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per cent. in New York, 31 in New Jersey, 7 in sas, 97; Minnesota and Oregon, 98. Indiana Pennsylvania, 11 in Ohio, and 8 in the entire reports an average superiority of 21 per cent.; country. This was occasioned in part by the Kentucky, 15; Vermont, Ohio, and Illinois, 11. very low prices realized for last year's crop. In the latter two States the crop was greatly New York, growing one-fifth of the entire damaged last year by excessive rains during the crop, and more than twice the quantity of any entire harvest season. The reporters this year other State, falls off from last year 49 per cent. occasionally note injuries by wet weather in Other States (in the order of importance) fall harvest, the most important of which are injuof: Pennsylvania, 44 per cent. ; Ohio, 32; Illi- ries to the clover-crop, while curing, in parts nois, 36; Michigan, 58; Wisconsin, 10; Iowa, of Indiana and Illinois; but statements that 34; Indiana, 20; New Jersey, 68. The entire the crop was cured without injury, or in the crop is about 34 per cent. less than the pre- best condition, are the rule. County returns vious one. There is also a very general de- of unprecedented crops are frequent. In Penncline in quality,

sylvania, Sullivan reports a crop more abunSweet Potatoes.—The crop of 1875 was a fair dant than ever before; Tioga, the heaviest one in both yield and quality; that of this year product ever gathered, all housed in good convery nearly equals it in both respects. The dition. The product in Henrico, Va., was never greatest falling-off in yield is in Louisiana—25 exceeded; Bath also produced' much the best per cent. — owing to a general and severe crop for years, and secured it in excellent condrought at the critical season. The same cause, dition. Williamson, Tenn., reports immense operating in a less degree, reduced the product quantities, mostly German millet, put up in below that of last year, 13 per cent. in Florida fine condition; Lincoln, Ky., an immense crop and Alabama, 12 in Mississippi, and 7 in Geor- of excellent quality ; Sandusky, Ohio, the best gia. The average reduction is not over 3 per crop ever grown. Unprecedented and wellcent. in any other State, while in a majority saved crops are also returned from Howland of those producing the crop the yield equals and Wabash, Ind. ; Fayette, Ill. ; Walworth or exceeds that of 1875. The excess averages and Outagamie, Wis.; Henry, lowa; Maries, 11 per cent. in Kentucky, 9 in New Jersey, 8 Mo.; and Sonoma and Placer, Cal. in South Carolina, 7 in Missouri, 5 in Delaware, Beans.-Returns from all sections indicate 4 in California, and 2 in Tennessee, West Vir- that the product is about 7 per cent. less than ginia, Indiana, and Kansas. A majority of the last year. Grasshoppers in the Northwest, and States growing sweet potatoes, and those pro- drought in other sections, are the principal ducing the larger part of the crop, also report causes of reduction. The States in which the an average quality equaling or exceeding that product is not less than in 1875 are Delaware, of the previous crop.

100; Vermont, 101; California, 102; North Hay.—The reported entire product is 8 per Carolina, 103; Florida and Arkansas, 105; cent. above that of last year, and the average Wisconsin, 110; Oregon, 122. Among these quality about 5 per cent. better. Maine returns States, last year, Wisconsin reported 85 and a product 2 per cent. greater than that of 1875, California 82, as compared with the crop of which was 10 per cent. above the previous crop. 1874. As dry weather prevailed very genIn the other New England States there is a de- erally during the season of curing, the quality cline in product averaging 12 per cent., owing (which is not specifically reported) is probably to the severity of the drought before the crop better than the average. was cut. In the remainder of the country, ex Peas.-In the Northern States, returns for cept on the northern border of the Gulf, where this crop have exclusive reference to the prodbut little hay is grown or saved, the crop was uct of shelled peas, for table-use or for provgenerally in advance of the drought; the dry ender; but in the Southern States, while weather commencing about the time of harvest- varieties for table-use are included, the prining, and thus greatly contributing to good cur- cipal crop is of the variety known as cow-peas, ing The only States out of New England not of which the vines constitute an important returning a product greater than in 1875 are forage-product. Texas returns a product 5 New York, Delaware, and Alabama, 100; Mis- per cent. above a fair crop in 1875; but in all sissippi, 93; Louisiana, 88; Kansas, 97; Ne- the other Gulf States the product was largely braska, 05. ' States indicating a large relative reduced by drought. In Clarendon, S. C., and increase in product are California, 59 per cent.; Wilkes, Ga., the crop was also damaged by Virginia, 35; Kentucky, 33; New Jersey, 30; early frost. In the northern tier of Southern Illinois, 20; Tennessee, West Virginia, and Ohio, States the product fully equals that of last 15; Texas, 14; Michigan, 13; Arkansas, 11. year. Among the Northern States, Minnesota

As a rule, to which the exceptions are few returns a product 38 per cent, above last and slight, the quality is superior to that of last year's short crop; Vermont and Delaware reyear's crop, both in respect to intrinsic excel- turn 100. In the remaining States east of the lence and the condition in which it was cured Missouri, the product falls somewhat below and housed or stacked. The States returning that of 1875. Kansas reported last year 33 an average quality not superior to that of the per cent. above the previous crop; this year previous crop are Maryland, 100; North Caro- 21 below, reduced by grasshoppers, Nebraska, lina, 99; Mississippi, 95; Louisiana and Arkan- last year, 122 ; this year, 100. California pro

duced 5 per cent. above a short crop last year. The quality of the entire crop averages about The entire product is about 5 per cent. short the same as that of last year. The depreciaof that of 1875.

tion is not noticeable in Connecticut, Virginia, Buckwheat.-Last year the product exceeded and North Carolina. The average quality is that of the previous crop; this year it falls superior to that of the previous crop in New about 8 per cent. short. Drought at the time Hampshire, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, Kenof filling was the principal cause of reduction; tucky, Indiana, Missouri, Ohio, and Tennessee. but in parts of Pennsylvania, Maryland, and The reported causes of deterioration in North Virginia, storms of rain and wind in harvestCarolina are worms, early frosts, and the cutor after the crop was matured, did much in- ting of late crops before maturity in order to jury. In parts of the Ohio Valley the crop did avoid frosts. In Tennessee and West Virginia, not fill well, owing to excessive wet weather. only slight deterioration is reported from early It was much reduced by grasshoppers in Iowa, frosts and the cutting of late crops prematurely Kansas, Nebraska, and Colorado. Massachu- to avoid frost. In Kentucky, Daviess returns setts and Connecticut report a product equal the largest crop ever grown, except that of to last year's; but in New York it was 34 per 1872. The estimate for product is 10,000,000 cent. less; New Jersey, 23; Pennsylvania, 26. pounds, of which not over 2 per cent. was inNorth of the Ohio the comparative tigures for jured by frost; but perhaps 10 per cent. was 1875 and 1876 are, respectively: in Ohio, 105 not well cured, being cut rather too green. and 90; Michigan, 132 and 88; Indiana, 112 Flaxseed. - Incomplete returns from Ohio and 92; Ilinois, 83 and 96 ; Wisconsin, 45 and indicate a product equal to that of last year; 155. High figures mean a large increase over Indiana, 1 per cent. less; Illinois (having an the previous crop; but if, for instance, the extraordinary crop last year), 15 per cent. less. product for 1875 was but a fourth of an average These three States represent over three-fourths crop, 200 for 1876 would only indicate half a of the entire crop: Among other States in crop. West of the Mississippi the crop, except which the production is of any account, lowa in Minnesota, 109, was much less than in 1875, alone indicates an increase over last year; New the figures being, in Missouri, 237 and 93 ; Kan- York, 1 per cent. less. Scattering returns from sas, 206 and 72; Nebraska, 544 and 78. The the States west of the Mississippi indicate that product in Kentucky was 2 per cent. greater the production of flax is extending. than last year, and in Oregon 5 per cent. In Apples.-Almost the only complaint about all the remaining States it fell below.

the apple-crop is that its superabundance has Sorghum. — Returns show an increase of greatly diminished its market value. Maine about 14 per cent. over last year's comparative- returns a yield 20 per cent. below that of 1875, ly large crop. The States indicating the highest the causes being previous injury to the trees relative increase are: Georgia, 38 per cent.; by caterpillars, depredations by them this seaVirginia, 37; Kentucky, 32; Texas, 27; Ala- son, and, in the southwest part of the State, bama, 19; Tennessee, 14. The only States too dry weather for the maturing of the crop. reporting a product less than last vear are: Vermont falls per cent. below, ascribed to Iown, 11 per cent.; Maryland and Nebraska, the effects of the severe winter. Drought 7; Kansas, 5. Good quality is generally re- and September storms reduced the figures in ported. Great improvement in the quality of New Jersey to 95, in Delaware to 55, and in the sirup, resulting from the introduction of Virginia to 92. Missouri reports a producimproved machinery and methods of evaporat- tion falling 28 per cent. below that of 1875. ing, is specified in different localities.

Severe spring-frosts, canker-worms, coddlingTobacco. — The tobacco counties reporting moths, an insect allied to chinch-bugs, hailthe comparative product make returns not storms, and, chiefly, premature falling-off from quite so favorable in the aggregate as those of causes not explained, are the principal sources

A decrease of product is indicated of reduction. With these exceptions, in the enin Massachusetts, Connecticut, New York, Ma- tire section north of the thirty-sixtlı parallel, ryland, Virginia, North Carolina, and Tennes- and east of the Pacific slope, the yield exceeds

An increase is indicated in Pennsylvania, that of last year; the average excess for the Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois. Kentucky reports whole area being not less than 17 per cent. about the same as last year.

The excess in New York is 22 per cent. ; PennIn Ohio, Indiana, and Minois, the increase in sylvania, 23; Ohio, 41; Michigan, 24; Indiana, product is extraordinary. In Ohio, Montgom- 39; Illinois, 16; Wisconsin, 54; Iowa, 43; New ery reports the best and finest crop of seed- Hampshire, 63. The coddling-moth was deleaf tobacco ever produced; Monroe, that the strnctive to the crop in Utah. In California quality was depreciated by excessively wet and Oregon the product was slightly less than weather. In Illinois, the season was very pro- last year. In the Southern States, in which pitious for maturing and curing in Saline; in the crop is of less account, the general yield is Johnson, the crop was eaten by worms, the rav- considerably below that of last year, owing ages of which were worse than for years. Ver mainly to drought. South Carolina alone non, Mo., also had more tobacco-worms than comes up to 100. With rare local exceptions, ever before; but other returns from Missouri the quality is reported as superior, the fruit beare favorable in respect to yield and quality. ing comparatively large, and free from worms.

last year.


Pears.—The pear-crop falls below the small eral counties of Pennsylvania, especially in crop of 1875. The extensive prevalence of the early-sown wheat. Later-sown crops give tree-disease known as pear-blight appears to be greater satisfaction. With the exception of the leading cause of this diminution. Its prey- South Carolina, the South Atlantic and the alence and effect in reducing the crop to a. Gulf States are below average. Drought regreater or less extent are noted in New York, tarded both the sowing and the growth of the New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Georgia, Louisiana, crop in many counties. Injuries by grasshopTexas, West Virginia, Illinois, and Iowa. The pers are reported in several counties of Texas. only States in which the product does not fall A depressed condition is also noted in Arkanbelow that of last year are New Hampshire, sas and Tennessee, the latter being 10 per cent. 103; Vermont, 100; Wisconsin, 119; Iowa, below average. Grasshoppers are complained 105; Oregon, 101; no one of which produces of in a few cases, but drought was a more a large crop. In the remaining States the de- general cause of disaster. West Virginia and cline is about 20 per cent.

Kentucky show a superior condition, though Grapes. — The returns indicate a product seeding was somewhat late on account of somewhat less than in 1875. The small crop drought. All the States north of the Ohio in New England averaged better than last year. River report a superior condition, especially Pennsylvania returns 103, but in the other Ohio and Indiana, which enjoyed remarkably States north of the Potomac the falling-off fine conditions for seeding and growth. In averages about 12 per cent. There appears to several localities of Illinois and Wisconsin the be a reduction from last year in the Southern wheat appears to be better rooted than usual, States, averaging about 10 per cent. In the and better prepared to resist the trying fluctuinterior, east of the Mississippi, the product is ations of winter in those States. West of the less than in 1875, the greatest reduction—19 Mississippi River, Minnesota and lowa report per cent.-being in Illinois. West of the Mis à condition slightly above average, while the sissippi, Arkansas reports a falling-off of 32 other States of this region are considerably per cent., Missouri of 15. In California the deficient. Grasshoppers were very destructive product is reported 2 per cent. larger than last at many points, necessitating a resowing of the year.

crop. Wheat sown late to avoid this pest Except in localities where the yield was re- has started very imperfectly. In California, duced by the effects of the hard winter or late good rains during October facilitated plowing spring-frosts, the almost exclusive cause of re- and wheat-seeding, causing a considerable enduction has been a widespread tendency to largement of acreage, but in several counties mildew and rot.

the moisture has not been sufficient to bring Winter - Wheat.-December returns indicate out the crop. Oregon reports a very promisthat the acreage in winter-wheat has been in- ing crop: From Dakota come reports of grasscreased about 5 per cent. over that of the pre- hopper damages. In the Choctaw Nation, Invious year. The small area sown in the New dian Territory, the crop is reported as very England States is fully maintained, and some satisfactory, additions were expected to be made. All of Winter-Rye.The acreage in winter-rye in the Middle States return an acreage equal to 1876 does not materially differ from that of that of last year, except New York, which 1875. A small increase is shown in New Engloses 8 per cent. The South-Atlantic coast land and in the States north of the Ohio River, States report a considerable increase, a small which about counterbalances the decline in the deficiency in Georgia being overcome by a other sections; the Pacific States report no marked increase in North Carolina and South appreciable change. Carolina. In the Gulf States, Alabama and The condition of the crop, on the whole, is Mississippi report an increase which over- about average. A superior condition appears balances the decline in Texas. Florida and in the Middle States, South Atlantic States, in Louisiana grow but insignificant crops. The the States north of the Ohio River, and on the inland Southern States all report an increased Pacific slope, while in the other sections there acreage. North of the Ohio River, Michigan is a deficiency. and Wisconsin report a decrease of wheat 1x Production declining? - Agricultural acreage; but the other States report increased speakers and writers often give the impresbreadths, enlarging the acreage of this section sion, without positive assertion, that we proabout 3 per cent. West of the Mississippi duce less in proportion to population than River, Missouri enlarges her acreage at least a formerly. If this is so, we eat less than forthird, Kansas one-eighth, and Nebraska nearly merly, for we export more. But no intellia half. The Pacific States also report a large gent person, after due deliberation, will assert increase.

that we feed less to farm-animals, or live less The condition of the crop appears from the generously ourselves, than our fathers fed and returns to be about 10 per cent. above average fared. A statistical answer in the negative on the whole. The Atlantic slope, from Mary- has been made by the statistician of the Deland northward, enjoyed very favorable condi- partment of Agriculture, in an address delivtions of seeding and growth, though the Hes- ered before the Agricultural Congress at its sian fly has done considerable damage in sev- last session in Philadelphia.

AIRD, Thomas, a British poet, born August George E. Spencer corruptly used the influence, 28, 1802; died April 27, 1876. He received power, and patronage, of his said office to procure his education at Bowden and Melrose, and sub- said body, by which he

claims to have been reëlected

influence, assistance, and votes, from members of sequently at the Edinburgh University. On

to the Senate of the United States on the 3d day the death of James Ballantyne, Mr. Aird suc of December, 1872. ceeded to the editorship of the Edinburgh

5. That by like fraudulent and corrupt practices,

and to defeat the election of a Senator by the GenWeekly Journal, a position which he held for about a year. From 1835 until 1863 he was law, the said George E. Spencer and others, by his

eral Assembly of Alabama at the time appointed by the editor of the Dumfries Herald, a Conserva concurrence or connivance, did prevent the attendtive journal, and when he resigned this post ance of members of the General Assembly at the he went into private life. His principal works Capitol, and did so defeat a quorum of the Houses

of said body. are “Religious Characteristics" (1827); “ The Old Bachelor in the Old Scottish Village,” by the Attorney-General of the United States, which

6. That afterward when a plan had been suggested a volume of tales and sketches (1845); “Poeti was adopted, for the reorganization of the General cal Works,” consisting of a collected edition of Assembly, the said George E. Spencer and others, his poems, new and old (1848). “The Devil's with his connivance, in order to deprive a Senator of Dream” is regarded as the most popular of his his seat in said body, to which he had been lawfully

elected by the people, and thereby obtain contircompositions. He was at one time a contribu- mation of his suid election to the United States Sentor to Blackwood's Magazine, and in 1852 he ate, fraudulently and corruptly conspired to oust brought out for the family of Dr. Moir the said Senator from his seat, and did prevent him “Delta" of Blackwood, an edition of that from occupying the same during more than one en

tire session of the General Assembly of Alabama. author's select poems, with a memoir prefixed.

7. That said George E. Spencer, while endeavorALABAMA. The session of the Alabama ing to secure his reëlection to the Senate, and in Legislature which began on December 28, 1875, order to get money to accomplish his said purposes, came to an adjournment on the 8th of March and while he was a Senator of the United States, A considerable amount of legislation was neces

procured persons who had been appointed to offices

of trust in the United States Government to consitated by the new constitution adopted in 1875. vert the public money in their charge to his use, The salaries of public officials were revised and and to coirmit peculations for his advantage. fixed as follows: Governor, $4,000 per annum; Lieutenant-Governor, $1,500 ; Secretary of Early in the session the commissioners apState, $1,800; Auditor, $2,400; Treasurer, pointed under the act of December 17, 1874, $2,100; Attorney-General, $2,000; Judges of “to ascertain, adjust, and liquidate all claims the Supreme Court, $5,000; Chancellors, $2,- against the State of Alabama arising from bonds 500; Superintendent of Education, $2,250. issued or indorsed in the narne of the State,' Reductions take effect at the end of the terms submitted their report, together with a plan of the present incumbents. The date for the of adjustinent. A good deal of difficulty had meeting of the Legislature for its regular bien- been encountered in ascertaining the amount nial sessions was fixed for the second Monday and character of the indebtedness of the State, of November, beginning in 1876.

owing to imperfections in the records and apThe special joint committee appointed at parent irregnlarities in the issue and registhe preceding session to investigate the facts tration of bonds, and to the unwillingness of relating to the alleged election of George some of the creditors to make a statement of E. Spencer to the Senate of the United States their claims. The commissioners stated that submitted their report, together with a sum the entire debt of the State, direct and continmary of the testimony taken. Their conclu- gent, as ascertained by them, was $30,037,563, sions are presented with sufficient fullness in a which they separated into four classes of obmemorial of the Legislature subsequently adopt- ligations. The first constituted the “recoged, commending to the United States Senate nized direct debt," and consisted of various the following considerations, supported by the five, six, and eight per cent. bonds, amounting evidence taken:

in all to $11,677,470. They proposed to ad2. That the body by which George E. Spencer just this portion of the debt by canceling interclaims to have been clected to the Seuate of the est due and accruing to July 1, 1876, and subUnited States was not in fact or in law the General stituting new bonds for the face of those outAssembly of Alabama, at the time of the alleged standing, with thirty years to run, at two per election of George E. Spencer, and never was. There never was a quorum in the Senate that voted for said cent. interest for the first five years, three Spencer, and the records and journals of the General per cent. for the second five years, four per Assembly show that fact. The body that voted for cent. for the next ten years, and five per cent. Spencer was organized as a party necessity, and to for the remaining ten years, all being renewelect Spencer.

3. By unlawful and corrupt practices and by bar- able at the pleasure of the State at five per gains made by George E. Spencer, and other persons,

cent. This proposition had been accepted by with his knowledge and approval, both before and the holders of about $3,000,000 of the old at the time of his alleged election, with members of bonds, and it was thought would be accepted the body by which he claims to have been elected, he by the rest. The second class of obligations procured the influence and votes of members of said body, for the office of Senator of the United States.

was spoken of as “recognized direct debt aris4. That being a Senator at the time of his alleged ing from aid given to railroad companies," and reēlection to the Senate of the United States, the said consisted of seven per cent. bonds to the amount

of $1,156,000, issued to the South & North against the State would render the payment of Railroad Company ($720,000), the Grand Trunk interest, to say nothing of the principai, of such ($220,000), and the Savannah & Memphis an enormous debt utterly impossible—even at ($204,000). This was liable to an increase of a very low rate. It would be to acknowledge $36,000, due to the Savannah & Memphis, mak an indebtedness equal to one-fifth of all the ing $1,192,000 in all. The commissioners pro- property of the people—and to provide for the posed that new bonds be substituted for these, annual interest which would accrue would reon the basis of fifty cents on the dollar, with quire a tax, if not inhibited by the constituthirty years to run, and bearing interest at five tion, which would be tantamount to confiscaper cent. The third class of obligations was tion. It is apparent, therefore, that a just and designated as the "contingent direct debt," honorable compromise is indispensable. Unwhich amounted to $2,573,093, and consisted just claims must be rejected, and those which of a claim of the South & North Railroad al- are acknowledged must necessarily be reduced. leged to be $600,000; alleged balance due the An act was passed, and received the apschool-fund of $508,404 ; claim of W. A. O. proval of the Governor on the 23d of FebJones, $150,000; notes executed by Governor ruary, with this title: “ An act to ratify and Lewis to H. Clews & Co., $299,660; bonds confirm the settlement of the existing indebthypothecated by Governor Lewis with H. edness of this State, as proposed in the report Clews & Co., $650,000; interest on the latter, of the commissioners appointed under the act $130,000; balance claimed by H. Clews & Co. approved 17th of December, 1874, and which as due on account current, $235,029. The first was communicated to the General Assembly two items are dismissed as forming no part of by message of the Governor of 24th January, the bonded debt, and the claim of Mr. Jones as 1876, and to carry said settlement into effect not sufficiently investigated. The transactions by the issuance of new bonds of this state, at with H. Clews & Co. were characterized as anomalous, and the conclusion was reached that the State was only liable for $310,000, with interest, formerly due to Clews & Co., but for which there are now several claimants whose rights must be determined by judicial proceedings. The fourth class of obligations consisted of bonds indorsed for or issued to railroad companies, and amounted to $11,597,000 of railroad bonds indorsed by the State, and $3,024,000 of State bonds loaned to railroads. The policy which granted State aid so liberally to railroad enterprises at a time when the people were impoverished was severely criticised, and it was proposed that all claims on that account be settled by compromise. In place of the liability on account of $4,720,000 a reduced rate of interest, in adjustment of a indorsed bonds of the Alabama & Chattanooga portion of said indebtedness, and the surrender Railroad, and $580,000 of the same elaimed as of certain securities held by the State in disan over-issne, $1,000,000 State bonds were to charge of another portion of said indebtedbe substituted, having thirty years to run, with ness. This authorizes the issue of $7,000,000 interest of two per cent. for five years, and of bonds, to be designated as Class A, and to be four per cent. for twenty-five years, and renew- used in payment of the first class of liabilities; able for thirty years at five per cent. at the $596,000 of bonds, designated as Class B, to option of the State. There were also $2,000,000 be used in discharge of the second class of bonds of the State which had been loaned to liabilities above mentioned ; and $1,000,000 the same company. These it was proposed to bonds of Class O, to take the place of all liaretrieve by a sale of the lands mortgaged to the bilities on account of the Alabama & ChattaState to secure their payment. With regard nooga Railroad Company; $310,000 acknowlto the liabilities on account of bonds indorsed edged to be due to H. Clews & Co. is to be paid for or loaned to the Montgomery & Eufaula, out of proceeds from bonds of Class A. With East Alabama & Cincinnati, Selma & Gulf, regard to the direct bonds of the State loaned Selma, Marion & Memphis, and the New Or- to the Alabama & Chattanooga Railroad Comleans & Selma Railroad Companies, the com pany it is provided that the liability of the missioners stated that there was important liti- State on their account shall be discharged on gation pending, and suggested that the holders acceptance by the holders of the lien and right of the bonds might be convinced that their best of the State upon the property of the road. interests would be advanced by accepting a The execution of this act is placed under the transfer of the State lien and giving a full dis- supervision and direction of the same coinmischarge for their claims. The commissioners say, sioners who submitted the plan of adjustment, after presenting this plan for adjusting the State viz.: Governor George S. Houston, Levi W. debt: "To recognize every claim preferred Lawler, and T. B. Bethea.



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