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factures, ground plaster, and sugar boxes. The values ef these articles will be found in the first of the foregoing tables.
In a review of the comparative statement of Canadian exports, we first notice that the products of the mine and sea were nearly the same in 1854 as in 1865, while the lumber trade has advanced from $2,083,54 4 to $5,008,746, a large increase, but not inore than the constant and increasing de:nand of Anerican markets w.ull bave carised in any vnt. Since the abrogation of the reciprocity treaty, A n :rican purchasers are paying higher rates for Canadian timber, and in larger quantities than in 1865, notwithstan ling the necessity of prying a duty of 20 por cent. on the frontier of the United States.
It is in the division of " animals and produce" that the most re nark able contrast appears between the trade of 1865 and ten years ago. Then the valuation of this class of exports was only $697.926; now it is $7,053,079. The supply of Canadian horses during the war follows: Number.
Number. Valne. 8,198 667,315 1864 (half year)..... 6,418 503 rs? 1862 8,606 661,795 1864-'65
23,106 1,812,331 1863.
19,335 1,465,540 The exportation of cattle and swine was no less remarkable—15,704 cattle, valued at $384,599 in 1861, and 59,564, valued at $1,781,965 in 1864-'65, while of swine the export to the United States in 1861 was 27,091, valued at $161,279, and in 1864-'05, 46,305, valued at $613,993 The movement of wool and sheep, having, perhaps, less connection with the commissary of an army, is still worthy of observation from the relation to manufacturing industry. The exportation of sheep to the United States was as follows: Number. Value.
Number. Value. 1861..
51.941 149,220 1864 (half year...... 10,316 48,326 1862. 88.141 217.724 1861-65....
69,931 263,044 1863.
72,208 198,651 The exchanges of wool during the same period in value were: To Canada. To U.States
To Canada. To U.States 1861
197 895 424,430 1864. (half year). 118,320 392.373 1862 333,570 724,815 1864.265
171,071 1,353,168 1863
208,855 974,153 Total
.1,032,714 3,869,439 It appears from the Canadian trade returns that during the half
year closing Deceinber 31, 1865, 15,000 horses, 103,810 horned cattle, (swine not stated in the newspaper report at hand,) and 158,000 sheep were exported to the United States; the total value of this class of exports being $7,923,355. A Canadian newspaper, the Globe of Toronto, ailiis that the cattle are wanted not only for beef, but for the manufacture of butter and cheese, now fast becoming leading articles of export to Eng. land."
At the an: val meeting of wool manufacturers belil at Pbiladelphir, September 6, 1865, Mr. J. L. Hayes, secretary of the association, rein ırk. ed is fullows of the tra le in sheep and wool with Canada ;
• The wool known in our markets as Canada wool consists wholly of teeces from the lony wouled Leicester and Cutswold sheep, and crosses of these breeds with the Southdown, recently introduced from England. Mr. Stone, of Guelph, Canada West, has taken the lead in the introduction of these sheep. The flocks in Canada are small, averaging from twenty to fisty head. It has been estimated that 6,000,000 pounds of long wool will be grown in 1865, with a consumption in the United States of 5,500,000 pounds. The success of the Lowell Manufacturing Company in fabricating alpaca goods from Canada lustre wools has demonstrated that the wool does not deteriorate on this continent. The Canada wool has been found equal to the best English lustre wool, imported expressly for comparison. The free wool of Canada bas been an inestimable boon to our worsted manufacturers. It does not compele with the production of our farmers, as we grow bardly more than 200.000 pounds of long wool, while Canada consumes 300,000 pounds annually of our clothing wool. It is not possible that our own production of long wool will keep up with the demand."
The wool here described is now subject to a duty of twelve cents per pound and ten per cent. ad valorem, its value being seldom below thirtytwo cents; and sheep, as well as other animals, are charged with duty at the rate of twenty per cent. ad valorem. It is too soon to determine how this taxation will affect the course of trade.
Proceeding to the consideration of agricultural products" exported from Canada to the United States, we first notice “barley and rye,” of which a valuation of $94,185 in 1854 had become $2,879,870 in 1864'65. This large sum was inostly paid for Canadian barley, wbich is described, in a recent memorial of brewers to Congress, as of a superior quality, usually commanding twenty to thirty cents per bushel more than barley grown in the United States. The Canadians cultivate the fourrowed variety, but tbeir great advantage is the perfect adaptation of soil and climate to the production of this cereal. At present not more than one third of the amount required by inanufacturers of malt liquors is grown in the United States; and the statement has been made that if the Barley now grown in Canada were reduced one-ball, it would cripple the manufacture of malt liquors to such an extent as to involve a loss to the United States Treasury, annually of about $2,000,000. Barley was free of duty under the reciprocity treaty. The present duty is fifteen cents
In 1854 Canada exported flour to the United States of the value of $3,370,316, reduced in 1864-65 to $1.916,255. This large exportation of flour before the reciprocity treaties indicates that Canadian white wheat will always be required for domestic consumption in New England and New York, notwithstanding the duty of twenty per cent. Another singular fact is, that the value of wlieat exported in 1854 was $2,870,652, while in 1864 '65 it was only $1,227,363, an excess in the former year of $1,642,645. Add this sum to the amount in which we export of four in 1854 exceeded that of 1864-65, and the aggrerace more than balances the difference of agricultural which is recorded in favor of 1864 265.
The observations suggested by the list of exports from the United States to Canada will occur in connexion with the next topic of inquiry, viz., " the nature and extent of the changes made in the Canadian tariff since 1854."
THE CANADIAN TARIFF.
By the Canadian tariff of 1819, spirits, wine, tobacco, tea, coff-e, sugar, molasses, spices, &c., were charged with duties partly sperific and partly ad valorem, which were gradually made exclusively specific. On the 26th March, 1859, this was altogether changedi, ad valorem duties, rang ing from thirty to one hundred per cent., and averaging forty per cent., were adopted, and mostly prevail at this time although additional specific duties bave been imposed on the articles named above by the tariffs since 1862. When the duties were exclusively specific there was great encouragement of purchases in American markets; but with the policy of 1859, substituting ad valorem rates, the Canadian purchaser tinds it for his interest to trade directly with Europe and countries producing the articles in question.
In regard to American manufactures, the Canadian tariff is not immoderate, and is of impartial application. There is no discrimination in favor of English fabrics, while the vicinity of the American manufacturer affords him a positive advantage. A large class of articles, consisting of iron, steel, metals, and articles entering into the construction of railways, houses, ships, and agricultural implements, are acimitted at 10 per cent. duty; but 20 per cent, is the prevalent rate upon manufactured articles. Excluding the class of luxuries and stimulants first mentioned, the average taxation by Canada in 1864 '65 upon dutiable goods was 18.7 per cent.; while of the total importations, 43 per cent. were of articles free of duty. Of course this large percentage was owing to the operation of the reciprocity treaty, but it is likely to continue.
The average per centage on goods paying duty by Canadian tariff; was 13 per cent. in 1854, 19 per cent. in 1859, and during the last fiscal year en ting June 30, 1865, it was 22.3 per cent.
The rate of taxation by the American tariff upon dutiable goods has been ascertained by Dr. William Elder, statistician of the Treasury Department, at the following averages for corresponding years : In 1854, 25.0 per cent.; in 1859, 19.5 per cent.; and in 1865, 50.4 per cent.
The Canadian advance of rates is less than might have been anticipated when attention is directed to the public debt of Canada, which was officially stated in 1864 at the suin of $76,223,061. Of this amount the following expenditures by the Canadian government have been for the construction of canals and railways, which have been of great value to the western States as communications with the ocean and the Atlantic cities : 1. The St. Lawrence canals, by which vessels of 300 tons burden avoid the rapids between Kingston and Montreal....
$7,406,269 2. The Welland canal, passing vessels of 400 tons Lurden fro Lake Er e to Lake Ontario
7,309,849 8. Chambly canal and river Richelieu, enabling vessels to pass from the St. Lawrence into Lake Champlain
433,807 4. Lake St. Peter improvements, dredging a channel for sea-going ves. sels drawing 20 feet of water to Moutreal..
1,098,225 5. Harbors and light houses, mostly in aid of the navigation of the Jakes and the St. Lawrence.
2,549,617 6. Graod Truuk railway..
16.312,894 7. Great Western railway, from Niagara to Detroit.
2,810,500 8. Northern rail way, connecting Lake Huron with Lake Ontario.
2,311,666 9. Interest on railway debentures, &c.
Fully fifty per cent. of the debt of Canada has been assumed for oh-tia which are directly for the advantage of the American communities in the valley of the St. Lawrence-a consideration which should restrain aap violence of remonstrance against the fiscal legislation of Canada.*
The relations of that legislation to exports from the United States to Canada will appear from the following statement, compiled from Canadian trade returns, which gives our exports for 18 i4, the year before the reciprocity treaty; for 1859, or midway of the operation of the treats under the advanced Canadian tariff of that year, and from 1861 to 1865, or during the period of the war, exhibiting separately the amounts of free and dutiable goods and the average rates imposed by Canadian tarifs oa dutiable goods : Years.
Free goods. Dutiable goods. per te! 1854..
2,620,555 16,307,376 1859.
12,722.755 8,346,633 1862.
19,044.374 6,128.733 1863..
3,974.396 1864. (half-year)
15,589,055 3,991,226 Of manufactures and foreign merchandise there was a larger importation to Canada from the United States in 1854 than in 1861-65, for reabons already assigned. The leading articles taken by Canada in the latter year are coal, mostly anthracite, $544,511 ; meats, $376,968; Indian corn, largely for distillation, $781,288; wheat and four, $3,559,749; cheese, $306.618; tobacco, unmanufactured, $277 007, and wol
:, $174,040. Total in 186+-'65, $6,510,211. Total of same articles in 1854, $1,498,888.
Passing from this special statement of the Canadian trade, a brief analysis will be attempted of the commercial relations of the United States to the following divisions of British America ; 1. New Brunswick; 2. Nova Scotia ; 3. Prince Elwari Island ; 4. Newfoundland ; 5. Central British America or the territory of the Hudson Bay Cu
upany tern of Minnesota; and 6. The Pacific colonies of British Columbia aad Vancouvers Island.
194 es 214
1864 '65 ....
The area of this province is 27,700 square miles, or 17,730,560 of which 7,551,909 had been disposed of by sale or grant on Jan. 1, 1864 and 885,108 acres are under cultivation. A large portion of this surface is covered with dense forests of pine, hacmatac, cevar, &c., which furnish immense quantities of timber, both for export and shipbuilding. Coul and iron ore are abundant-the former said to extend over 10,000 square mile or about one third of the area of the province. The fi beries of the Atlana tic coast are inexhaustible, and very profitable.
* There is, unquestionably, a growing party in Canada who advocate an advaner of drone
with a view to encourage manufactures. Ilon. I-ac Bnchali&n, of Hamilton, is the promis exponent of such a policy. While advocating a Zoll Verein or Customs Union with the load Europe Mr. Galt, the Canadian i nister of finance, in-isis that the Canadian tarif DX States, he argiles, with much force and presistence in favor of restrictions upon trad wie are making way in Canada. prote, tive, in the usual rense of that term; but it is easy to see that Mr Bucbama's The
The following statistics of New Brunswick are compiled from the latest ocial reports. The revenue for the fscal year ending Oct. 31, 1864, was $1,060,815; for 1863, 6814,891; increase, $215,921; and derived as follows :
1864. Railway impost
$188,300 $191,944 In port duty....
595.069 743815 Export duty on lomber.
61.884 67,640 Territorial and casual..
28.993 30,738 Misce laneous.
86 893 $7,128 Total ......
844,894 1.060,815 Importations for 1954, dutiable..
8,915,942 Rate of impost on dutiable goods... Rate of input on all gols..
10 15 per ct. In portations from the Cnited States.
$3,316.8:4 Esporlati os to all countries....
5,105.8,897 Exportatos to the Crited States..
1,266,148 The exports to the United States are largely of lumber, but otherwise the trade with this country is of the same nature as that of Nova Scotia, which will be given in mure detail. The population of New Brunswick in 1864 was 272,780.
The Financial Secretary of the province, in his last report, sars : “The Teciprocity treaty had been ten years in operation on the 12th of November, 1864. Daring ten years ending Dec. 31, 1864, importations from the l'cited States amounted in value to 6,728,5961. sterling, aca'nst 3,739,7521. daring ten years immediately preceding the treaty." The same officer re. Harks that the only instance of coal mining in New Brunswick is by an Alberican company.
In regard to the shipbuilding interest, it is stated be the same authority that the pumber of vessels built in New Brunswick during 40 years has been 4,109, measuring 1,584,386 tons, and the structures of 1864 were moch above the average of those years.
Tbe funded debt of New Brunswick, mostly incurred for railroads, was $5,702,991 in 1863.
NOVA SCOTIA. The peninsula of Nora Scotia, including the island of Cape Breton, has an area of 18,746 square miles; in acres, 11,995,4 40, and probably no equal surf-ce of the world combines so many natural aivantages. Ang these are a fertile soil, a climate softened by insular position and the vicin. ity of the Gulf Stream, capacious barbors derer closed in winter, immense coal beds accessible by vessels, and a productive gold district, besiles de posits of iron, copper, manganese, gypsum, and slate. Although agriculture is prosperous, yet seafaring pursuits so largely engross the people that large importations of breadstutfs and provisions are made from the United States.
The following statements of the crade of Nora Scotia are oficial for the year edling Sept. 30, 1805:
The amount of customs and excise duties collected in 1865 was $1,047,