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felt the defeat, coupled as it was with the knowledge that the king retained undiminished regard for the duke of Wellington, as a personal friend, and desired his return to the cabinet.

We shall advert particularly to but one other measure of the session, and that is, the bill for the disfranchisement of the borough of Penryn, which passed the commons by a large majority. This place belonged to the class of open boroughs, as they are called, such as do not belong to any private individual, the latter being called close boroughs. A case of gross, inveterate, and incurable bribery and corruption, was clearly made out against the burghers of Penryn. It was admitted, that many other open boroughs were equally corrupt, and had their price in the market. But the burghers of Penryn pursued their trade of bribery with such shameless indecency, such public profligacy, that parliament seemed to think it was necessary to punish them, by way of caution to the rest, not to violate public decorum by such gross and open corruption. It is but just to put this construction upon the conduct of parliament in this and the like cases; because, if they heartily disapproved of the notorious system of corruption by which so many members were returned, they would change the system itself, instead of resting content with merely punishing the of fenders in those instances where

the parties had not driven their bargain with due circumspection.

The session was now drawing to a close; and during the last days of it, a bill to regulate the warehousing of corn, and another to provide the mode for taking the average price, which had originated in the lower branch, passed the house of lords, and became laws. On the 2d of July, the lord chancellor prorogued both houses of parliament, with a speech from the throne, in which assurances were given, that the government designed a careful revision of the financial state of the country, with a view to every diminution of expenditure which might be found consistent with the necessary commands of the public service, and with the permanent interests, good faith, and honour of the nation. The speech further expressed a trust, that the consideration of the corn laws might be resumed early in the ensuing session, and such an arrangement of this important question adopted, as should satisfy the reasonable wishes, and reconcile the substantial interests, of all classes in the kingdom.

But a few days after the close of the session, viscount Dudley, and the plenipotentiaries of Russia and France, subscribed the treaty of London, of the 6th of July, for the settlement of the affairs of Greece. This justly celebrated convention has already produced the most important consequences; and its ei

fects are as yet but imperfectly developed. The consideration of it properly belongs to the chapter on Greece, where a full account of it will be found. We need only remark here, that a singular circumstance connected with the treaty may have served to hasten the glorious events in the bay of Navari. no, which so soon ensued. We allude to the surreptitious and unauthorized publication of a part of the treaty, which is termed "An additional and secret article." It is, in fact, of greater moment than the main body of the treaty itself; be. cause, while the latter only provides that the three powers should jointly offer their mediation to the Porte, the former stipulates for their interposing by force, to compel a cessation of hostilities in the Mediterranean. It is very possible, that the premature publication of such a league, may have hastened the occurrence of the very contingencies against which it was intended to guard. However this may be, the treaty was certainly a most brilliant act for the short course of Mr. Canning's administration; and strikingly characteristic of the independence and directness his foreign policy. It gave a new impulse to the public affairs of Europe, in a manner not unworthy of the bold politician, who boasted of England as the ar. biter of liberal opinions in either hemisphere; and who, in a few years longer, seemed likely to

make good the arrogant assertion, if the recognition of the South American republics, the defence of the Portuguese constitution, and the treaty for the settlement of Greece, afford us adequate means of judging what might be the result of beginnings conceived in the spirit of perfect liberality of senti


But all the high expectations entertained concerning the splendid career of Mr. Canning were destined to be disappointed,by his sudden and most deeply lamented death. Early in August, the public mind was deeply agitated by rumours of his dangerous sickness; and on the 8th, he breathed his last, after an illness as violent and painful, as it was fatal in its rapid course. For several years past, he had been afflicted with maladies indicative of a diseased state of the alimentary ca. nal; a condition of the system, peculiarly liable to be aggravated by severe labour of mind, accompanied with great and continued excitement. His constitution was seriously impaired by these causes, when he was made prime minister; and under the harassing cares and anxieties to which he had since been subject, his ailments went on continually increasing, until they terminated in severe infiammation of the intestines, and consequent death, in the 57th year of his age. The cause of his last illness, was a cold caught in returning from attending the king at Windsor, on

the 30th of July; but he fell a victim, undoubtedly, to the excessive toils and corroding troubles of his office.

With his enfeebled constitution, disordered digestion, and ardent, excitable temperament, his frame could not bear up against the burdens of his situation, harassed by business of the highest and most distracting nature, involved in all the perplexities of governing, and loaded with anxiety to realize expectations, which difficulties of every kind opposed. It is easy to conceive the profound anxiety of the whole community, during the few days preceding his decease, and the shock of grief which it occasioned his numberless friends and admirers, and we might almost say, the whole British people. He was taken sick and died at Chiswick, the seat of the duke of Devonshire; from whence his body was removed to his late residence in Downingstreet, to remain there until suitable preparations should be made for his burial. An immense concourse of the nobility and gentry attended his funeral on the 16th of August, and accompanied his remains to Westminster Abbey; where he was interred among the illustrious dead of England.

His life, and the particulars of his political career, belong to the department of biography. His character as a politician, in order to be fairly estimated, should be viewed with reference to the fact, that he was emphatically a British

minister, purely and exclusively British; in his education, feelings, principles, temper, in every thing, indeed, which goes to constitute the peculiarities of a consummate statesman. In condemning some of Mr. Canning's official writings, in which the language of the rhetorician and man of wit occasionally broke in, to relieve the formal stateliness of diplomatic composition, Americans should be careful not to exhibit too much sensitiveness of feeling, lest the censure bestowed upon him should be charged to national prejudice. We freely admit, that all departures from the established style of diplomacy, are extremely hazardous and unsafe, and seldom produce a salutary effect; and we think Mr. Canning erred, in permitting him. self to indulge a tone of ill-timed sarcasm, upon more than one occasion, in his correspondence with ministers of the United States. But this was a blemish in his character, which ought not to blind us to his many and pre-eminent merits. Americans should be slow to depreciate the reputation of a statesman, who, in the maturity of his understanding, and the zenith of his power, was most assailed for his attachment to liberal institutions, and for acts in which that attachment was displayed. Mr. Canning was the first living orator of Great Britain. was devotedly attached to literature; and by means of his literary excellence was originally introduced into


public notice. His uniform and consistent support of the claims of the catholics, and the manly independent principles of his foreign policy, sufficiently show that he had caught the spirit of the age, and dared to act in conformity with its dictates.

Immediately after the death of Mr. Canning, lord Goderich received the appointment of first lord of the treasury, and the king's authority to form a new cabinet, or rather to supply the vacancies occasioned by the decease of the late premier. This circumstance proved how much the measures of Mr. Canning met the royal approba. tion, and formed a triumphant refutation of all the calumnies which had been propagated, concerning the alleged unfavourable terms on which he stood with his sovereign. Lord Goderich was generally esteemed as a sensible well informed statesman, of a moderate and conciliatory spirit; but as possessed of neither the talents, nor the energy of character, which had dis. tinguished his predecessor. Some time elapsed before all the arrangements of the new ministry could be completed; but it was understood to be the fixed desire of the king, not less than the earnest wish of his confidential servants and advisers, to continue the policy of Mr. Canning unchanged, and to perfect the plans which he had conceived and begun. Pending the private discussions attending the remodelling of the cabinet, the

duke of Wellington was reappointed to the command of the army, to the general satisfaction of the nation. On the 4th of September, the ministry of lord Goderich was announced, as being completed. As lord Goderich himself became first lord of the treasury, the colonial department was conferred on Mr. Huskisson, Mr. Grant being appointed president of the board of trade, and Mr. Herries, chancellor of the exchequer; and as these appointments were generally acceptable, the public anticipated a period of calm and repose, auspicious to a vigorous administration of national affairs. It appears, however, that a majority of the old cabinet entertained serious objections to the introduction of Mr. Herries among them; and his instrumentality in producing a change of administration at the close of the year, justifies their apprehensions.


During the autumnal months, the public attention was wholly occu. pied with the interesting events occuring in Greece; and at home the ministers were tranquilly engaged in the discharge of the ordinary duties of government. domestic incidents took place, which require to be narrated here ; and as the change in the cabinet did not happen until January, we defer giving an account of that, and of the causes which imme. diately produced it, as belonging to the history of the ensuing year.


France.-Views of France concerning Spain and Portugal-Opening of the Chambers-Montlosier's petition-Law concerning the press-Dissolution of the National Guard-Debate on the Budget-Hyde de Neuville-Censorship of the Press-Maubreuil's Assault on TalleyrandBurial of M. Manuel-Relations with Spanish America-War with Algiers-Dissolution of the Chamber of Deputies-Elections unfavourable to the Ministry-Massacres of November-Prosperity of France. PARTY disputes acquired a new political circles on this occasion. direction among the people of It remained to see, what course FRANCE, upon the announcement the ministry would take, in case of the Portuguese having obtained the disturbances in Portugal and a constitution under the guaranty Spain should, as appeared not unof England. This event, the ultras likely, betray the two latter naregarded with a mixed feeling of tions into war. alarm and astonishment. They denounced the Portuguese charter as a firebrand, which already filled the Peninsula with commotion, and might involve all Europe in the horrors or war. England had waged hostilities for twenty years, against the French revolutionists; would she now protect a like party in Portugal? She had protested, at the continental meetings, against interference in the internal affairs of other states; would she now undertake herself to set up a charter in the Peninsula? Such were the questions which agitated the

So sensitive was the state of the public mind, amid all the circumstances of the times, that a visit to Paris, made by Mr. Canning at this period, was the subject of endless speculation. It was in vain for him to allege the desire of recreation or the pursuit of health, as a motive for his journey; the world would not believe it was without some ulterior object of deeper importance. The inde. pendence of the Greeks,—that of the Spanish American states,Spain herself, and above all the Portuguese constitution,-all

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