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bad conditions existing at certain places. The joint inspector will pass ten cars from A to B with defective safety appliances and ten cars from B to A in the same condition; this is repeated constantly.
Inspector Merrill says a great many cars at certain places, chiefly important interchange points, are marked "Bad order; return home when empty." Such cars receive no attention whatever. They are often interchanged between many roads before they are sent to the owning company, and all this time are being handled in a defective condition by switchmen and trainmen. He noticed that some railroads are placing large capacity cars next to the engine and the less modern and weaker equipment behind, by which arrangement they claim they are having less trouble, and he is informed by the trainmen that excellent results are obtained from this practice.
In conclusion, attention is directed to the unlimited field for investigation of the several items upon which comment is made.
Committees on subjects for discussion before the various technical associations frequently express their inability to obtain suitable subjects for debate, and it is suggested that when that difficulty arises some item or items be selected from the table accompanying this report, which will furnish ample material and bring to notice that neglect of little things which so often results in dangerous failures of cars or engines. Many of the higher mechanical officers seem to be unable to give the consideration to small defects which, nevertheless, is so essential to the economical and safe operation of our railroads. It is to be hoped therefore that the railroad clubs and car foremen's associations will take up these and other matters shown in the present record. GEORGE GROOBEY, Chief Inspector.
Number of train miles run for each trainman employed, etc
Number of enginemen and firemen employed. Number of switchmen, flagmen, and watchmen employed...
Number of trainmen employed in coupling and uncoupling cars for each one killed (other than enginemen and firemen), including switchmen, flagmen, and watchmen
Number of trainmen employed in coupling and
Number of trainmen killed in coupling and un-
1,013, 307 18, 599 745, 119, 482
1,200, 315, 787
93, 588, 111, 833
455, 196, 305
157, 289, 370, 053
63,701, 258, 220
GRAB IRONS ON LOCOMOTIVES.
REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE OF THE AMERICAN RAILWAY MASTER MECHANICS' ASSOCIATION ON "THE LOCATION OF GRAB IRONS ON THE FRONT ENDS OF LOCOMOTIVES."
Your committee have acquainted themselves with the requirements of the law regarding safety appliances, as it relates to grab irons on the front ends of locomotives in road service, as interpreted by the Interstate Commerce Commission, and in the following report these have been kept in view. In addition to this, we have undertaken to answer the various questions raised by superintendents of motive power.
Your committee learn there is a widespread opinion among motive-power officials that grab irons and steps on the pilots of locomotives in road service, instead of being a safety appliance, are dangerous because they invite employees to place themselves unnecessarily in a dangerous position. This view was urged by your committee on a representative of the Interstate Commerce Commission, but without avail.
The law does not require the application of steps, either to the pilot or on the tender.
The law does not refer to hand holds on the smoke arch, but to hand holds or grab irons on the pilot or front bumper beam.
A grab iron at the front end of the engine, on the side, is not required.
The Master Car Builders' standards for grab irons on freight cars cover the following points, which we would recommend to apply in the case of grab irons on locomotives:
Grab irons should be secured by lag screws, rivets, or bolts not less than one-half inch in diameter.
The diameter of the iron used for grab irons should be not less than five-eighths of an inch.
The clearance between the grab iron and the piece to which it is fastened should be not less than 2 inches.
If the uncoupling rod meets these requirements and has a diameter sufficient to give the required stiffness, it will answer as a grab iron.
If the uncoupling rod extends only from one side of the engine to the coupler, we recommend a grab iron on the opposite end, on the bumper.
If the uncoupling rod extends across the front end of the engine, no other grab iron is required there. We recommend this construction.
A flag standard is not a satisfactory substitute for a grab iron.
Though a foothold or step on the pilot is not required by the law, inasmuch as grab irons are considered necessary, your committee recommends the application of a convenient step on the pilot, to reduce to a minimum the danger to employees riding the pilot.
Pilot coupler braces, to be satisfactory grab irons, should be at such a height and have sufficient clearance to be conveniently and surely reached by employees. C. H. QUEREAU, Chairman. W. S. MORRIS, J. MILLIKEN,
Mr. C. H. QUEREAU,
INTERSTATE COMMERCE COMMISSION,
Supt. of Shops, New York Central and Hudson River R. R. Co., West Albany, N. Y. DEAR MR. QUEREAU: Your letter of October 3, inclosing a proposed report of the American Railway Master Mechanics' committee on the location of grab irons on the front ends of locomotives is received. I telegraphed you a few days ago that I hoped you would hold your report for a short time and that I would take occasion to write