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of this principle this Government has freely received emigrants from all nations, and invested them with the rights of citizenship; and whereas it is claimed that such American citizens, with their descendants, are subjects of foreign states, owing allegiance to the governments thereof; and whereas it is necessary to the maintenance of public peace that this claim of foreign allegiance should be promptly and finally disavowed : Therefore any declaration, instruction, opinion, order, or decision of any officer of the United States which denies, restricts, impairs, or questions the right of expatriation, is declared inconsistent with the fundamental
principles of the Republic. Protection to SEC. 2000. All naturalized citizens of the United States, while in fornaturalized citi. eign countries, are entitled to and shall receive from this Government Zeus 1 foreign the same protection of persons and property which is accorded to nativestates.
born citizens. Release of citi. SEC. 2001. Whenever it is made known to the President that any citizens imprisoned by foreign gov. 2
14. zen of the United States has been unjustly deprived of his liberty by or ernments to be under the authority of any foreign government, it shall be the duty of demanded. the President forth with to demand of that government the reasons of
isopment; and if it appears to be wrongful and in violation of the rights of American citizenship, 'the President shall forthwith demand the release of such citizen, and if the release so demanded is unreasonably delayed or refused, the President sball use such means, not amounting to acts of war, as he may think necessary and proper to obtain or effectuate the release; and all the facts and proceedings relative thereto shall as soon as practicable be communicated by the Presi
dent to Congress. Title 70, Chap. 5. SEC. 5424. Every person applying to be admitted a citizen, or appearFalse persona. 11s as
persona ing as a witness for any such person, who knowingly personates any tion, &c., in pro other person than himself, or falsely appears in the name of a deceased curing natural. person, or in an assumed or fictitious name, or falsely nakes, forges, or ization.
counterfeits any oath, notice, affidavit, certificate, order, record, signature, or other instrument, paper, or proceeding required or authorized by any law relating to or providing for the naturalization of aliens; or who utters, sells, disposes of, or uses as true or genuine, or for any unlawful purpose, any false, forged, ante-dated, or counterfeit oath, notice, certificate, order, record, signature, instrument, paper, or proceeding above specified; or sells or disposes of to any person other than the person for whom it was originally issued any certificate of citizenship, or certificate showing any person to be admitted a citizen, shall be punished by imprisonment at hard labor not less than one year, nor more than five years, or by a fine of not less than three hundred nor more than
one thousand dollars, or by both such fine and imprisonment. Using false cer. SEC. 5425. Every person who uses, or attempts to use, or aids, or tificate of citizen- assists, or participates in the use of any certificate of citizenship, knowship, &c.
ing the same to be forged, or counterfeit, or ante-dated, or knowing the same to have been procured by fraud or otherwise unlawfully obtained ; or who, without lawful excuse, knowingly is possessed of any false, forged, ante-dated, or counterfeit certificate of citizenship, purporting to have been issued under the provisions of any law of the United States relating to naturalization, knowing such certificate to be false, forged, ante-dated, or counterfeit, with intent unlawfully to use the same; or obtains, accepts, or receives any certificate of citizenship known to such person to have been procured by fraud or by the use of any false name, or by means of any false statement made with intent to procure, or to aid in procuring, the issue of such certificate, or known to such person to be fraudulently altered or ante-dated; and every person who has been or may be admitted to be a citizen who, on oath or by affidavit, knowingly denies that he has been so admitted, with intent to evade or avoid any duty or liability imposed or required by law, shall be imprisoned at hard labor not less than one year nor more than five years, or be fined not less than three hundred dollars nor more than one thousand dollars,
or both such punishments may be imposed. Using false cer. SEC. 5426. Every person who in any manner uses for the purpose of tificate, &c., as registering as a voter, or as evidence of a right to vote, or otherwise, evidence of a unlawfully, any order, certificate of citizenship, or certificate, judgment, right to vote.
or exemplification, showing any person to be admitted to be a citizen, whether heretofore or hereafter issued or made, knowing that snch order or certificate, judgment, or exemplification has been uplawfully issued or made; and every person who unlawfully uses, or attempts to
use, any such order or certificate, issued to or in the name of any other person, or in a fictitious name, or the name of a deceased person, shall! be punished by imprisonment at hard labor not less than one year nor more than five years, or by a fine of not less than three hundred nor more than one thousand dollars, or by both such fine and imprisonment.
SEC. 5427. Every person who knowingly and intentionally aids or abets any person in the commission of any felony denounced in the
the Aiding or abetthree preceding sections, or attempts to do any act therein made felony, preceding sec. or counsels, advises, or procures, or attempts to procure, the commission tions. thereof, shall be punished in the same manner and to the same extent as the principal party.
SEC. 5428. Every person who knowingly uses any certificate of natu- Falsely claimralization heretofore granted by any court, or hereafter granted, which ing citizenship. has been or may be procured through fraud or by false evidence, or has been or may be issued by the clerk, or any other officer of the court without any appearance and hearing of the applicant in court and without lawful authority; and every person who falsely represents himself to be a citizen of the United States, without having been duly adinitted to citizenship, for any fraudulent purpose whatever, shall be punishable by a fine of not more than one thousand dollars, or be imprisoned not more than two years, or both.
SEC. 5429. The provisions of the five preceding sections shall apply Provisions apto all proceedings had or taken, or attempted to be had or taken, before plicable to all
a courts of naturalany court in which any proceeding for naturalization may be commenced.
u ization. or attempted to be commenced. [See V Ø 2165-2174, NATURALIZATION.]
CIVIL ENGINEERS AND NAVAL STORE-KEEPERS.
Sec. 1413. Civil engineers and store-keepers at nary. 1478. Rank of civil engineers. yards.
1527. Store-keeper at the Academy. 1414. Store-keepers on foreign stations.
1556. Pay of civil engineers. 1415. Store-keeper's boud.
1567. Officers serving as store-keepers on foreign 1438. Officers to act as store-keepers on foreign
1568. Civilians, store-keepers on foreign stations. 1439. Bonds of.
SEC. 1413. The President, by and with the advice and consent of the Title 15, Chap. I. Senate, may appoint a civil engineer and a naval store-keeper at each
Civil of the navy-yards where such officers may be necessary.
at navy-yards. Sec. 1414. The Secretary of the Navy may appoint citizens who are Store-keepers not officers of the Navy to be store-keepers on foreign stations, when on foreign stasuitable officers of the Navy cannot be ordered on such service, or when, tions. in his opinion, the public interest will be thereby promoted. [Sec. 1568.]
SEC. 1415. Every person who is appointed store-keeper under the Store-keeper's provisions of the preceding section shall be required to give a bond, in bond. such amount as may be fixed by the Secretary of the Navy, for the faithful performance of his duty.
SEC. 1438. The Secretary of the Navy shall order a suitable commis- Title 15. Chap. 2. sioned or warrant officer of the Navy, except in the case provided in section fourteen hundred and fourteen, to take charge of the naval Officers, to act
as store-keepers stores for foreign squadrons at each of the foreign stations where such on foreign sta. stores may be deposited, and where a store-keeper may be necessary. tions.
SEC. 1439. Every officer so acting as store-keeper on a foreign station Bonds of. shall be required to give a bond, in such amount as may be fixed by the Secretary of the Navy, for the faithful performance of his duty.
SEC. 1478. Civil engineers shall have such relative rank as the Presi- Title 15, Chap. 4. dent may fix.
Rank of civil
engineers. SEC. 1527. The store-keeper at the Naval Academy shall be detailed Title 15, Chap. 5. from the Paymasters' Corps, and shall bave authority, with the approval 5
Store-keeper at of the Secretary of the Navy, to procure clothing and other necessaries the Academy. for the midsbipmen and cadet engineers in the same manner as supplies are furnished to the Navy to be issued under such regulations as may be prescribed by the Secretary of the Navy.
SEC. 1556. * * * Civil engineers during the first five years after Title 15, Chaf. 8. date of appointment, when on duty, two thousand four hundred dollars; 7 on leave or waiting orders, one thousand five hundred dollars; during e
Pay of civil u uonars; uur 8 engineers.
the second five years after such date, when on duty, two thousand seven hondreil dollar's; on leave or waiting orders, one thousand eight liundrell dollars; during the ihird five years after such date, when on duty, Ilirea thousand dollars ; on leave or waiting orders, two thousand one hundrell dollars; after fifteen years from such date, when on duty, three thousand tive hundred dollars; on leave or waiting orders, two thou
sand six hundred dollars. Officers serving Sec. 1567. Officers who are ordered to take charge of naval stores for as store-keepers foreign squadrons, in the place of paval store-keepers, shali be entitled on foreign sta
a. to receive, while so employed, the shore-duty pay of their grades; and tions.
when the same is less tban fifteen hundred dollars a year, they may be allowed compensation, including such sbore-duty pay, at a rate not ex
ceeding fifteen hundred dollars a year. Civilians, store. SEC. 1568. Civilians appointed as store-keepers on foreign stations keeperson for. sball receive compensation for such services, at a rate not exceeding eign stations. fifteen hundred dollars a year.
Act to protect all citizens in their civil and
Title 24, Sec. 1977. All persons within the jurisdiction of the United States Equal rights shall have
shall have the same right in every State and' Territory to make and under the law." enforce contracts, to sue, be parties, give evidence, and to the full and
equal benefit of all laws and proceedings for the security of persons and property as is enjoyed by white citizens, and shall be subject to like punishment, pains, penalties, taxes, licenses, and exactions of every
kind, and to no other. Rights of citi- SEC. 1978. All citizens of the United States shall have the same right, zens in respect to in every State and Territory, as is enjoyed by white citizens thereof to real and personal inherit, purchase, lease, sell, hold, and convey real and personal prop
Civil action for Sec. 1979. Every person wbo, under color of any statute, ordivance, deprivation of regulation, custom, or usage, of any State or Territory, subjects, or rights.
causes to be subjected, any citizen of the United States or other person within the jurisdiction thereof to the deprivation of any rights, privileges, or immunities secured by the Constitution and laws, shall be liable to the party injured in an action at law, suit in equity, or other proper proceeding for redress. [See ☺ 563, 629, R. S. Secs. 563-629
relate to jurisdiction.] Conspiracy Sec. 1980. First. If two or more persons in any State or Territory con
spire to prevent, by force, intimidation, or threat, any person from
Second. If two or more persons in any State or Territory conspire to deter, by force, intimidation, or threat, any party or witness in any court of the United States from attending such court, or from testifying to any matter pending therein, freely, fully, and truthfully, or to injure such party or witness in his person or property on account of his having so attended or testified, or to influence the verdict, presentment, or indictment of any grand or petit juror in any such court, or to injure such juror in his person or property on account of any verdict, presentment, or indictment lawfully assented to by him, or of his being or having been such juror; or if two or more persons conspire for the purpose of impeding, hindering, obstructing, or defeating, in any manner, the due course of justice in any State or Territory, with intent to deny to any citizen the equal protection of the laws, or to injure him or his property for lawfully enforcing, or attempting to enforce, the right of any person, or class of persons, to the equal protection of the laws;
Third. If two or more persons in any State or Territory conspire, or go in disguise on the bighway or on the premises of another, for the purpose of depriving, either directly or indirectly, any person or class of persons of the equal protection of the laws, or of equal privileges and immunities under the laws; or for the purpose of preventing or hindering the constituted authorities of any State or Territory from giving or securing to all persons within such State or Territory the equal protection of the laws; or if two or more persons conspire to prevent by force, intimidation, or threat, any citizen who is lawfully entitled to vote, from giving his support or advocacy in a legal manner, toward or in favor of the election of any lawfully qualified person as an elector for President or Vice-President, or as a member of Congress of the United States; or to injure any citizen in person or property on account of such support or advocacy ; in any case of conspiracy set forth in this section, if one or more persons engaged therein do, or cause to be done, any act in furtherance of the object of such conspiracy, whereby another is injured in his person or property, or deprived of having and exercising any right or privilege of a citizen of the United States, the party so injured or deprived may bave an action for the recovery of damages, occasioned by such injury or deprivation, against any one or more of the conspiratorg. [See g 563, 629, R. S.]
SEC. 1981. Every person who, having knowledge that any of the Action for neg. wrongs conspired to be done, and mentioned in the preceding section, lect to prevent are about to be committed, and having power to prevent or aid in pre-conspiracy. venting the commission of the same, neglects or refuses so to do, if such wrongful act be committed, shall be liable to the party injured, or his legal representatives, for all damages caused by such wrongful act, which such person by reasonable diligence could have prevented; and such damages may be recovered in an action on the case; and any number of persons guilty of such wrongful neglect or refusal may be joined as defendants in the action ; and if the death of any party be caused by any such wrongful act and neglect, the legal representatives of the deceased shall have such action therefor, and may recover not exceeding five thousand dollars damages therein, for the benefit of the widow of the deceased, if there be one, and if there be no widow, then for tbe benefit of the next of kin of the deceased. . But no action under the provisions of tbis section shall be sustained which is not commenced within one year after the cause of action has accrued.. [See § 629, R. S.]
[Secs. 1982 to 1988 relate to the duties of district attorneys, commissioners, &c.]
SEC. 1989. It shall be lawful for the President of the United States, Aid of the mili: or such person as he may empower for that purpose, to employ such tary and naval part of the land or waval forces of the United States, or of the militia, as may be necessary to aid in the execution of judicial process issued under any of the preceding provisions, or as shall be necessary to prevent the violation and enforce the due execution of the provisions of this Title.
SEC. 1990. The holding of any person to service or labor under the Peonage abol. system known as peopage is abolished and forever probibited in the ished. Territory of New Mexico, or in any other Territory or State of the United States; and all acts, laws, resolutions, orders, regulations, or usages of the Territory of New Mexico, or of any other Territory or State, wbich have heretofore established, maintained, or enforced, or by virtue of which any attempt shall hereafter be made to establish, maintain, or enforce, directly or indirectly, the voluntary or involuntary service or labor of any persons as peons, in liquidation of any devt or obligation, or otherwise, are declared null and void.
SEC. 1991. Every person in the military or civil service in the Terri. Foregoing sec. tory of New Mexico shall aid in the enforcement of the preceding tion, howen.
SEC. 5516. Every person who willfully obstructs, hinders, or prevents Title 70, Chap. 7. any officer or other person cbarged with the execution of any warrant ob
Obstructing or process issued under the provisions of sections nineteen hundred and execution of proeighty-four and nineteen hundred and eighty-five, Title “CIVIL Riguts,” cess in civil. or any person lawfully assisting him, from arresting any person for rights cases, &c. whose apprehension such warrant or process may have been issuell; or
rescuies, or attempts to rescue, such person from the custody of the officer or other persou lawfully assisting when so arrested, pursuant to the authority herein given; or aids, abets, or assists any person so arrested, directly or indirectly, to escape from the custody of the officer or other person legally authorized to arrest the party; or harbors or conceals any person for whose arrest a warrant or process has been issued, so as to prevent his discovery and arrest, after notice or knowledge of the fact that a warrapt has been issued for the apprehension of such person, shall, for any of such offenses, be subject to a fine of not more than one thousand dollars, or imprisonment not more than six
months, or both. Marshal refus- SEC. 5517. Every marshal and deputy marsbal who refuses to receive ing to receive or any
Tany warrant or other process when tendered to him, issnied in pursuance execute process.
of the provisions of section nineteen hundred and eighty-five, Title " CIVIL RIGHTS," or refuses or neglects to use all proper means diligently to execute the same, shall be liable to a fine in the sum of one thousand dollars, for the benefit of the party aggrieved thereby.
An act to protect all citizens in their civil and legal rights.
Whereas, it is essential to just government we recognize the equality of all men before the law, and hold that it is the duty of government in its dealings with the people to mete out equal and exact justice to all, of whatever nativity, race, color, or persuasion, religious or political; and it being the appropriate object of legislation to enact great funda
mental principles into law: Therefore, March 1, 1875. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United
Equal enioy. States of America in Congress assembled, That all persons within the ment of inns, jurisdiction of the United States shall be entitled to the full and equal public convey enjoyment of the accommodations, advantages, facilities, and privileges
ealers, of inps, public conveyances on land or water, theaters, and other places &c.
of public amusement; subject only to the conditions and limitations established by law, and applicable alike to citizens of every race and
color, regardless of any previous condition of servitude. Forfeit to per- SEC. 2. That any person who shall violate the foregoing section by son a grieved by denying to any citizen, except for reasons by law applicable to citizens denial of equalenjoyment of inns, of every race and color, and regardless of any previous condition of &c.
servitude, the full enjoyment of any of the accommodations, advantages, facilities, or privileges in said section enumerated, or by aiding or inciting such denial, shall, for every such offense, forfeit and pay the sum of five hundred dollars to the person aggrieved thereby, to be recovered in
an action of debt, with full costs; and shall also, for every such offense, Punishmentfor be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction thereof, shall denying, &c. be fined not less than five hundred nor more than one thousand dollars,
or shall be imprisoned not less than thirty days nor more than one year: Election of Provided, That all persons may elect to sue for the penalty aforesaid or remedies.
to proceed under their rights at common law and by State statutes; and baving so elected to proceed in the one mode or the other, their right to proceed in the other jurisdiction shall be barred. But this proviso sball
not apply to criminal proceedings, either under this act or the criminal Effect of recor. law of any State: And provided further, That a judgment for the penalty eries.
in favor of the party aggrieved, or a judgment upon an indictment, shall
be a bar to either prosecution respectively. Jurisdiction of Sec. 3. That the district and circuit courts of the United S-ates shall courts under this have, exclusively of the courts of the several States, cognizance of all act.
crimes and offenses against, and violations of, the provisions of this act; and actions for the penalty given by the preceding section may be pros. ecuted in the territorial, district, or circuit courts of the United States
wherever the defendant may be found, without regard to the other party; Duty of dis- and the district attorneys, marshals, and deputy marshals of the United trict, sattorneys, States, and commissioners appointed by the circuit and territorial courts marsbals, and commissioners of the United States, with powers of arresting and imprisoning or bailunder this act. ing offenders against the laws of the United States, are hereby specially
authorized and required to institute proceedings against every person who shall violate the provisions of this act, and cause him to be arrested and imprisoned or bailed, as the case may be, for trial before such court of the United States, or territorial court, as by law has cognizance of the offense, except in respect of the right of action accruing to the per