cross in full relief," was unlawop sustained the vicar. Mr. Keet then broughtful. The judgment of the court on the points suit in the court of the chancellor of the as to the position at the communion-table, and diocese for a faculty for the erection of the as to the vestments, was modified by the adtombstone. The chancellor gave a judgment mission that the decisions of the superior refusing to issue the faculty, and sustaining courts on these points were conflicting, and the decision of the vicar, that Mr. Keet had an appeal to the Judicial Committee of the no right to use the title Reverend. Mr. Keet Privy Council might be necessary. An appeal then appealed to the Court of Arches. This was taken by the defendant to the Judicial court reaffirmed the decision of the diocesan Committee of the Privy Council on the four court. The case was then carried by appeal points of the eastward position of the minister to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Coun- at the communion service, the vestments to be cil. The judgment of this court was delivered worn, the form of bread to be used, and the by the Lord Chancellor, January 21, 1876. It exhibition of the crucifix in the communion reversed the decisions of the lower courts, and service. ordered a faculty issued for the erection of the The eighteenth annual session of the Church tombstone. The case was remitted to the Congress was held at Plymouth, beginning OcCourt of Arches,

tober 3d. The opening sermons were preached The first proceedings taken under the Public by the Bishop of Winchester and the Rev. Worship Regulation Act, 1874, were bad in Canon Miller. The opening address was the case of a complaint brought by three pa- delivered by the Bishop of Winchester. He rishioners of St. Peter's, Folkestone, against spoke of the character of the Congress, as in the Rev. O. J. Ridsdale, incumbent of the no sense representing the whole Church, but parish. The complainants charged the defend- consisting rather to a disproportionate extent ant with violations of ecclesiastical order in of men of extreme views; of the peculiar the following points : Using lighted candles on dangers to which it was exposed by reason of the communion-table during the time of the such men occupying its attention; and of the celebration of the Holy Communion when safeguards against such dangers, which lay in their use was not necessary for giving light; the Congress itself. If they were avoided, the the mixing of water with the wine for the ser- meetings might be made productive of great vice of the communion ; the use of wafer benefit. Papers were read, and discussions had, bread in the communion; standing during the during the meetings of the Congress, on the administration of the communion in the east- following topics: "The Bonn Conference and ward position, with his back to the people; the Old Catholic Movement” (Bishop Perry, kneeling during the prayer of consecration, late of Melbourne, the Dean of Lichfield, and and singing the hymn Agnus Dei; walking in the Rev. Lord Plunkett); “The Formation and processions with ornaments and observances Management of Parochial Temperance Socienot sanctioned by the rubrics of the Book of ties; " “The Causes and Influences of UnbeCommon Prayer; wearing illegal vestments, lief in England” (Dean Cowie, of Manchester, as the chasuble and the alb; the use of the Archdeacon Reichel, the Rev. G. Greenwood, crucifix; the adoption in the church of the Dean Lake, of Durham, Archdeacon Denison, representations called the “Stations of the the Bishop of Winchester); “ Central Africa, Cross ;” and administering the communion to in Relation to Mission-Work, the Slave-Trade, only one person. Mr. Ridsdale made no de- and Commerce" (Sir Bartle Frere, the Rev. W. fense to any of the charges except that of ad- S. Price, Lieutenant Cameron, Arthur Mills, ministering the communion to fewer than three M.P., Archdeacon Badnall, and others); "How or four persons. In regard to this, he said to increase the Number and improve the Trainthat he had entered upon the service "with-ing of Candidates for Holy Orders” (the Rev. out any positive expectation one way or the W. s. Smith, Archdeacon Earle, Archdeacon other.” Lord Penzance gave judgment in the Emery); “The Best Means to be adopted for

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