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partial payment of the debt due the Cuban army. This project fell through finally, and the assembly dissolved.

In the distribution of the money to the Cuban army great difficulties were encountered in identifying the men. Many of the men whose names appeared on the rolls could not be found, and many were found who seemed to possess evidences of service and whose names were not on the rolls. These could not receive any money, and much dissatisfaction was caused, there being no possible basis for the disbursements but the rolls, which were, on the face of them, authentic.

It was also agreed that if any money was left after all on the rolls had received their distributive share certain maimed and destitute officers should receive a share of this money. General Gomez was requested to ascertain whom these officers were and furnish a list of them, with their residences, so that they could be reached, but he did not think he could do so. The General was reminded several times that this list had not been received, that the close of the distribution was at hand, and finally he was informed that the work would cease on a certain date and the balance on hand would be returned to the Treasury of the United States. The money was returned on the date specified and the officers did not receive any money.

During the course of this distribution some badly wounded and necessitous officers were known to receive from the men liberal contributions which were voluntarily made; also that some widows received assistance in the same way.

The conferences with General Gomez were, principally, verbal and only such memoranda were kept as would enable an intelligent carrying out of the arrangements agreed upon. The amount of labor given to this matter and the time consumed was out of all proportion to the work in hand, but the interference by the assembly was largely the cause of the delay. All the expenses attendant on this distribution have been paid from the revenues of the island.

During the time occupied in the distribution of the money a force of clerks, under the direction of General Roloff, inspector-general of the Cuban army, was employed in preparing certificates of discharge, a statement of service, and amount due to each officer and soldier, the expenses of which were paid from the customs revenues. These papers are to be distributed to those to whom they pertain. The manner of doing this has not yet been determined upon.


Attention is invited to the report of the secretary of state and government, stated in which will be found the duties of this depart ment and its important connection with the various branches of the government in the provinces.

It will be seen that steps are being taken to establish municipalities on a proper basis, they being the foundation of the governmental structure, granting all necessary powers which may be required in addition to those they now possess under the law to enable them to conduct their affairs along the lines which all free governments find to be essential to the proper maintenance of liberty. In this matter the first steps, the reorganizing of the municipal governments under existing law as to their personnel, have been taken, with the exception that the principal officials have been appointed by the military governor and the members of councils by the civil governor, in both of which the WAR 99—VOL 1, PT 6——————2

wishes of the people were, as far as possible, ascertained and recognized. In some instances there were good and sufficient reasons for not appointing certain candidates. In most cases the commanding generals of departments were asked to report upon the candidates under consideration.

The statistical matter which is embraced in this report is very interesting and gives remarkable information, which will open the way to a knowledge of the conditions in Cuba not otherwise so well portrayed. The institutions which come under the care of this department are those over which governments usually exercise an absolute or supervisory control.



In the report of the secretary of finance there will be found an exhaustive review of the condition of this department, which it is recommended be most carefully considered. It gives a clear insight into the operations of the department under the existing conditions and the restrictions placed upon it without any change being made in the law..

In the proclamation of January 1 last the laws in effect on December 31, 1898, were continued in force until they should be modified or changed. The order of the President establishing the customs service in Cuba was issued December 9, 1898, and the laws regarding the collection and control of the customs revenues, in so far as this branch of the finance department was concerned, were therefore changed by the President. The same order fixed and regulated the coasting trade. Notwithstanding those facts, I would ask for the remarks of the secretary of finance that consideration, from their being undoubtedly an expression of the views on this subject of a great many prominent and able residents and natives of Cuba, the gravity of the matter demands. In this report will be found most interesting information as to the lands, mines, forests, and other resources of Cuba, and in which will be found also reference to the laws on those subjects.

It is thought some action in the line of the suggestions of the secretary can be taken by the military governor which will enable him to have a complete statistical knowledge of the whole financial conditions.


In the reorganization of the departments of government, made by the order of January 11, 1899, the department of justice and public instruction was constituted. That portion of the former department of grace, justice, and government relating to government was separated from it and transferred to the department of state, while the department of public instruction, which had hitherto been a distinct and separate department, was added to the department of justice.

As a result of this reorganization there has been a more economical administration of affairs secured than existed under the old régime. A large reduction in expenses was made in his department by the secretary of justice and public instruction, as may be seen in his report.

The work of this secretary has been transacted under many difficulties, due to the difference of language used by the governing power and by the people, and the necessity, therefore, for translation of all papers coming before the department from English to Spanish, or vice versa; and also of all orders issued affecting the administration of the laws,


or changes therein, to be published in both languages. Where questions arose or were submitted in one language it was necessary to translate, and perhaps to discuss, them in the other.

The work of translation involved in the order for the establishment of the supreme court was particularly difficult, because of technical legal terms employed in each language, which were difficult of translation with the same meaning one into the other. This has been found to be the case in other orders, and it is for this reason that many of the Spanish terms and names are retained in the English version.

The same difficulty was experienced in reorganizing the audiencias, and that of the "tribunal local contencioso administrativo."

The organization of these bodies had to be so made as to adjust them to the existing systems of laws, with such modifications in the interest of the better administration of justice as could be made without creating discord. It was found that changes in any particular form of the laws -or institutions in existence affected other parts of the system of government or the laws, so that those proposed were necessarily subject to careful consideration as to their effect upon the existing system, and consequent delays occurred before being adopted.

The jurisdiction of the supreme court, and of the audiencia, the rules of procedure before these courts, and the functions of the "tribunal local contencioso administrativo" are stated by the secretary in his report.

The difficulties under which the personnel of these courts was selected, due to the condition of affairs existing in the island, are portrayed, and also the reasons for the change of certain boundary lines and of jurisdiction of some of the courts are given.

In addition to the work of reorganization of the courts and regulation of the laws of procedure, various modifications of existing law, which were necessary, were acted upon after examination by the department, one of the earliest and most important being the separation of the state and church by taking from the latter and transferring to the former powers formerly possessed by ecclesiastical courts in matters relating to divorce and nullification of marriage, and in the requirement that hereafter only the civil marriage would be legal; these are explained by him.

In addition to the above, questions of modification of the law of libel, pardon for offenses against the Spanish Government prior to January 1, 1899, for certain persons under army and navy jurisdiction, and for offenses against the so-called electoral laws; authorization of notaries to make their own translation of documents and holding them responsible for correctness thereof, and extending the time for registration of births not registered on account of the war are among the matters also acted upon by the secretary.


The absolute necessity for immediate action in connection with ques tions arising in the branch of justice of this department, and the urgency thereof being greater than that demanded in the branch of public instruction, and as reforms in this bureau could not be introduced so as to be applied before the following scholastic year, many matters relating to it were postponed. A project for reorganization of primary instruction is now being prepared and will soon be acted upon. This is one of the most important tasks of the bureau of public instruc

tion. Orders, however, have been issued abolishing the fees paid to the government for issuing academic and professional degrees of any kind; abolishing the bureau of pensions for retired primary teachers, with all its personnel; dissolving the relations which existed between the University of Habana and other institutions with similar institutions in Spain; abolishing the practice of "jubilación," whereby professors who had passed the period of activity were accustomed to appoint substitutes for themselves, taking part of their salaries, themselves residing in Spain or elsewhere; revoking leaves of absence with half salary, which had been granted to teachers by Spanish authority just prior to its relinquishment of control, for periods extending to six months and a year; the promulgation of an order prescribing terms by which foreign degrees might be accepted by the University of Habana to enable persons to practice professions in Cuba; such, briefly stated, are the changes made thus far in this bureau.

As indicated throughout the report, the work of this department has been very great, and if all has not been accomplished that could be desired, yet difficulties met have been overcome and a progress made that seemed impossible when the task of government of this island, upon principles of justice to the people and equal rights to all men, was begun January 1, 1899.


The scope of this department is quite broad and covers several important industries, as well as the public lands, forests, and mines. The statistical information added to the special report called for by the Secretary of War gives an insight into the resources of this island, which is of great value. The amount of work which has been done in reorganizing and equipping this department, like the other three, has been very great. In spite of all the difficulties the department has finally completed its organization, and, as soon as the various portions. have gained that familiarity so necessary to a proper understanding of what is required, it will be of great value to the island. Up to this time its main work has been done in the way of taking over the lighthouses from military control, sending its engineers out to make surveys of roads which will need to be repaired before the people of the sections they penetrate can again reach the markets with their products. This course of action was decided upon early, but it was not thought possible to prosecute to advantage the work during the rainy season, which was supposed to commence in May and continue until October. Unfortunately, much valuable time was thus lost.

Preliminary surveys will be made of harbors to determine what can be done to increase their value as ports. In fact, the work done by the Engineer Corps of the United States Army is to be performed by this department in so far as Cuba is concerned. The work actually done is the restoration of the great macadamized highways, replacing bridges, rebuilding and repairing light houses, arranging for building others at dangerous points on the northwestern coast, notably near which the French steamer Versailles went ashore. In fact, the work of this department now extends beyond its legitimate limits, because of the inability of the various sections to repair roads and bridges, which inability is caused by want of resources. This condition will pass away when the agricultural and other rural industries are restored, part of which restoration depends upon the condition of the public roads.


The report of the director-general of posts shows the financial condition of the postal service. The work done by this department has been very great. The complete organization of a postal system is practically what has been successfully accomplished. Of course there is still much to do, which can only be done in time. The department deserves commendation for its work, which is most cordially given.

In closing this report I desire to make acknowledgment of the able support and assistance received from the officers of the division staff, both in the military and civil administration. Their adaptability to the various requirements is an evidence that the officers of the United States Army, brought up under our institutions, are so thoroughly imbued with the system of our free government that they are seldom found unequal to any task intrusted to them. Their readiness and comprehensive adaptability on all occasions is the result of the home training of the American citizen.

Where all have acquitted themselves so entirely to the satisfaction of the military governor and to the honor of their profession, it is dif ficult to particularize among them. I can not refrain, however, from specially mentioning General Chaffee, General Ernst, Lieutenant-Colonel Richards, Major Dudley, Major (now Colonel, U. S. V.) Kennon, Major Hickey, Major Rolfe, Captain Page, Captain Dean and Lieutenant Castle, aids-de-camp; also for their able conduct of and laborious duty in the supply departments, Lieutenant Colonel-Humphrey, chief quartermaster, and Maj. Abiel L. Smith, chief commissary. Major O'Reilly, chief surgeon, has ably conducted his department, and Colonel Dunwoody has shown marked ability in organizing the signal corps and perfecting the telegraph and telephone systems throughout the island.

To those officers of the line, staff, and medical department who have been so earnest and efficient in the work of disinfection and sanitation, to which is largely due the present healthful condition of the island, and whose names are not all known, the appreciation of their labors is most gratefully acknowledged.

I am, sir, very respectfully,

JOHN R. BROOKE, Major-General, Military Governor.

Habana, January 7, 1899.


Department of Pinar del Rio, Pinar del Rio, Cuba. GENERAL: I am directed by the major general commanding the division to invite your attention to the reported need of food by a large number of the people of the island. He desires that you inquire into this matter at once and investigate fully the condition of the people as regards the matter of food supply. In all cases where you may find destitution, you will immediately relieve it. In this connection, your attention is invited to the inclosed extract from General Orders, No. 110, AdjutantGeneral's Office, Washington, August 1, 1898, specifying the ration to be issued to Cuban destitutes. You will please understand that all able-bodied men needing food will be given work, as soon as practicable, on the repair of roads and Banitary and other public works. They will be paid fair wages in United States money, but this can not now be paid weekly for the reason that the funds are not available. It is not proposed to furnish work to those people who remain in Cuba and retain their allegiance to Spain. Men who are offered work and refuse to work should not be fed. On investigation of this matter you will show, by timely estimates of funds,

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