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vernment. Some commercial privileges were bestowed upon Barce. lona, to conciliate the disaffected Catalonians, and Te Deum was sung in the churches in honour of the king's success, and thus ended the affair for the time.
But where the administration of affairs is so radically defective, and where a whole nation is thoroughly pervaded by faction, poverty, misrule and corruption, it is not the suppression of a single insurrection, or the execution of a single band of rebels, which can suffice to restore public tranquillity. Nothing but a complete revolution in the entire system, and the sub.
stitution of a firm, but moderate and equal government, in place of the present combination of despotism and anarchy, of violence and weakness, will renovate the fallen fortunes of distracted Spain. Whether this can be effected by the internal resources of the Spaniards themselves may be doubted. Had Spain been left free from foreign interference, after the fall of Napoleon, the high-minded citizens who then obtained the direction of affairs, might have gradually produced a state of qualified prosperity, such as the people of that unhappy country have long ceased to enjoy.
Greece and Turkey.-Janissaries-Attempts to reform them-Resumed by Mahmoud-The Topschis-The new regulations-Insurrection of the Janissaries-How repressed-Conflagration of Constantinople-New troops-State of Greece in 1826-Siege of Messolunghi-Miaulis and the fleet-Events of the siege-Fall of Messolunghi-Summer of 1826 -Assembly of Epidaurus-Commission of government-Third National Assembly-New government-Capo d'Istria elected PresidentHis character-Sir Richard Church and Lord Cochrane-Greek loans -Enterprises of the Turks-Samos-The Morea-Athens invested-Karaiskaki-Disturbance at Hydra-Frigate Hellas-Greek army in Attica-Turks massacred-Karaiskaki's death-Battle of the Acropolis-Offers of capitulation-Surrender-Disturbances at Na. poli-Cochrane's movements-State of Greece, July, 1827-Greek pira. cies-Contributions-Protocol of St. Petersburgh-Negotiations at Constantinople-Manifesto of the Porte-Treaty of London-Negotiations -Battle of Navarino-Effects on Ibrahim-Upon the Turks-The ambassadors leave Constantinople.
ALONG the eastern extremity of Europe, events of the highest import, and deepest interest, have lately been hurrying on with fearful rapidity of succession. The total revolution effected in the character of the Turkish army-the fall of Messolunghi-the prostration of the Greeks before the Egyptian forces-the interposition of the allies, consummated by the decisive battle of Navarino; such are prominent points in the history of that quarter of the world, which, resuming the thread of our narra.
tive in the proper place, we now proceed to relate.
Taught by fatal experience du. ring the Greek war, of the inefficacy of the present organization of his army; too well aware of the turbulent and dangerous disposi. tion of the Janissaries; animated also by the success of the pacha of Egypt, in 1826 sultan Mahmoud zealously undertook, and resolutely accomplished, the reformation of his whole military force. He was aware, that some knowledge of the tactics of modern European war
fare was essential to the salvation of the Turkish empire, and a more rigid subordination, and sterner discipline among the troops, equally essential to the stability of the reigning dynasty. The haughty attitude assumed by Russia in the late negotiations at Ackermann, not less than the obstinate resistance of the Greeks, proved the former fact. The growing insolence of the Janissaries clearly established the latter. This celebrated militia had for centuries composed the main force of the armies of the Porte. Once they had been as famous for their courage, and their victories, as they now were for insubordination and corruption. These Prætorian bands of Turkey had, in fact, rendered themselves masters of the sultan and the government, not less than chosen champions of the empire. They deposed the Ottoman empe. rors at will, and continually bartered away the crown, to him who would bestow the richest largesses and greatest privileges in exchange. Being recruited from the very dregs of the populace, they were distinguished by the inveteracy of their prejudices against every salutary innovation, and lost all the merits of a barbarian soldiery, in the dissolute round of revolt and riot, which formed their chief occupation. They were no longer the bulwark of the Mahometan religion against the encroachments of sur.
rounding Christian powers. Their fanaticism regarded all improve. ments in discipline, equipments, arms and tactics, as heresies from the true faith; and of course they had ceased to be capable of with standing a modern army, appointed and manœuvred according to the usages of the states of christendom. Every maxim of policy, every principle of self-preservation, dictated the expediency and necessity of substituting a regular force for the undisciplined rabble, which now bore the name of a Turkish army.
A serious attempt to effect the object had already been made, within the present century. The remains of the garrison which defended St. Jean d'Acre so bravely, were form. ed by the sultan Selim into a body of troops called Nizamy-Gedid, or soldiers of the new regulations, who signalized themselves in Bulgaria and Roumelia, and rendered the advantages of European discipline apparent. But the jealousy of the Janissaries, combining with the fanaticism of the people, compelled Selim to disband the Niza my-Gedid in 1807. Their entire dispersion, the dethronement of Selim, the short reign of Mustapha, and the succession of the present sultan, Mahmoud, quickly followed, and thus one attempt completely failed of success. Afterwards an endeavour was made to attain the same object, by organizing se.
lect companies, called Seymens, force hardly admits of any other
among the Janissaries themselves; but this likewise proved abortive, and the Ulemahs even denounced the vengeance of the prophet against all who should again propose to introduce the discipline of the Franks into the Ottoman army. But the lapse of twenty years, and the dear bought experience of the existing wars, had produced a visible change in the views and feelings of all but the Janissaries. Mahmoud had seen his best troops routed by the half armed and unpaid insurgent soldiery of Greece, while the latter had, in their turn, speedily fallen before Ibrahim's Egyptian troops, whose chief excellence consisted in their amenableness to discipline, and their knowledge of European drill and tactics. The sultan, therefore, conceived a plan for remodelling his army; and after consulting with the dignitaries of the empire, and heads of religion, and assuring himself of their hearty support, he set about preparing his measures with secrecy and despatch. He He was ably assisted in this design by the seraskier Hussein Pacha, an officer of great decision of charactar, and popular on account of his many victories, who commanded the Topschis, or artillerymen. This corps amounted to 14,000 men, and was necessarily organized, in some degree, after the European model, because the nature of such
form of discipline. The sultan commenced his operations by enlarging this corps, to which he looked for support against the Ja. nissaries, in case, as there was every reason to anticipate, the contemplated changes should encounter any formidable opposition. The Topschis well knew that they were hated by the Janissaries, and that nothing but Mahmoud's success could insure their own existence.
Having taken these preliminary steps, in the beginning of June, 1826, Mahmoud commenced his intended operations. The new regulations, promulgated by him, required that a certain number of men should be selected from each company of the Janissaries, and enrolled to form the nucleus of a new army, intended to be drilled in the European exercise and tactics. Additional pay was promised the soldiers belonging to this new corps, whose designation, and uniform, and appointments, were all studiously selected, so as not to of fend the dangerous prejudices of the people and the old army. The officers of the Janissaries were all sworn to maintain the new system, which was solemnly consecrated by the Ulemahs, in presence of the troops and the assembled multitude of ordinary spectators. Some hope was entertained, in these cir. cumstances, that the Janissaries would peaceably acquiesce in the