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mortem examination convinced the State Veterinarian that the animal had been suffering from contagious pleuro-pneumonia, and he at once notified the owner and left orders to confine two other cows, one of which was apparently sick with the same disease, closely on the premises, and also notified us by telegram.

A called meeting of the Board was held on the 15th day of September, in the city of Chicago, and we then visited the premises of Mr. Carne, at Ridgeland, where we met him and ascertained from him all the facts known relative to any exposure had by his stock. No difficulty was found in tracing the disease to the Harvey farm, and from there to the Phoenix Distillery shells in the city of Chicago, and to other distillery sheds, viz.: The Shufeldt, the Empire and the "Chicago.” The Board met again in Chicago on the 22d of September and formally quarantined all the above named localities, which had immediately on the discovery of the disease therein been temporarily quarantined, and put deputy sheriff's in charge, night and day, so that no cattle might enter or leave any of the premises. From that time till the work of extirpation was completed the Board was in almost constant attendence in Chicago.

Concerning the condition of the animals fed in these distillery sheds it is scarcely necessary to write, for you felt sufficient interest to visit the places with us and saw for yourself. You also witnessed several post-mortem examinations of the diseased animals, performed by skillful officers. Suffice it to say that the close confinement and imperfect ventilation would, in case of the existence of a contagious disease, greatly increase the spread of the same within the premises.

Under the law it is the duty of this Board “to cause to be investigated any and all cases, or alleged cases, coming to their knowledge, of contagious or infectious diseases among domestic animals, and to use all proper means to prevent the spread of such diseases and to provide for the extirpation thereof." In endeavoring to perform this duty several difficulties were met. First, the general igorance and incredulity of the public as to the nature of the disease and as to its existence. This is common in the history of all contagious diseases and is increased by the natural desire of the owners to avoid inevitable loss. This incredulity was also shared by many who were vitally interested in the results, and, while boasting of their intelligence, yet took no pains to ascertain the truth. In order to remove all doubts in the minds of any who honestly wished to know the facts, frequent post-mortem examinations were made, and the opinions of distinguished veterivarians were sought and obtained. In no case was there any conflict of opinion as to the character of the disease, or the danger involved.

We furthermore ascertained that the disease was prevalent among the cows owned in the city outside of these distillery stables, and herded over the commons in all directions. Several of these last were traced to their owners, and, with their consent, killed and examined and found affected with the same disease. These cases were followed up, and all cows known to have been exposed, as far as possible, were tracked to their stables and the owners duly notified to keep them there, and not to "sell or convey" them elsewhere.

Having established a rigid quarantine over the above named distilleries and the Harvey farm, the Board did not fear further spread of the contagion from that quarter, and in accordance with the expressed wishes of the owners and feeders, early determined to delay killing these cattle until such time as would allow full examination and observation of the disease and its progress. In this connection we wish to call attention to one incident, not heretofore mentioned, as showing the contagious nature of the disease. About the fifteenth of September, four days previous to the discovery of the disease in the Phænix Distillery sheds, nearly three hundred head of western steers, in robust health, were tied up therein for fattening. It was stoutly asserted that these strong, thrifty steers would never be attacked by the disease, which the owners claimed “was a disease only found among distillery fed Cows.' The result proves the reverse of this assertion. The disease appeared after the time laid down by the veterinary authorities as the period of incubation, and, after all are dead, the result is as follows: Total number of steers. 297; died with contagious pleuro-pneumonia, prior to slaughter, 50; condemned at slaughter house as diseased with contagious pleuro-pneumonia, 12; number showing, on post-mortem examination, slight traces of contagious pleuro-pneumonia, 170; died with Texas fever, 3; leaving but 65 head that did not contract the disease. The fifty that died prior to slaughter contracted the disease and died within 70 days after first exposure, and had they been allowed to remain longer, it is probable that many more would have died from this disease. This experiment, vot of our making, fully proves the contagious nature of the disease.

A word should be said regarding the small number of animals found at any one time suffering from the disease in the acute form. One reason is that the season of incubation is long, ranging from fifteen to ninety days, and another is that, from sad experience, the owners had learned to detect the first premonitory symtoms, and at once had all such promptly killed and placed the carcasses for sale on the market. Still another reason is that quite a percentage of affected animals apparently recover, and may thereafter improve in condition, but, yet, be capable at a subsequent time of conveying the disease to exposed cattle. If the voluntary statements of owners are to be trusted, one man has lost forty animals in twelve months out of a herd of about forty, the dead animals being immediately replaced with fresh subjects. Another states his loss as one hundred and one animals out of a herd of about that number during a period of twelve months. Another case is worthy of mention. On the 15th of July, 1886, fifty-eight cows were brought from Oshkosh, Wis., to the Phænix Distillery sheds with five additional cows bought in Chicago, making sixtythree head in all. The disease first made its appearance among them about the first of September. Two died on the ninth, two on the twelfth, three on the fifteenth, one was killed on the twentieth and found to be diseased, two on the twenty-first and two on the twenty-third. The post-mortem examination of the last two was made in your presence. On the 4th of October, two more died, on the fifth one more, and on the nineteenth one. The balance were taken to the slaughter house, in charge of the State Veterinarian, during the last week in October, and others were found diseased and condemned. The final result may be stated as follows: Total number of cows placed in the distillery July 15, 63; died and killed and found diseased, 29, leaving 34 head of healthy cows after 100 days of exposure.

Soon after the discovery of contagious pleuro-pneumonia in Cook county, the Board received numerous reports of the existence of disease among cattle in other places in the State, each party fearing the dread scourge. We had these supposed outbreaks examined as promptly as possible with our limited force of Veterinarians, but in no case was any trace of pleuro-pneumonia found. The stables of the large distilleries at Peoria were examined and the cattle found free from this disease.

In accordance with the provisions of our law, on the 17th of November, 1886, the Board appointed Thomas J. Buntain, of Kankakee county, J. B. Wilson, of Iroquois, and H. 6. Miller, of Richland, to appraise the exposed cattle. The Board takes this occasion to express to these gentlemen its thanks for the able and conscientious manner in which they discharged this unpleasant but necessary work.

On November 28, 1886, we ordered out for slaughter the first draft of cattle from the Phoenix Distillery stables, and on the 20 day of December following we finished the slaughter of the cattle therein. We slaughtered 890 head, some of the cattle in the stables being slaughtered by the owners on permit. From December 5 to 8, inclusive, the 634 head of cattle in the Shufeldt Distillery stables were slaughtered, and from December 13 to 18, inclusive, the 517 head of cattle in the Chicago Distillery stables were slaughtered. These cattle were all slaughtered under the personal supervision and inspection of the veterinary surgeons working under the direction of this Board, every lung being examined, and the number that was found to be diseased is given in another part of this report.

The 207 cattle quarantined in the Empire Distillery stables were not then slaughtered, none having, to our knowledge, died of contagious pleuro-pneumonia, nor shown signs of being affected with that disease. An agreement was made with the owner of the cattle, allowing them to remain in the stables until the latter part of the month of February following, on condition that he would then have them slaughtered under the supervision of the State Veterinarian and his assistants, without expense to the State. The owner of these cattle absented himself from the State and did not return until April, when the cattle were slaughtered, and 117 were found affected with contagious pleuro-pneumonia in its chronic form. We desire to call especial attention to these cattle. They had been in quarantine for seven months. No fresh cattle were added during that time, no deaths occurred and no known acute case of contagious pleuro-pneumonia existed. The cattle appa

rently were healthy, fattened well on their feed, but notwithstanding this, the post-mortem showed that fully 117 were chronic (encysted) cases of contagious pleuro-pneumonia, capable upon the breaking down of the cysts of communicating the disease to healthy animals, showing clearly the necessity of a strict watch over an infected district for a long time after the disease has apparently disappeared.


Soon after the outbreak of this disease was discovered and made known to the country, Dr. D. E. Salmon, Chief of the Bureau of Animal Industry, appeared in Chicago, and, in company with the State Veterinarian and this Board, visited the distillery stables where post-mortem examinations were jaade on several cattle whose lungs showed unmistakably that they were diseased with contagious pleuro-pneumonia. Dr. Salmon proposed to render the Board assistance in getting rid of this disease; offered to pay the expenses of the quarantine, and furnish a corps of veterinarians; but, to enable him to do this, it would be necessary for the Governor of the State to accept and sign rules for co-operation. These rules were submitted to this Board and modified, and, as modified, were accepted and signed by Your Excellency, and are as follows, to-wit:

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. “Rules and regulations for co-operation between the United States Department of Agriculture and the authorities of the seyeral States and Territories for the suppression and extirpation of contagious pleuro-pneumonia of cattle.”

1. The necessary inspectors will be furnished by the Bureau of Animal Industry of the Department of Agriculture.

2. The properly constituted inspectors of the Bureau of Animal Industry, which are assigned to the respective States, are to be authorized by proper State authorities to make inspections of cattle under the laws of the State; they are to receive such protection and assistance as would be given to State officers engaged in similar work, and shall be permitted to examine quarantined herds whenever so directed by the Commissioner of Agriculture or the Chief of the Bureau of Animal Industry.

3. All reports of inspection will be made to the Bureau of Animal Industry, and a copy of these will then be made and forwarded to the proper State authorities; when, however, an inspector discovers a herd infected with contagious pleuro-pneumonia, he will at once report the same to the proper State authority as well as to the Bureau of Animal Industry.

4. The inspectors, while always subject to orders from the Department of Agriculture, will cordially co-operate with State authorities and will follow instructions received from them.

QUARANTINE. 5. When contagious pleuro-pneumonia is discovered in any herd, the owner or person in charge is to be at once notified, by the inspector, and the quarantine regulations of the State in which the herd is located are to be enforced from that time. The affected animals will be isolated, when possible, from the remainder of the herd until they can be properly appraised and slaughtered.

(Six and seven were stricken out). 8. Quarantine restrictions once imposed are not to be removed by the State authorities without due notice to the proper officers of the Department of Agriculture.

9. The period of quarantine will be at least ninety days, dating from the removal of the last diseased animal from the herd. During this period no animal will be allowed to enter the herd or to leave it, and all animals in the herd will be carefully isolated from other cattle.

When possible, all infected herds are to be held in quarantine and not allowed to leave the infected premises except for slaughter. In this case fresh animals may be added to the herd at the owner's risk, but are to be considered as infected animals and subjected to the same quarantine regulations as the other members of the herd.

SLAUGHTER AND COMPENSATION. 10. All animals affected with contagious pleuro-pneumonia are to be slaughtered as soon after their discovery as the necessary arrangements can be made.

11. When diseased animals are reported to the State authorities, they shall promptly take such steps as they desire to confirm the diagnosis. The animals found diseased are then to be appraised according to the provisions of the State law, and the proper officer of the Bureau of Animal Industry (who will be designated by the Commissioner of Agriculture ) notified of the appraisement. If this representative of the Bureau of Animal Industry confirms the diagnosis and approves the appraisement, the Department of Agriculture will purchase the diseased animals of the owner and pay such a proportion of the appraised value as is provided for compensation by the laws of the State in which the animals are located, when they are condemned and slaughtered by State


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