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permitted to touch and take in or land mer- It was then determined to go on, at all risks, chandise or passengers. The chief interest with the railroad. The governor of the disattaches to the port of Ichang, placed high up trict was prevailed upon to give his authorizaon the great river of China 1,000 miles from tion for the making of a “suitable road," the sea. It is practically the highest point to which he did the more willingly inasmuch as which steamers can hope to ascend the Yang- large numbers of work-people had constantly tse-kiang, for, although there is an immense to make the journey from Woosung to Shangvolume of water in the river for many hun- hai. Then the land had to be bought; also dreds of miles above Ichang, the river flows the right of building bridges over the creeks. through a series of formidable rapids, which The Chinese proprietors were afraid to sell will probably do more than even the exclusive without first obtaining the sanction of the aupolicy of the Chinese Government to keep for- thorities; but as some sort of road was wanteign steain enterprise out of the promising ed by every one, no objection was made to the region of Szechuen. The prospects of trade proposed purchase. Having acquired the ownat Ichang were fully reported on by a commission from the Chamber of Commerce at Shanghai, which visited that and other places in 1869. From that report it appeared that Ichang is likely to form the entrepot and the connecting link between two rich areas—the valley of the Yang-tse-kiang, with its laborious millions, on the one side, and on the other the province of Szechuen, which all travelers unite in extolling as the land of plenty. The principal entrepot at present is not Ichang, bat a place about sixty

CANTON, FROM THE TEMPLE OF THE FIVE GENII. miles lower down the river, named Shasi, where the Shanghai dele- ership of the land on which it was intended gates estimated the "shipping in port" at to construct the railway, the Shanghai mer40,000 tons; but Shasi lies low, and is devoid chants sent to England for rails, which in due of all interest save a purely commercial one, time arrived. Meanwhile the wood-work had while Ichang is described as charmingly situ- been completed, and in the middle of January ated and possessing sanitary advantages which last the engineers began to lay the rails down. are not to be overlooked in selecting a resi- Still the officials looked calmly on; until, on dence in the interior of a continent.

the 16th of March, it was found possible to The first line of railroad in China was for- make a trial-trip along the line of railway mally opened on June 30th. It extends from three miles in length. The English directors Shanghai to Woosung, a distance of eleven and shareholders traveled in the carriages, and miles. The line runs along the borders of the the luggage-vans were filled with Chinese, who river Van Poo, of which the navigation be- seemed to make the journey with great satistween Shanghai and Woosung is impeded by a faction to themselves. When the governor of sand-bank. It was proposed some time ago by the district was informed that the railway was the foreign merchants at Shanghai to build a partly completed, and that engines were runrailroad from that place to Woosung; but the ning over a portion of the line, he at first Chinese authorities refused to grant the neces- treated the report with contempt. But it was sary permission. After having exhausted ev confirmed again and again by eye-witnesses; ery possible means to obtain the required per- and ultimately he went out to see for himself, mission, it was determined, without consulting and, in presence of an excited crowd, ordered the Chinese, to form a company for exploring the rails to be taken up. The chairman of the the forbidden route. The requisite capital company, however, begged him, before requirwas subscribed without delay; and, on the sur- ing the execution of such an extreme measure, vey being made, it appeared that, with the ex to consider the matter in private; and the two ception of three little creeks which it would went together to the government-house, where be necessary to bridge over, and a few hollows the governor's own permission to construct a which would have to be filled up, the line pre- “suitable road” was shown to him. The dissented no engineering difficulties of any kind. cussion was thus narrowed to the question


whether the road of iron between Woosung achievements. In 1864 he founded the Imand Shanghai was really a “suitable” one; perial Arsenal at Nanking, and supplied it both and the governor at last consented to submit with skilled workmen and all the apparatus this point to the superior officials at Peking. necessary for making guns, torpedoes, rockets, Before an answer could be received, trains shells, and other war implements. In 1865, were running all the way from Shanghai to after the fall of Nanking, he was made governWoosung. An authorization arrived from Pe- or-general; in 1866 he went north, and put an king to tolerate what the foreigners had already end to the Nieufli insurrection; in 1870 was orcompleted, which gave them the right of keep- dered to fight the Mohammedan rebels in Shaning open the entire line. In December the si and Kiangsi, but, while en route, he was rerailroad was mobbed by the natives, and was called and made Governor-General of Chihli, forced to stop running for a time.

and in 1872 was raised to the rank of a secondLi-Hung-Chang, the Viceroy of Chihli, and class noble. He is about fifty-five years of age. First Secretary of State, who was select The following table of the distribution of ed to conduct the negotiations with Minister missionaries of different Protestant societies Wade, is regarded as the implacable enemy of in China, in 1874, has been compiled on the foreigners and the leading opponent of prog- basis of a like table furnished in 1875 to Euro

He was the second of five brothers, sons pean readers by the China Inland Missionary of a poor literary man. During the Taiping Society. Besides the missionaries included in rebellion he offered his services to the Govern- the table, the Southern Presbyterians had one ment, and, besides rising rapidly in military missionary at Ningpo in the Chihkiang Prov. rank, he gained much imperial favor. Al. ince, the Irish Presbyterians two, and the Scotthough accused of the foulest treachery in be- tish United Presbyterians one, in Mantchooria, heading the rebel kings, whose lives he had not in China proper. The number of stations guaranteed, after the fall of Soochow, he was occupied was thirty-one in the whole empire. created a noble, and invested with the yellow The population of the provinces is given in jacket, the highest honor in China for military round numbers:


87 millions.



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1. Baptist Missionary Union..
2. Baptist Mission (independent)..
3. American Board of Commissioners for Foreign

4. Methodist Episcopal Church (South)...
5. Methodist Episcopal...
6. Presbyterian Mission (North)...
7. Protestant Episcopal..
8. Reformed Dutch...
9. Seventh Day Baptist...
10. Southern Baptist Convention...
11. Southern Presbyterian...
12. United Presbyterian..

13. Woman's Union Mission.. Beitis:

14. Baptist Mission.
15. British and Foreign Bible Society..
16. China Inland Mission
17. Church Missionary.
18. London Missionary.
19. Methodist New Connection.
20. National Bible Society-Scotland
21. Presbyterian Mission-English..
22. Society for the Propagation of the Gospel..
23. United Methodist Free Church.
24. United Presbyterian-Scotland.

25. Wesleyan Mission.... CANADIAN:

26. Canadian Presbyterian . CONTINENTAL:

27. Evangelical Missionary Society of Basel..

28. Rhenish Missionary Society. UNCONNECTED : 29. Upconnected with any mission .....

Total number of missionaries in provinces.........



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The Chinese Recorder for September and October, 1875, gives the following tables of missionaries in China and some adjacent countries:

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CHRISTIAN CONNECTION. The Christian Almanac for 1877 gives a list of 1,263 ordained ministers of the Christian Connection in the United States and Canada, who are distributed by States as follows: Maine, 65; New Hampshire, 39; Vermont, 19; Massachusetts, 40; Rhode Island, 14; Connecticut, 2; New York, 156; New Jersey, 11; Pennsylvania, 66; Virginia, 10; West Virginia, 2; Kentucky, 9; Ohio, 228; Indiana, 194; Michigan, 62; Illinois, 105; Wisconsin, 36 ; Iowa, 128; Missouri, 27; Nebraska, 7; Kansas, 20; Canada, 23. The total number of unordained ministers is given as 328. The Register gives the following list of schools and seminaries of the Connection : Union Christian College, Merom, Sullivan County, Ind., Rev. T. C. Smith, A. M., president, with six teachers; Antioch College, Antioch High School, and Ohio Free Normal School, Yellow Springs, Ohio, J. B. Weston, acting president; Weanbleau Christian Institute, Hickory County, Mo., Rev. J. Whitaker, B.'s., principal, with three assistants; Proctor Academy, Andover, N. H., Rev. Alva H. Morrill, principal; the Eaton Family School, Middleboro', Mass., Amos H. Eaton, principal ; the Christian Biblical Institute, Stanfordville, Dutchess County, N.Y.; Starkey Seminary, Eddytown, Yates County, N. Y., Prof. B. F. McHenry, A. M., principal, with six teachers. The publishing house of this denomination is at Dayton, Ohio, and its newspaper organ, the Herald of Gospel Liberty, is printed there. No statistics are given of the number of church-members connected with the denomination.

CHRISTIAN UNION, The General Council of the Christian Union in the United States met at Providence Chapel, Hancock County, Ohio, May 31st. H. Ellis was chosen moderator. A resolution was adopted, providing that a General Council shall be held once in two years, at such times and places as shall be by itself determined, which council shall consist of all the members of the churches of Christ in the United States, and shall have supervision over the interests general and common to all the bodies represented. The following preamble and resolutions on union were adopted :

Whereas, It is our duty to God and man, from time to time, to define our position, that all may know why, as a body of Christians, we take our position outside of all denominations in Jaboring to secure unity and build up the cause of true religion ; and

Whereas, Sectarianism has never been defined by men sustaining sects in its true light, or its evils seen by such in their real character, and

Whereas, No member of a sect, who justifies sects, can be in a position to put forth to the world the truth as to the evils of sectarianism and its remedy; and

Whereas, Religious organizations and religious thought shape society; and

Whereas, When the Church falls into great wrongs in theory or practice, society has lost its true light and balance-wheel, and is driven on into infidelity and corruption by the very power that should have led it to life, and steadied and guided its forces: therefore,

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Resolved, 1. That sectarianism is to separate into subsequently President of the Senate. In 1849 sections, or separate parts, whut belongs together. he was appointed by Governor Briggs Attor

2. That all Christians in every place do belong together, and to separate thein för any cause, or bý ney-General of the State, and in the course of any means, is sectarianism.

his official duties conducted the prosecution of 3. That 'the genius and spirit of the gospel, as Prof. Webster for the murder of Dr. Parkman. well as the letter of the Bible and the history of the He continued to act as Attorney-General till primitive Church, proclaim the great but simple 1833, when he was elected Governor. He was truth that the Christians of the place are rightfully, and, in fact, by divine ordination, the real visible again Attorney-General from 1854 till 1858. church of the place.

In 1867 he retired from the legal profession, 4. That all the Christians, whether in or out of and became President of the Boston & Provisects, are required by the lite Christ has planted in dence Railroad Company. In 1859 the degree them, and by the prayer of Jesus, and the teachings of LL. D. was conferred on him by Brown of the New Testament, and their love to Christ, and their love to each other, and their love for the salva- University. For several years ex-Governor tion of men, to meet together, not to make a church, Clifford was President of the Board of Overbut to obey God, and do the duties of a church as seers of Harvard University. taught in the gospel.

COLERIDGE, Sir John TAYLOR, a British 5. That all religious associations built upon a narrower basis than that which teaches and treats ali lawyer and writer, born in 1790; died Febthe Christians of the place as equal brethren of the ruary 11, 1876. He was a nephew of Samuel one church of the place, which present creeds, tests, Taylor Coleridge. At Corpus Christi College, and usages which exclude a part of the Christians of Oxford, where he received his education, he a place, are not built after the New Testament

was a fellow-student of Dr. Arnold. He was model, and have no claims to be regarded as churches of Christ, simply because they have elected a Fellow of Exeter College in 1810, was Christians among them.

called to the bar at the Middle Temple in 1819, 6. That the Church is a divine institution, is God- going to the Western Circuit; became a sermade, is spiritual ; not mechanical, not human, not geant-at-law in 1832, was appointed one of the man-mado; and God alone can place members in his judges of the King's Bench, and upon retiring Church ; and as every one wino truly loveth is born of God--and, therefore, a member of his Church-

from the judicial bench in 1858 was created therefore it does not depend on our doctrinal views, a Privy Councilor. He showed considerable baptism, votes, or enrollment, but on a loving and literary acquirements at an early age, and havobedient heart. 7. That the evils of sectarianism admonish us of ing edited the Quarterly Review for some time,

he continued to contribute numerous articles the great importance of scattering light before the whole world on this subject, calling all Christians

to it until his death. He published an edition to repent of this sin, and put it away, and return to

of Blackstone's “ Commentaries" with notes the primitive spirit and practice of the church (1825), and a “Memoir of the Rev. John Keble, gathering, as taught in the gospel.

M. A.” (1869, third edition, 1870). The leading principles of the Christian COLET, Louise Révoil, a French authoress, Union (South) are set forth in the following born September 15, 1810; died March 10, 1876. extracts from the Declaration of Principles :

In 1835 she went to Paris, where she married We may well afford to dispense with all those Hippolyte Colet, a musical writer and comdoctrines and tenets which set the brethren at poser. After his death in 1851 she turned her variance, and to take the following primary consti attention still more diligently to literature. tution as the groundwork of our organization, viz. : 1. The Lord Jesus Christ is the only head of tho

She received the prize for poetry of the InstiChurch. The Pope of Rome, or any other pretend

tute four times for the following poems: "Le ing to be the head thereof, should be regarded as

Musée de Versailles" (1839), “Le Monument that man of sin and son of perdition who exalteth de Molière" (1843), “La Colonie de Mettray" himself above all that is called God. 2. The name Christian is the only appellation Besides these four she also published the fol

(1852), and “L'Acropole d'Athènes" (1855). needed or received by the Church. sectarian names are excluded as being unnecessary, lowing poetical works: “Fleur du Midi if not hurtful.

(1836), “A ma Mère" (1839), “Penserosa 3. The Holy Bible, or the Scriptures of the old (1839), “Les Funérailles de Napoléon " (1840), and New Testaments, is a sufficient rule of faith and Marabout de Sidi-Brahim" (1845), “Repractice.

4. Christian character, or vital piety, is a just, and veil de la Bologne" (1846), “ Les Chants des should be the only, test of fellowship, or of church- Vaincus” (1846), and “ Le Poëme Femme membership.

(in three parts, 1853–'56). Among her prose 5. The right of private judgment and the liberty works, which comprise novels, traveling adof conscience is a right and a privilege that should ventures, and personal reminiscences, are the be accorded to, and exercised by, all.

following: “La Jeunesse de Mirabeau ”(1841), CLIFFORD, John H., was born in Provi- “Les Caurs brisés" (1843), “ Deux Mois dence, R. I., January 16, 1809; died at New d'Émotion " (1843), “ Folles et Saintes" (1844), Bedford, Mass., January 2, 1876. He gradu- “Deux Femmes célèbres” (1846), " Madame ated at Brown University in 1827, and began Hoffmann-Tauska” (1854), “Promenade en the practice of law in New Bedford, where he Hollande” (1859), “Deux Mois dans les Pyafterward resided. He soon entered upon an rénées” (1859), and “ Naples sous Garibaldi” extensive practice, and attained the foremost (1861). position at the bar. He represented New COLLINS, Mortimer, an English poet and Bedford in the Legislature in 1835, and was novelist, born in 1823; died July 25, 1876. He






8,608 5,471






683 118

devoted himself at an early age to journalism,


Population. being in connection with various journals, particularly the London Globe. Among his


Antioquia poetic works are “Summer Songs” (1860), Bolivar.


241,7047: Cartagena. ** Idyls and Rhymes” (1865), and “Inn of Boyacá

Tunja.. Strange Meetings and Other Poems” (1871).



8,485 Cundinamarca. 409,590 Bogotá

40,888 His novels are as follows: “Who is the Heir?” Magdalena 85,255

5,472 (1865), “Sweet Anne Page" (1868), “The Panamá.


16,045 Ivory Gate" (1869), “The Vivian Romance”


9,198 (1870), “ Marquis and Merchant" (1871), “ Two Plunges for a Pearl”(1872), “Princess Clarice" Bolivar...

7,751 Landázuri

414 (1872), “Miranda”(1873), “Squire Silchester's Casanare

26,066 Tame Whim» (1873), “Mr. Carrington ” (1873), Nevada and Moti

8,890 Soldado written under the assumed name of R. T. lones..

Espíritu Santo... Cotton, “Transmigration” (1874), and “Fran- San Martin. 4,056 Villavicencio.... 625 ces" (1874). He also published a volume of

Providencia .... 8,580 San Luis........ essays anonymously in 1871, entitled “The Secret of Long Life.”

Total......... 2,951,811 COLOMBIA (Estados UNIDOS DE COLOMBIA), an independent state, occupying the It is estimated that, including the number of north western portion of South America and uncivilized Indians interspersed throughout the the southeastern portion of Central America. country, the total population of Colombia is The territorial division* of the republic is into at the present time about 3,000,000. nine federal States and six Territories, which, Of the 2,951,311 forming the total of the with their populations and capitals, according foregoing table, 1,434,129 were males, constito the census of 1870, are as follows:

tuting an excess of 83,053 females.


San Andrés and


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R. Nuñez.
E. Neira.
C. Conto.


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The President of the Republic is Señor


Señor R. de Villa,
Aquileo Parra, inaugurated April 1, 1876; and

Bolívar. the cabinet is composed of the following min Boyacá.. isters or secretaries: Of Interior and Foreign


J. Sanchez,
Affairs, Dr. Manuel Ancizar; of Finance and Magdalena..

M. Dávila García, Public Works, Dr. O. N. Rodriguez; of Treas Panamá.

R. Aizpuru.

M. A. Estrada. ury and Credit, Señor Luis Robles; and of Tolima

General Córdoba. War and Marine, Señor Rafael Niño. Here follow the names of the chief magis- is Señor Miguel Salgar.

The Colombian consul-general in New York trates of the nine States:

The national revenue for the year ending * Complete details concerning boundaries, area, etc., were + The figures set down opposite Bolívar are the result of given in the ANNUAL CYCLOPÆDIA for 1874.

the census of 1874.

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