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Removing obstructions at the mouth of Grand river, Ohio,

14,755 11

Removing obstructions at the mouth of Ashtabula creek,


14,403 50

Removing obstructions at the mouth of Cunningham creek,

3,517 76

9,413 35

3,977 81

Removing obstructions at Huron river, Ohio,

Improving the navigation of La Plaisance Bay, Michigan, Survey of Sandusky Bay, to ascertain the expediency and expense of constructing piers, to improve the navigation thereof,

Removing obstructions to the navigation of Saugatuck river,

Survey of the swash in Pamlico sound, near Ocracock in-
let, for the purpose of ascertaining whether the chan-
nel through the same can be deepened,

Survey of Cape Fear river, below the town of Wilmington,
N. C., with a view to its improvement,

Survey of Roanoke inlet and sound, with a view of ascertain-
ing the practicability of making a permanent ship chan-
nel between Albemarle sound and the Atlantic ocean,
at Roanoke inlet, or elsewhere,

Removing obstructions, and deepening the harbour of Mobile,

Surveys of Marblehead and Holmes' Hole,

1,500 00

8,000 00

Erecting a pier at the mouth of Dunkirk harbour, New-

9,000 00

Improving Cleaveland harbour, Ohio,

Improving the harbour at the mouth of Pascagoula river,
Surveys to ascertain the expediency and expense of con-
structing piers to improve the harbour of Church's
Cove, in the town of Little Compton,

10,000 00

25,500 00

24,062 85

Surveys to ascertain the expediency and expense of erect

ing a pier in Stonington harbour,

37,145 00

Examining the public piers at Port Penn, Marcus Hook, and

Fort Mifflin, in the river Delaware, with a view to re

pairing and improving the same,

91,689 33

Removing the Colbert shoals in Tennessee river,

Removing the obstructions in the Kennebeck river, at Love

Erecting piers and removing obstructions at and near the en

joy's narrows,

trance into the harbour of Saco,

Survey of the harbour of Mill river, with a view to the erec. tion of a beacon, on a ledge of rocks, about one mile from the town, Survey of the shoal at the north end of Goat Island, in the harbour of Newport, Rhode Island, with a view to building a wall to the extremity of that shoal, Survey of the river and harbour of Warren, with a view to erecting a pier in Warren river, near the entrance into Warren harbour,

Examination and survey of the muscle shoals in Tennessee river, with a view to the improvement of its naviga


The means adopted to preserve Plymouth beach and certain islands, in order to protect some of the eastern ports, by means of sea walls, were found, by the experience of the winter, to be effectual.

The improvement in the navigation of the Mississippi and Ohio rivers, by the removal of snags and other impediments in their channels, was this year prosecuted with great success. The obstructions were removed in the former river for 180 miles below the mouth of the Ohio.

Besides these efforts made by the general government to improve the means of internal communication, the state governments devoted their resources with unparallelled zeal to the same object; and canals and roads were laid out

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in various directions; evincing that a new era had commenced with the American people, and that their views and policy would hereafter be turned homewards.

The manufacturing establishments, which had been in a languishing state since the war, and which last year had given proofs of their ability to supply the wants of the country at a fair price, now furnished still stronger evidence of their stability, and assumed a high rank among the branches of national industry. They even began to enter into competition with European manufactures in foreign markets. In the year ending September 30, 1826, the value of domestic manufactures exported, amounted to $5,852,733, of which $1,138,125 consisted of cotton


piece goods. The woollen manufacturers, from peculiar circumstances, which are detailed in a subsequent chapter, did not partake of this general prosperity, but continued to decline. Measures were brought forward in congress for their relief, but they did not pass into a law.

Notwithstanding this increase in the manufacturing capital of the United States, the unparalleled aug. mentation of registered and licensed tonnage at the same time, and the unusual activity among the commercial classes, after they had recovered from the check to enterprise, consequent upon the wanton spirit of speculation which prevail. ed at the beginning of the last year, showed that the prosperity of the manufacturers was not owing to a subtraction of capital from the ship. ping business, but was caused by the increase of the population and wealth of the country. The increase in the tonnage of the United States during 1826 was 111,079 tons, being more than double the increase in any one of the twelve preceding years.

In conformity with the plan proposed to settle the remaining tribes of aborigines on the western side of the Mississippi, provision was made by the war department, for the removal thither of such Indians as chose to emigrate. Within the year, the Shawnees, about 1400 in number, emigrated from the state


of Ohio, to a spot chosen by themselves; as did a portion of the Creeks, about 700 in number, from the states of Georgia and AlabaEfforts were also made to induce the Cherokee tribes to remove to the same portion of the union, and commissioners were appointed to hold a council with that nation, for the purpose of procuring a cession of territory, to gratify the claims of Georgia; but those Indians, who had succeeded, under the fostering care of the general government, in attaining a high degree of civilization, refused to cede another foot of land.

The Chickasaw tribes, on the contrary, consented to remove beyond the Mississippi, upon the following conditions: that after visiting and being satisfied with the country, they should receive acre for acre, and similar improvements should be made there at the expense of the United States as existed on the territory they now owned; a territorial government to be established over them, with a suitable force for their protection, to be kept up at the expense of the United States. The number of Indian children educated at the schools this year, established at the expense of the American government, was 1291.

Whilst these arrangements were made among the southern Indians, the movements among the north western tribes required more energetic measures. In that quarter.

Just previous to the arrival of the United States commissioners at a council held with the Sioux, Foxes, Chippewas, Winnebagoes, &c., to fulfil the treaty of pacification coneluded between those tribes during the last year, (See vol. I. p. 47,) a portion of the Winnebagoes indicated hostile dispositions towards the whites, and finally attacked and murdered some American citi


As these movements were regarded as proofs of a powerful combination among those tribes, great promptitude was evinced in suppressing the evil.

Gov. Cass at once applied to Gen. Atkinson for assistance, and that officer ordered out 600 of the army under him, and with a portion of the Illinois militia, moved to the scene of hostilities, when the Indians submitted and delivered up the murderers, eight in number, to take their trial according to the laws of the United States.

With the exception of this disturbance, the domestic quiet of the country was uninterrupted, and the prosperity of the people evinced the excellence of their institutions, and the wisdom and prudence with which they were administered.

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