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are elected, then two are elected each year to serve two years. The auditors shall require supervisors to give bonds. The compensation received by supervisors is $1.50 a day for time spent in performing the several duties of the office. It is the business of the supervisors to look after the public highways and care for them. They levy the road tax, both cash and work tax, not to exceed ten mills; they appoint the pathmasters, see to the erection and repair of township bridges, purchase and care for the road machines and other tools belonging to the township; they also have charge of all township buildings, election houses, and the like. They are compelled to erect at all cross roads index boards, giving the name and distance, in legible characters, of the town or place to which such road leads. Failure to comply with this provision subjects them to a fine of $10 for each offense. No more important local officers are elected by the people than supervisors. Vacancies are filled by the Court of Quarter Sessions.

Pathmasters, or roadmasters, are men appointed by the board of supervisors, in some counties, whose duty it is to look after certain sections of road called "beats." Custom varies in different counties. To each is given a book containing the names and amount of tax against each taxable belonging to his beat, and it is his duty to notify these persons when he wants them to come and work out the road tax against them. For his services he receives credit on his own work tax at the rate of $1.50 a day.

The public highways of our own country are much inferior to those of other countries, and yet a vast amount of money is collected each year in the form of road tax, and annually expended upon the highways, but is used in such a desultory and unscientific way that it is for the most part wasted. After from fifty to à hundred years of this kind of roadmaking; after the expenditure of money and labor enough to have paved or macadamized the principal roads of the land, the people of the country and many towns are obliged to wade through mud and mire for the larger part of the year, many of the highways becoming actually impassable. It is high time that some reform be made in this matter, and the officers who are empowered to tax people for this purpose be held to stricter accountability for the manner in which the people's money is used. Hence we see that supervisors should be carefully selected, and then upheld by public sentiment in the right and scientific building and repair of roads.

CHAPTER XII.

TOWNSHIP OFFICERS (Continued).

The Judge of Elections is elected for one year. It is his duty to decide all disputes in regard to the qualifications of those offering to vote, whenever the inspectors shall disagree upon the right of any person to vote, but not otherwise. He also acts as

return judge, that is, he carries the results to the proper place for recording, usually the county seat. He receives $1.50 a day for his services, and mileage in addition for services as return judge.

The Inspectors of Elections are elected for one year. These inspectors shall be of different political parties, each elector voting for one inspector. The two receiving the highest number of votes are elected. It is their duty to keep the record of the voters, and assist the judges of election in all matters pertaining to the election, and decide all disputes in regard to qualification of electors if they can agree, if not, the judge of elections decides. They appoint clerks to keep the tally-sheets, and each inspector, as well as the clerks, receives $1.50 a day for his services. Vacancies for judge or inspectors of elections are filled by the Court of Common Pleas.

Two School Directors are elected each year, for three years, whose duties, etc., are set fourth under the head of School Districts, Chapter VI.

The Township Clerk is elected each year for one year. It is his duty to keep a record of the proceedings of the board of supervisors. He draws all orders on the township treasurer, serves notices, and performs any other public duties ordered by the board of supervisors. He is paid such compensation for his services as the board of supervisors shall determine. Vacancies are filled by the Court of Quarter Sessions.

The Treasurer is elected for one year, and it is his duty to give bond to the supervisors, to take charge of all money collected on duplicates issued by this board-that is, road tax or tax received from any other source, and to pay out the same on orders signed by the board and attested by the clerk. He receives for his services a certain per cent of money expended: the rate is fixed by supervisors, with approbation of the auditors. He must keep an accurate account of the money received and expended and lay the same before the board of auditors. Vacancies are filled by Court of Quarter Sessions.

Overseers of the Poor.-Townships in counties having no poorhouses managed by the county commissioners, or poor districts with poorhouses managed by directors of the poor, shall elect two overseers of the poor, one each year, to serve two years, such officers to receive $1.00 a day for services rendered.

CHAPTER XIII.

VILLAGES, TOWNS, AND CITIES.

A Village is generally a small collection of dwellings, though in some States the name is given to quite large business centers. In most States villages are not incorporated, that is, are not given by special legislation territorial limits and a new local government. In many States the word town is used in the same sense, though in general this name is given to a larger collection of buildings, and one that is in

corporated, that is, has a charter and its own local government. In Pennsylvania such villages or towns are called boroughs.

A Borough has its deed of incorporation or charter granted by the Court of Quarter Sessions. It is made a distinct political community, its privileges are enumerated, its officers have their duties assigned them, and it is empowered like the township to act independently, though under the State and national Constitutions. Borough officers are: Burgess, elected for three years, and not eligible for re-election; six councilmen, elected for one year, who shall pass all ordinances for the government of the borough; assessor, constable, tax collector, auditors, etc., as in townships.

A City always has a special local government, differing but slightly from that of boroughs or incorporated towns. In some States there are cities with less than 1,000 inhabitants, while in others there are villages or towns with 15,000 inhabitants, and yet having the simplest form of local government. In Pennsylvania a city may be chartered whenever a majority of the electors in any town or borough having at least 10,000 inhabitants shall vote at any general election in favor of the same.

City Government usually conforms to our general governmental scheme in having an executive called the mayor, a legislative body called a council or board of aldermen, and a judicial department which consists of police or magistrate courts, in place of

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