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stowed on the nation as Commander-in-
chief in the wars then concluded.

After the death of Queen Charlotte in
1818, the Duke of York was appointed,
with a Parliamentary grant of 10,000l. per
annum, Custos of the person of his afflicted

His Royal Highness had laboured under
a dropsy since the month of July 1826, for
the relief of which his Royal Highness
underwent an operation on the 3d of Sep-
tember. The result of this operation, ai-
ded by the favourable effects of medicine
afterwards, was the removal of the consti-
tutional complaint; bnt its partial influ-
ence on the limbs, producing a mortifica-
tion of a considerable portion of the shin
of both legs, althoug, this was checked, and
hung in suspense for a time, the powers of
his frame sunk ultimately in the struggle.


Feb. 17, At Neuhof, in Switzerland, aged 82, M. Pestalozzi, a "a benefactor of the human race."

Pestalozzi was born at Zurich, in 1746.
Having lost his father at an early age, he
was brought up by his mother, who pro-
cured for him the advantages of a good
education. His intention was to have de-
voted himself to the bar; but becoming
deeply interested in the various plans
which were agitated in Zurich for better-
ing the condition of the lower orders, he
abandoned the study of the law; and was
afterwards induced to undertake a manu-
facturing speculation, with a view of en-
tering into closer contact with the poor.
His plan seems to have been somewhat si-
milar to that pursued by Mr. Owen at La-
nark; so far, at least, as connecting the
instruction of the young with the labours
of their parents.

But a series of unfortunate circumstan-
In the re-
ces ruined his establishment.
tirement that ensued on his failure, he
composed his tale of Leonard and Ger-
trude, a work which may vie in popularity
with the Pilgrim's Progress, or Robinson
Crusoe. It became popular in Germany
as well as in Switzerland, and the author
was encouraged to renew his exertions.
Between the years 1781 and 1797, he pub-
lished his Weekly Journal for Country
Folks, Letters on the Education of the
Children of indigent Parents, Reflections
on the March of Nature in the Education
of the Human Race, &c.

After the abolition of the ancient Swiss
Governments, and the meeting of the
Helvetic Legislative Council at Aran, M.
Pestalozzi addressed to the Council a tract,


He was ap

entitled "Reflections on the Wants of the Country, and principally on the Education and Relief of the Poor." pointed principal editor of the Helvetic Journal, a paper devoted to the moral and religious interests of the People. In 1799 he was nominated director of an orphan institution, which the Government had established at Stantz. This appointment enabled him to reduce some of his theories to practice; at Stantz, he became at once the teacher, steward, and father of the institution; and there he formed the plan of interrogative education, which has since been known througout Europe by his name. "I wished to prove," writes he to his friend Gessner, "by the essay I was about to make, that public education is of value, only as far as it resembles private. Every system of education, which is not carried on in the spirit of domestic relations tends The instructor should to demoralize man. live among his pupils, as in the bosom of his own family. This turn of mind I felt within myself, and I wished that my pupils should discover from every word, action, and look, that I loved them with all my heart, that their pleasures were my pleasures, and that their happiness constituted mine." After struggling with the difficulties of his position for several months, Pestalozzi was enabled to discern the fruits of his labours. Many of his pupils manifested good abilities, and in a short time were seen above seventy children, taken almost all from a state of poverty, living together in peace and friendship, full of affection for one another, and with the cordiality of brothers and sisters. He had just succeeded in introducing some manual employment into his school, when the thread of his labours was rudely snapped by political changes; and exhausted in mind and body, he sought to recruit his powers by retirement and relaxation. After an interval of repose, Pestalozzi, under the patronage of the Swiss government, resumed his labours at Burgdorf, in the canton of Berne. At this period he was joined by several men of various degrees of talent and attainment; and the patronage of the Swiss government augmented his pecuniary resources, and furnished him with a locale for his exertions. But political changes once more broke up the rising institution.

The next period of Pestalozzi's career commences with the formation of two separate establishments, consisting. for the most part, of his former pupils. The children of the poorer class took up their abode at Munch Buchsee, a little village about five miles distant from Berne. Here 43

Pestalozzi was much aided by M. de Fellenberg, who has since applied his principles of education, with some important modifications, to the instruction of both rich and poor. At Yverdun, in the canton de Vaud, Pestalozzi resumed his labours for the instruction of the higher and middle ranks of society. The fame of his method was now very generally spread through Switzerland and Germany. Many young men assembled under his paternal roof to act as instructors, and pupils from every part of Europe constituted one happy family around bim. Each class had at its head an instructor, who lived with his scholars, and joined in their amusements as well as their studies; and thus connecting himself not only with their duties but with their pleasures, was enabled to win their affections, and gently mould them to his purpose. The character of Pestalozzi was the bond that united them; the kindness with which their masters treated them, and which overflowed in every word and action of Pestalozzi himself, contributed to impart a character of good humour and benevolence to the whole groupe. At Yverdun the principles of the method were applied to other branches of instruction, and the former plans were materially improved. A committee of masters watched over the moral and intellectual welfare of the institution, and drew up essays, or arranged exercises, for the approbation of the whole body. This may be dated as the most flourishing period of Pestalozzi's undertaking, though his pecuniary resources were by no means free from embarrassment. This circumstance co-operated with other causes to introduce divisions among the masters; a separation took place; and from that moment the institntion at Yverdun declined. Disputes and dissension, between some of the individuals who had been connected with his establishments much embittered Pestalozzi's declining years; and, by withdrawing his attention from the school itself, diminished its use. fulness, and hastened its dissolution. In 1825 Pestalozzi left the canton de Vaud, and retired to his little estate at Neuhof, in the canton of Argau, where he occupied himself till his death in preparing elementary works. His last production was entitled "Advice to my Contemporaries."

In 1803 M. Pestalozzi was one of the deputation which Buonaparte summoned from the Swiss Cantons, to deliberate on the means of restoring tranquillity to Switzerland; but he returned home before any arrangement could be effected.

Benevolence was the prevailing feature 'n Pestalozzi's character. It burned in him

with the intensity of a passion, and nee ed sometimes the sober restraints of julg• ment. It was as discernible in the affec tionate simplicity of his ordinary manners, as in the persevering exertions, and disinterested sacrifices, which marked his long life of trial and suffering. His genius was original, profound, and fertile, rising superior to the most overwhelming difficulties, but too frequently negligent of ordinary resources. The style of his writings is vigorous, pathetic, and piquant, but unpolished and irregular; in his philosophical works heavy, involved, and obscure. His conversation was particularly animated, playful, and entertaining, abounding in unexpected turns of thought, with an occasional felicity of expression that made an indelible impression on the hearer's mind.


Feb. 20. At his hotel, 57, Rue St. Lazare, Paris, aged 54, Lieut-General Armand Augustine Louis Caulaincourt, created by Buonaparte Duke of Vicenza, and formerly Grand Ecuyer of the Empire of France and Minister for foreign Affairs.

Descended from an ancient family, M. Caulaincourt was born in Picardy in 1772 Devoted to the profession of arms, he was at the commencement of the Revolution an officer of cavalry. He did not emigrate, but served under the revolutionary standard; and, after making several can.paigns as a colonel of dragoons, he became Aidde-camp to Buonaparte when First Consul. Having obtained the confidence of his aspiring master, he was regarded as a suitable agent for the arrest of the Duc d' Enghien. In the course of the same year, he was named grand Ecuyer of France, made General of Division, and presented with the Grand Cross of the Legion of Honour. He subsequently received various orders of Knighthood, from Bavaria, Saxony, Prussia, Russia, and Austria. At the time when Buonaparte was carrying on his plans against Austria, Caulaincourt was sent as Ambassador to St. Petersburgh. He was four years resident at the Russian Court, and received from the Emperor Alexander the cross of the order of St. Ann of the first class. Regarded, however, with dislike by the Russian nobility, he was subjected to various mortifications; and at length, under the well-understood pretext of ill health, he solicited and obtained his recal, and returned to France in 1811. In Buonaparte's famous expedition against Russia in 1812, Caulaincourt was his chosen Aid-de-camp and companion; and after a narrow escape from fire, sword, ant

frost, he returned with his Master in a sledge.

After the desperate battles of Lutzen and Bautzen in 1813, the deceased was appointed to negociate with the Russian and Prussian plenipotentiaries. The armistice, to which he was a party, was soon broken; and the defeat of Buonaparte, at Leipsic, ensued. After hostilities had been removed from Germany to France, Caulaincourt, who had been elevated to the post of Minister for Foreign Affairs, was sent to negociate with the allies at Chatillon, but, on some temporary success atchieved by Buonaparte, was instructed to raise his claims; the consequence of which was, that the allies broke off the conferences, and marched to Paris,

On the abdication of Buonaparte at Fontainbleau, Caulaincourt, then Duke of Vicenza, was the abdicator's chief negocia tor; and he signed the treaty of the 11th of April between the ex-Emperor and the Allies.

On the restoration of the Bourbons, Caulaincourt became a private man; and, before a month was at an end, he made an attempt to justify himself respecting the arrest of the Duke d'Enghien. On this subject he published a letter from the Emperor Alexander: his object in this was to shew that when the arrest took place, he was employed at Strasburgh on other business-that General Ordonner was the officer who arrested the prince,-and that Ordonner alone was employed in that affair. Soon afterwards, however, a pamphlet appeared, with the title "On the Assassination of Monseigneur the Duke d'Enghien, and of the justification of M. de Caulain court." The pamphlet was anonymous: but it was forcibly written, and, by refe rences to diplomatic documents, it formed a decisive refutation of Caulaincourt's assertions.

Caulaincourt about the same time married Madame de Canisy, a lady who had been divorced; and with her he retired into the country till Buonaparte returned from Elba. He was then (March 21) made Minister for Foreign Affairs. He was extremely active in his endeavours to re-establish the Corsican dynasty; and he was incessant in his assurances to all the Foreign ministers-whose missions were in fact, at an end-that Buonaparte had renounced all projects of conquest, and that his only desire was peace, He addressed circular letters, of the same tendency, to all foreign courts, but equally without effect. One of these circulars came efterwards, with a letter from Buonaparte, to his present Majesty, then Prince Regent.

These curious documents were both laid
before Parliament. A conciliating and
even humble letter was sent by Caulain-
court to the Emperor of Austria; but, like
On the
the others, it received no answer.
2d of June, Caulaincourt was named by
Buonaparte a Member of the Chamber of
Peers. On the 17th, he announced to that
body, that hostilities were about commenc-
ing. He was again employed as one of
the Commissioners on the final deposition
of his master.

When Louis XVIII. was reinstated, Caulaincourt quitted France, and for some time resided in England. He endured a long illness with great fortitude, and his funeral took place on the 28th of February in the Church of Our Lady of Loretto.


March 1st. 1827. Died at Boston, Mas. sachusetts, Christopher Gore, in the 69th year of his age.

Christopher Gore was born in Boston, in the year 1758. His father was a highly respectable mechanic, who by a course of honest and skilful industry had acquired a large property. At the breaking out of the troubles between this and the mother country, he went to Halifax; as he was favourbly disposed toward the royal government under which he had always lived. But he afterwards returned to Boston, and died there in the year '95.

The son received his early instruction at He then the public schools of that town. entered Harvard University, and was gra duated there in 1776, at the early age of Soon afterwards he commenc


ed the study of law with the late Judge Lowell, and continued with him through his whole period of study, both as a pupil and a member of his family. This was a situation combining moral and intellectual advantages, such as are rarely offered to any young man; and Mr. Gore was able to appreciate and improve them. When he entered on the practice of his profession, he came to it not only with a mind prepared by a judicious course of study, but with the enviable recommendation of an uncorrupted youth.

He rose rapidly in public esteem, as a sound lawyer, as a politician, in the most generous sense of that word, as a true paHe stood triot, and as an honest man. among the first at the bar, where his practice was extensive and lucrative. His fellow citizens manifested the regard in which they held him, and the confidence which they placed in him, by sending him, before he had attained the age of 30, with Han

cock and Samuel Adams, to the Convention of his native State, which considered the adoption of the national constitution.

In 1789, Mr. Gore was appointed by President Washington, United States Attorney for the District of Massachusetts. He was the first person who held the office; and coming to it in times of great trouble and distraction, he had many serious diff culties to encounter in discharging its du ties. These difficulties resulted chiefly from the popular sympathy in the French revolution conflicting with the duties of the national government. In the excited state of public feeling, not even the high reputation of Washington could prevent a portion of the citizens from countenancing the most alarming breaches of neutrality. Boston was one of the principal scenes of these insults, and to such a pitch of insolence did the French agents arrive, that Washington was compelled to recal the exequator of the consul at that port for his violation of our neutral rights. The legal proceedings in this and other cases subjected Mr. Gore to a temporary loss of popularity, and to many difficulties in the execution of his official duties. But he encountered them with the manly intrepi dity and unbending rectitude, for which he was always remarkable; and it was probably his conduct in this critical situation, which obtained for him the appointment from the Chief Magistrate to be one of the Commissioners under the fourth article of Jay's treaty, to settle our claims for spoliations. The appointment was made in 1796; and Mr. Gore's colleague was the late celebrated William Pinkney.

While in England, Mr. Gore secured, by his gentlemanly deportment and amiable qualities, the respect and attachment of all who became known to him; at the same time that by his assiduous attention to business, his profound knowledge of commercial law, his laboured arguments, and his personal influence, he recovered sums to a vast amount, for citizens of the United States

Mr. Gore's and Mr. Pinkney's great exertions during this commission which lasted nearly eight years, are well known, but it is not so generally understood, that to to Mr. Gore one large description of sufferers are principally indebted for the recovery of their claims. Mr. Finkney, whose eminent talents are universally admitted, had great doubts as to that class of cap tures, which were made under the rule of 1756. Mr. Gore made a very elaborate and powerful argument in favour of these claims, and by his perseverance and exertions, many hundred thousand dollars were

secured to the citizens of the Unite States.

He remained abroad in the public service till 1804. When his friend, Mr. King, then the minister of the Caited States at the court of London, returned to this country in 1803, heeft Mr. Gore there as charge d'affaires; in which station he bore himself honourably and ably.

The friendship which subsisted between Rufus King and Mr. Gore was so long continued, and so rare, that no sketch of the character of either would be complete without adverting to it. It commenced at the University, and was uninterrupted for the space of fifty years. It was more confidential, and more affectionate than almost any which we have ever known, or of which we have any account, and is honourable to the character of them both.

Upon Mr. Gose's return in 1804, he was welcomed home by the strongest marks of public favour. He was elected to the Senate of Massachusetts, from the county of of Suffolk, two successive years; and the next year to the House of Representatives, from Boston. In 1809 he was chosen Ge. vernor of the State.

Mr, Gore was Governor of Massachusetts but one year. At the next annual election the political sentiments of the ma jority of the people had changed, and the opposing candidate, Mr. Gerry, was chosen

to succeed him.

In 1814, Mr. Gore was again brought into public life, being appointed by Governor Strong, during a recess. Senator to Congress, and afterwards chosen to the same office by the Legislature at their meeting. He served in this capacity about three years, and then withdrew into final retirement.

Though Mr. Gore cannot, perhaps, be called a man of genius, in the common acceptation of the term, because reason and not imagination reigned paramount with him, yet it not easy to be und: rstood how a person cau be without genius, who bas the power within him, of comprebe, ding extensive and intricate subjects, of seizing strongly on their prominent points, and of presenting them to others in a persnasive and convincing manner. It may not make him a poet or an eloquent orator; but it conducts him to the same resuits, and is not liable to the abuses of what is commonly denominated genius Mr. Gore's mind was clear, acute, and discriminating It was of a steady and decided cast, and yet liberal, unprejudiced, and open to conviction. He had cultivated it with assida

* In 1806 and 1807

y and care. He kept himself familiarly cquainted with the literature of the day, nd was an excellent classical scholar. He has left nothing as the fruit of his studies Find his pen but a few political essays in

ne daily papers, and some unpolished legal 2zpinions and arguments. These are disnguished by justness of thought and entire urity of style.

> His manners were of the best class of hat school, generally termed the old chool. They were those of a true and a nished gentleman; dignified without ride, elegant without pretension, and ourtly without dissimulation or hollow


s; in short, the internal grace and polsh externally manifested. The effect of uch manners was assisted and completed y the gift of uncommon personal beauty.

In his youth Mr. Gore was virtuous and ncorrupted: he was so in manhood, he vas so in age. His was a pure spirit, aigh and looking upward, keeping itself lean from contamination. His taste was Fefined; his sensibility acute: his feelings nanly, generous, independent. He had he most lofty and elevated ideas of public 2nd private duty; and his conduct was al=ways in perfect conformity with his prinbiples. In times of excitement he was calm, and just; in times of corruption bure. He never sought popularity, but it pursued him." He lived not for himself. By kindness, cheerfulness, and charity, he diffused happiness around him He was remarkably accessible and attentive to young men; discerning talent and merit, and helping them forward. It was in his nature to be hospitable; and his wealth, and the circumstance of his having no children, enabled him to be extensively and bounteously so; and not only hospitable, but in various ways useful to the commu.. nity. A large estate which he purchased in the neighbourhood of Boston, he embellished and improved with taste and discernment. Sensible of the value of a judicious system of agriculture, he endeavoured to bring others to a sense of it by his exam ple. It is in this country that the labours of the active tasteful, improving agricul turist are particularly called for: and here, above all other places such a man is eminently a public beuefactor

Mr. Gore was a useful member of several important literary societies; and to some of them he confined not his usefulness to his life-time. To the American Academy, and the Massachusets listorical Society he left valuable bequests; and he made Harvard College, of which insti

tution he had been for some years a fellow, his residuary legatee.

During the last years of his life, Mr. Gore was a martyr to an excruciating disorder, which seized violently on his constitution, and defied all remedy-and like a martyr he endured his sufferings. On the 1st of March he yielded to its violence, and f ithful, cheerful, and grateful to the end, he surrendered his spirit into the hands of its maker.


1827. April 29. At New York, in the 73d year of his age, Rufus King, for nearly half a century the intimate friend of the subject of the preceding Biographical notice.

Rufus King was the eldest son of Richard King, a merchant of Scarborough, in the State of Maine, and was born in the year 1755 Having received a good school education, he was sent, between twelve and thirteen years of age, to Byfield Academy, in the town of Newbury, and placed under the care of its excellent teacher, Samuel Moody. Under the severe discipline for which this eminent instructor was noted, he finished his Academical studies; and was in the year 1773, admitted into Harvard college. Soon after his matriculation at Cambridge, he was deprived of his Father, who died at Scarborough, leaving to his numerous family a very considerable property In the year 1775, on the breaking out of the war of independence the college became the barracks of the American troops, and the students were for a time dispersed. In the autumn of the same year, however, they re-assembled at Concord, a village about eighteen miles distant from Cambridge where their collegiate course was resumed and prosecuted, until the evacuation of Boston by the English army in 1776, and the removal of the American troops from the Colleges in the following year, when the students returned to Cambridge in 1777, he received the honou's of the College, having acquired great reputation for his classical attainments, and more especiady for his extraordinary powers of oratory, an accomplishment in which he was particularly desirous to excel and to th acquisition of which he applied himself with the passion of an enthuFrom Cambridge he went immediately to Newburyport, and entered as a student of law in the office of the celebrated The ophilus Parsons, late Chief Justice of Massachusetts. with whom he completed his studies, and was admitted to the bar in 1780. While he was yet a student, howev


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