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thing except an act of the municipa. lity adopting the federal govern


This act is dated July 25th, and sets forth various considerations as having induced its adoption, among which the apprehension of invasion from Perez,-the transfer of authority to Ovando, who was hostile to the reform party,the evident desire of the government at Bogota to maintain the constitution, and the wish of Guayaquil for a convention, all bore a prominent place. "It having always been our anxiety," they say, "to constitute an independent state, and to be united with the other departments, who also ardently desire the same, we have deemed it right and necessary to declare ourselves, as we do declare ourselves from henceforth, in favor of the federal system." They further express their disposition to concur in sending delegates to a grand convention, to be called pursuant to the promise to that effect solemnly given by the Liberator. According. ly they proceeded to choose Diego Novoa intendant, and Antonio Eli zalde commandant general of the department; and these persons immediately entered upon the discharge of their respective official duties.

Again, on the 10th of September another revolution was attempted at Guayaquil headed by Jose Arrieta, one of the leading officers of

the third division, who endeavoured to make a party in favour of joining Peru. He liberated the prisoners, seized upon the artillery, and demanded the deposition of Elizalde; but the latter, being firmly supported by Novoa and the municipality, and also by the battalion Ayacucho, succeeded in completely quelling the disturbance. In the utter confusion of various parties which distracted Guayaquil, it seems impossible to be certain who was honest in purpose and who dishonest; but the republican party at Bogota could not but suspect the same hand, to which other movements had seemed to point; and Elizalde himself openly declared for the Liberator.

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The course that events were taking, still further appeared, from the altered conduct of the third division. In April, not five months before, the soldiers of this division had exhibited every symptom of determined hostility towards Bolivar, founded upon a belief that he was aiming at absolute power. Their tone was totally changed in August. The several corps each addressed an humble, we might justly say, an humiliating memorial to Bolivar; expressing their contrition for their share of the revolution of January 26th, and the subsequent irregu larities; and excusing themselves in some way pertinent to the line of conduct they had respectively pursued. It is amusing to reflect

upon their different excuses. The battalion of Caraccas alleged that they had no heart in the business, and were driven into it by the other corps; which was partly true, saving that the battalion did not resist their comrades so stoutly, nor repent so soon, as they should have done, if sincerely opposed to their plan.

The battalion rifles seemed to think they had atoned for their offence, by having ventured to arrest Bustamante, the actual head of the division. The hussars protested that they had taken no part whatever in the Peruvian revolution. The battalion Ayacucho, who had no such apology to offer, contented themselves with protestations of their profound repentance, and their determination to atone for what they had done, by future servility proportioned to the magnitude of their past delinquen. cy. "Deign," said they to general Flores, "to be the organ of the sentiments with which we render the most profound homage of love and respect to the Liberator, to whom we tender from henceforth our strength, our swords, and our hearts; and for whom we declare ourselves, in whatever contingency his exalted reputation may be involved, in the course of circumstances, through the machinations of a faction animated by the hope of vengeance, by ambition, and by ignorance." And again: "It is the voice of Bolivar which we feel

bound by interest and gratitude, blindly to obey; since, whatever may be the commands that emanate from him, we are sure they will be just and beneficent, and such as require a dutiful submission." And to crown the example of servility, general Flores, in transmitting the memorials to Bolivar, assured him that "the corps of the south stood ready to make any, the most costly sacrifices" in his service; and that "the Liberator might count at all times, and in all circumstances, upon the hearts and swords of thousands of brave men, signalized in past dangers, and who now consecrated themselves to the creator of three republics, the incomparable Bolivar." In short, the third division declared, as strongly as language can convey the meaning of man, their devotion to Bolivar indi. vidually and personally, without any reference to the government or the constitution; and this at a time when, for aught they knew, he was mere. ly president elect, but without any legal authority, other than as a general officer. What more could Cæsar or Napoleon have asked from the armies of Gaul or of Italy, whom they had attached to their own names by a long series of splendid victories? and what more can Bolivar ask, if he is treading in their footsteps?

The proceedings in the central departments, at the same period, amounted to an actual conflict of

authority between Bolivar and the regular constitutional magistrates and officers. Revenga notified the secretary of war, under date of July 25th, that the squadrons of horse grenadiers and hussars, of Magda. lena, would be moved on to the val. leys of Cúcuta, partly as an escort for Bolivar, and partly to diminish the number of troops assembled in Cartajena. The vice president immediately caused Revenga to be informed, that the departments of Boyaca and Cundinamarca could as ill afford such an addition to their expenses, as Magdalena, and of course objected to the movement. Nevertheless, Urdaneta marched his cavalry to Pamplona, protesting to the intendant of Boyaca, that he had not the least intention of interfering with the legal functions of the departmental authorities, civil or military; and asking only the usual supplies. Information of these movements was promptly commu. nicated to congress, by Santander, who described the troops as occupying the departments of Magdalena and Boyaca, independent of the national government, and by orders from the Liberator alone; who possessed, and could possess, no legal authority there, until he had taken the oath of office according to the constitution.

Contemporaneously with these movements, the executive received a note from Revenga, in reply to the communication covering the

decree for the re-establishment of public order. The secretary general vindicated the proceedings of Bolivar in the north eastern departments; saying that the military councils, objected to by Santander, had long since ceased to exist; that the restraints upon the press had aimed to repress its licentiousness, not to impair its freedom; and that the financial measures of the Libeator were exacted by necessity. He complained, also, of the inju rious suspicions of Bolivar, which the decree and accompanying note implied; and intimated his intention of submitting a memoir to congress, in justification of the measures adopted for tranquillizing Venezuela.

But a paper, much more important than this, was the message addressed by Bolivar to the senate, upon his arrival at Cachira, the 24th of August, in his way to Bogota. There he received the decree of August 8th, for reducing the army; and by the same courier, despatches communicating the new insurrection at Guayaquil. The message elaborately exposed his belief in the pernicious consequences of reducing the army at the present conjuncture, which, he said, decidedly demanded its inHe protested against the measure in the strongest terms; and urged upon congress the circumstance of the movement in Guayaquil, which seemed to have


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happened just at the proper moment to show the inexpediency of disbanding any of the troops. One passage deserves to be translated, as showing, unequivocally, that neither in Venezuela, nor in the south, have the honest friends of the federal system any ground to hope for aid from Bolivar. He ascribed the insurrection to the third division, who, after passing through various acts of insubordination, had ended with favouring a vote for proclaiming the federal system, got up by a cabal, who had sought, during the past year, to give that form to the government. These men,' he said, 'I succeeded in restraining, acquainting them through my secretary, and, by the project of a fundamental law, where. with I satisfied the request of Bolivia, that my decision was, for a central government, better adapted to our necessities. The federation, which is now proclaimed, is only a step leading to the traitorous object of those who invaded the southern departments." He commented, also, with great severity, upon the proceedings at Bogota, not concealing his doubts whether the representatives of the people would find it practicable to assemble, and deliberate in peace. The reply of congress was brief, and without entering into the reasons of the measure; but urging his speedy appearance at the seat of government.

Colombia during the interval between the assembling of congress, and the arrival of Bolivar at Bogota, in obedience to the vote of congress refusing to accept his renunciation of office. He made his en

try into the capitol on the 10th of September. About a league from the city he was met by the civil and military authorities of Cundi. namarca, who, in the name of the inhabitants of that department, addressed the Liberator in terms expressive of the hopes they entertained that the event would be the prelude to a re-establishment of harmony among the dif fering interests of the nation, and the opening of a new era of prosperity to the republic. The Liberator in reply, declared his sincere intention to dedicate his services to his country, and his hopes that he might contribute to restore tranquillity, and to fasten anew the ties of union, which unhappy dissensions had well nigh rent asunder. Shortly afterwards he was met by a deputation from congress, who informed him that body was now assembled, and ready to attend to his installation as president. Accompanied by the authorities and an immense concourse of citizens, he proceeded to the church of St. Domingo, where congress had assembled, and took the oath prescribed by the constitution, after which he pronounced an address of the following

Such was the state of things in tenor:

"When I first accepted the charge of the presidency, I promised to support the constitution as far as lay in my power, that is, as a soldier.-Pledged to the war of independence, I marched to the south, and effected the liberty of all that territory which was under the Spanish dominion. The republic was made entire. Peru call. ed for the protection of the Colombian army, and confided its destinies to my hands; she named me dictator. I triumphed completely over her enemies; and under the shade of the liberating Colombian flag, two sister republics were born, Peru and Bolivia. Discord divided Colombians. The north struggled to break the fundamental laws. Fratricidal cannon were thundering. I flew to appease the tumult, and by a single decree reestablished peace and union. Pub. lic order and tranquillity were afterwards restored. The congress heard the general cry of the nation, imperiously demanding reform. The grand convention was sum. moned, and by this means congress has saved the republic. The actual situation of Colombia now merits the consideration of the congress, which must, in its wisdom, weigh the measures I have suggested, and give or deny to them its approbation. The secretary general will present the memorial. In spite of the dismemberment with which the republic has been

threatened, in spite of the almost anarchial condition of the south of Colombia, I hope and even promise the congress to deliver over into the hands of the grand convention, the Republic of Colombia FREE and UNITED."

After the ceremony of taking the oaths of qualification was completed, the Liberator-president proceeded to the government house, where he was received by the vicepresident, the judiciary, and other executive officers of the government, and addressed by the vicepresident as follows:

"After all the demonstrations of love, respect and confidence, shown to you by the people, I, who am also a member of the supreme administration of the state, must confine myself to expressing to you our gratification in seeing you restored to the capital of the republic, and in possession of the supreme authority which the nation has conferred on you. What other wishes can be ours than those which flow from hearts that love their country, are faithful to its institutions, anxious for its stability, and interested in your glory? They are, assuredly, none other than to see the Republic again united under your authority, the parties which have distracted it destroyed, public quiet re-established, the rights of the people secured, and the laws, liberty, equality, and your transcendant reputation, tri

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