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TABLE 3. Percent of production and related workers employed in auto dealer establishments with formal provisions for

selected supplementary wage benefits 1 in 29 areas, April through August 1958

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amounts) have been converted to an equivalent time basis. The majority of the workers in 27 of the 29 areas were in establishments providing a week's vacation after 1 year of service; in Boston and Bridgeport, provisions for 2 weeks were most common. Provisions for 2 weeks' vacations after 5 years of service were common in all areas except New Orleans, Providence, and Richmond, where

a week's vacation was most prevalent. Cleveland, · Minneapolis-St. Paul, and San Francisco-Oakland

were the only areas in which provisions for 3 weeks' vacation were common. Approximately threefourths of the workers in Cleveland and San Francisco-Oakland, and half in Minneapolis-St. Paul were employed by establishments providing 3 weeks' vacation pay after 15 years of service.

Health, Insurance, and Pension Plans. The majority of the workers in all areas except Louisville and Memphis were in establishments providing all or part of the cost of some type of health or insurance plan. Life insurance, hospitalization, and surgical plans were the most prevalent types. Accidental death and dismemberment, sickness and accident, and medical insurance plans were also reported frequently. Catastrophe insurance and provisions for paid sick leave were not common.

Provisions for retirement pensions other than benefits available under Federal old age, survivors, and disability insurance were common only in New York City and Seattle, being virtually nonexistent in most other areas.

-HARRY F. BONFILS Division of Wages and Industrial Relations

Work Injuries in the United States, 1957

WORK-INJURY RATES in 1957 continued the general decline which has been evident in recent years, according to estimates of the U. S. Department of Labor's Bureau of Labor Statistics. Although the 1957 declines were small in many instances, they were widespread throughout most industry classifications, and new record lows were established for many industries. Over the 5-year period since 1952 improvements in injury rates have been quite marked, with a decrease of 20 percent in the average injury-frequency rate for manufacturing, but somewhat less improvement for most nonmanufacturing classifications.

Frequency of Injury

Injury-frequency rates 1957

1952 Explosives..

1.8 3. 4 Radio tubes.

2. 0 4. 5 Synthetic rubber.

2. 2 3. 3 Miscellaneous communication equipment.

2. 6 3. 2 Aircraft

2. 7 3. 7 Synthetic fibers.

3. O 1. 6 Electric lamps (bulbs).

3. 1 3. 9 Tires and inner tubes.

3. 2 5. 6 Miscellaneous industrial organic chemicals..

3. 7 7. O Cement.-

3. 8 6. O Among the nonmanufacturing activities for which data were available, improvement in injury rates was less marked and less general than it was among the manufacturing classifications. The injury-frequency rates for most mining activities showed encouraging improvement between 1956 and 1957, led by a decrease of 12 percent for metal mines. In contract construction, the average injury-frequency rate decreased negligibly between 1956 and 1957, but was 5 points lower than the 1952 rate. Over the 5-year period from 1952, highway and street construction recorded the largest decrease, from 46.0 to 34.8, or 24 percent.

The average injury-frequency rate for wholesale and retail trade decreased 5 percent between 1956 and 1957; however, the rate of 11.9 was above

; the average for all manufacturing. Over the 5year period since 1952, the rates for trade showed only minor fluctuations and little consistent improvement.

Injury rates were available for only a limited list of individual industries in the transportation, utility, finance, and service groups. Most of those in the transportation and utilities group showed little change or modest decreases between 1956 and 1957. The rate for telephone communication remained the same, but was the lowest achieved by any industry in the survey—0.8. The rates for banks and insurance companies were also low-2.2 for each industry, about the same as in previous years. The majority of the service industries showed little change or minor increases between 1956 and 1957 and few significant changes over the 5-year period from 1952.

The all-manufacturing injury-frequency rate for 1957 was 11.4 disabling injuries per million employee-hours worked the lowest rate recorded in the series. Among the various industry groups, the greatest absolute decreases were shown by the stone, clay, and glass group (from 18.0 in 1956 to 16.5 in 1957), and primary metals (from 12.3 to 10.9). Of the 162 individual industry classifications ? for which comparable data were available, 50 showed decreases of 1 full point or more and 96 reported changes of less than 1 point; only 16 reported significant increases over 1956.

Although the general level of injury-frequency rates has improved only slightly each year, the cumulative effect over the past 5 years has been quite marked. In manufacturing, decreases between 1952 and 1957 were fairly well distributed among industries at different rate levels, though the largest proportion was among industries with the highest rates (25 and over in 1952). As a result of these downward shifts, the 1957 industry listing showed only 14 individual manufacturing industries with injury-frequency rates of 25 or higher compared with 24 in 1952. At the other end of the scale, the number of industries with frequency rates of less than 5 rose from 9 in 1952 to 18 in 1957.

The 10 manufacturing industries which achieved the lowest injury records in 1957, together with their 1952 rates are shown above.

2

1 For definitions, see footnote 2 of accompanying table.

1 Annual rates for individual industries are published in BLS press release dated December 4, 1958, which is available upon request. The Bureau also publishes quarterly and monthly injury-frequency rates for selected manu. facturing industries in releases and in table G-1 of the Current Labor Statistics section of the Monthly Labor Review.

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The average injury-frequency rate of 8.3 for all Federal civilian employees in 1957 was slightly higher than that for any of the previous 5 years. The rates for most departments and offices, however, varied by only a fraction of a point from year to year. The highest rates among the Federal departments were 17.2 for the Post Office Depart

ment, and 13.0 for the Department of the Interior. These high rates were accounted for by the relatively high-hazard types of activities involved.

Among the State and local government activities for which data were available, the highest 1957 rate was 53.6—for sanitation departments (garbage and refuse collection and disposal and street

Injury rates for selected manufacturing and nonmanufacturing industries, 1957

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Manufacturing

Ordnance and accessories
Food and kindred products.
Tobacco manufactures.
Textile-mill products..
Apparel and other finished textile products.
Lumber and wood products (except furni-

ture).
Furniture and fixtures.
Paper and allied products..
Printing, publishing, and allied industries.
Chemicals and allied products.
Products of petroleum and coal.
Rubber products.
Leather and leather products.
Stone, clay, and glass products..
Primary metal industries...
Fabricated metal products.
Machinery (except electrical).
Electrical machinery...
Transportation equipment..
Instruments and related products..

Miscellaneous manufacturing industries..
Mining:

Coal mines
Crude petroleum and natural gas extraction.
Metal mines.
Ore dressing (mills and auxiliaries).
Nonmetal mines
Nonmetal mills

Quarries...
Contract construction.

General building contractors..
Highway and street construction..
Heavy construction, except highway and

street.

Special-trade contractors.
Transportation and public utilities:

Local and interurban railways and buslines 10
Trucking and warehousing..
Telephone communications.
Electric and gas utilities 10.

Water supply utilities 10
Wholesale and retail trade.

Wholesale trade.
Lumber and other building materials dealers.
Retail, general merchandise..
Retail food (except dairy products) -
Wholesale and retail dairy products.
Automotive dealers and gasoline service

stations.
Retail apparel and accessories.
Eating and drinking places.

Miscellaneous retail stores.
Finance, insurance, and real estate:

Banks and other financial agencies.

Insurance
Services:

Hotels.
Laundries and dry cleaning.
Miscellaneous business services.
Automobile repair shops and garages.
Miscellaneous repair services.
Radio broadcasting and television.
Motion picture and other amusements.
Hospitals 10
Colleges 10
See footnotes at end of table.

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89, 312 2. 2 115, 199 2.2 35, 234

12.9 87, 428 8.4 58, 367 6.2

9, 940 17.5 16, 107 20.0 28, 735 3.7 21,003

9.1 155, 045 8. 2 44, 451 7.9

97.5 92.8

Injury rates for selected manufacturing and nonmanufacturing industries, 1957—Continued

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1 Data were obtained by mail questionnaires sent to employers in each industry. The figures shown are the total number of employees in the reporting establishments. The data reported relate to all classes of employees-production, operating, and related workers; construction workers; sales, service, and delivery workers; technical and professional; office and clerical; administrative and supervisory, and all other personnel. Self-employed persons, however, were not included. Rates designated as having been compiled by the Bureau of Mines, U. S. Department of the Interior, include the experience of workers engaged in production, development, maintenance and repair work, and supervisory and technical personnel at the operation, but exclude office personnel and employees in stores or affiliated operations not directly connected with mining or refining operations. Working proprietors were included. Mining data include Alaska as well as the other States. Data for Federal Government establishments were compiled from records of the Bureau of Employees' Compensation and represent the experience of all Federal civilian employees.

2 These data were compiled according to the American Standard Method of Recording and Measuring Work Injury Experience, approved by the American Standards Association in 1954. The injury-frequency rate is the

average number of disabling work injuries for each million employee-hours worked. A disabling work injury is any injury occurring in the course of and arising out of employment, which (a) results in death or in permanent physical impairment, or (b) makes the injured worker unable to perform the duties of any regularly established job which is open and available to him throughout the hours corresponding to his regular shift on any 1 or more days after the day of injury (including Sundays, days off, or plant shutdowns). The term “injury” includes occupational disease.

The severity rate is the average number of days of disability resulting from work injuries, for each million employee-hours worked. The computation of days of disability include standard time charges for deaths and permanent impairments—6,000 days for deaths and permanent-total im. pairments and variable charges for permanent-partial impairments based on estimated proportional loss of working efficiency.

Injury rates for the manufacturing groups and for the construction and trade divisions were computed from the rates of component individual industries, applying weights based on estimated total employment in each industry. In some nonmanufacturing divisions, data were not available for all industries; therefore, the division averages were not computed.

3 Based on reports which furnished details regarding nature of injury and days of disability.

Permanent-total impairments, included in this figure, amounted to only 0.04 percent of all disabling injuries reported.

Less than 0.05. • Compiled by the Bureau of Mines, U. S. Department of the Interior; 1957 data are preliminary: 1956 final. ? Not available, or insufficient data to warrant presentation of average. 8 Includes permanent-total impairments. . Data for 1956 and earlier years do not include clay or sand and gravel.

10 Publicly owned and operated utilities or facilities are shown separately under "Government, State and local."

11 Revised.

12 Compiled by the Bureau of Employees' Compensation, U. 8. Depart. ment of Labor. Total includes data for agencies not shown separately.

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Average

Injury. days of Severity frequency disability rates

rates per case Concrete, gypsum, and mineral wool

2, 124
22. 4

82 Shipbuilding and repairing

2, 096 17. 3

106 Structural clay products--

1, 957 32. 2

57 Millwork and structural wood products..

1, 929 21. 8 Wooden containers.

1, 877 28. 4

60 Structural steel and ornamental metalwork.

1, 812 21. 6

75 Metal doors, sash, frame, and trim..

1, 690
15. 9

103 Gray-iron and malleable foundries.

1, 687
25. 1

66 Vegetable and animal oils and fats.

1, 609
24. 5

55
1, 582
33. 2

48 Among the nonmanufacturing classifications for which sufficient data were available to provide reliable averages, the highest severity rates were found associated either with high-frequency rates or with high average days of disability or both. Following are some of the more outstanding rates:

Beet sugar.

percent of the cases reported, the injured workers were unable to work at a regular job for at least 1 full calendar day after the day of injury, but there were no permanent ill-effects. Of these temporary cases, 35 percent involved only 1 to 3 days of disability each. The average for all temporary cases in manufacturing industries was 19 days. The average time charge for permanent-partial impairments in manufacturing was 384 days per case. The resulting standard severity rate for manufacturing was 754 days of disability due to injuries for each million employee-hours worked during 1957, compared with 712 in 1956 and 763 in 1955.

Among the various manufacturing groups, the products of petroleum and coal industries reported the highest average days of disability per case131. This high average was due to the large proportion of deaths (1.6 percent) resulting from injuries in this group. Moreover, the reported temporary injuries involved longer periods of disability (averaging 28 days per case, compared with 19 for manufacturing generally). The relatively low injury-frequency rate for this group (5.7), however, held the standard severity rate to a moderate level—733.

Again, as in previous years, the highest injury severity rate for any manufacturing group was associated with both a high frequency rate and a high average of days of disability. The lumber and wood products group reported a severity rate of 3,228 for 1957, with a frequency rate of 37.9 and an average of 81 days per case. The lowest severity rate among the manufacturing groups was 139—for apparel and other finished textile products. In this group, very few deaths or permanent impairments were reported and the days of disability averaged only 22 per case; the frequency rate (6.3) was among the lowest.

Individual manufacturing industries showing some of the highest injury-severity rates for 1957, together with their accompanying frequency rates and averaged days per case, are listed as follows:

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In each of the preceding industries, the proportion of deaths was relatively high. The average time charge for permanent impairments also tended to be higher than for manufacturing industries, indicating a higher proportion of the more serious permanent impairments involving arms, legs, and the whole body.

One of the lowest injury-severity rates was reported for telephone communications—60—due primarily to the low frequency of injuries in that industry. The injuries which did occur, however, were just as serious as those in most other industries and averaged 77 days of disability per

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3, 407

75

Logging
Sawmills.
Saw and planing mills, inte-

grated Grain-mill products... Miscellaneous wood products

2, 634 2, 480 2, 448

39. 9 15. 4 28. 8

67 148 71

-ROBERT S. BARKER AND FRANCES M. SMITH

Division of Industrial Hazards

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