« SebelumnyaLanjutkan »
637,065 3,002,267 11,437,821 6,517,284 4,572.000 8,062,758
654,213 6,885,724 6,065,755 2,707,108 2,650781 1,983,313 6.795,337 7.644.268 6,246,871
867.230 1,033.304 19,679,215 17,245,685 11,623,859 18,587,732
2,266,015 12,718,821 10.773,929
7,690,393 13,873,828 11,519,053 13,737,939
Nurnber Av. No. of farms. in each.
6,658 101 25,494 190 92,605 324 75,203 816 33,171 488 62,003 430
6,568 444 55,128 346 42,840 870 17,328 686 42,891 591 89,604 245 82.368 251 90,814 211 92,792 215
74,362,565 171,101,718 764,867 320 The large proportion-almost three-fourths-of unimproved land in farms, in addition to the unimproved public lands, illustrates pointedly the necessity that vastly more labor be applied to their cultivation. The most populous states in the Union have the smallest farms, commanding the highest price per acre; and the value per aere is, as a general fact, inversely proportionate to the size of the farms. Thus the farms of Massaahusetts average ninety-four acres; of Rhode Island, ninetysix; of Connecticut, ninety-nine ; of New York, one hundred and six; of Peunsylvania, one hundred and nine, and of Ohio, one hundred and fourteen."
In the distribution of seeds, 234,945 packages have been delivered to senators and representatives in Congress, 119,692 to agricultural and horticultural societies, and 408,583 to regular and occasional correspondeots, and in answer to personal applications-making total of all varieties of seeds of 763,231 packages.
The distributions from the experimental and propagating garden during the past year have been mainly confined to varieties of small fruits, such as grapes, straw. berries. gooseberries, raspberries and currants
. Of these about thirty-five thousand plants have been distributed through the usual channels.
PHOTOGRAPHIC DISCOVERIES. We take the following account of the results of experiment in photographs from a contemporary, assured that they will interest as well as instruct our readers.
NEGATIVES WITHOUT A NITRATE BATH. The oft-repeated attempt to dispense with a nitrate of silver bath in producing negatives has received attention during the year, and renewed experiments have been made with some degree of success. Our own attempts made years ago were chiefly directed to getting rid of the nitrate baths in the wet process. We bave made some experiments in the same direction during the past year. Herr Paul Liezgang has done the same, and Messrs. Siyce and Bolton have succes. sively experimented in producing dry plates by similar means. In their experi. ments they use a colodion containing five grains of pyroxytine, five grains of bromide of cadmium, two one-half grains of bronide of ammodium, and bitrate of silver eleven to twelve grains, by which bromide of silver in a finely suspended state, which is formed in the colodion plates coated with this, immersed in water notil there is no appearance of greaseness, and then immersed five or ten minutes in a fifteen grain solution of tannin, to which we added three grains each of grape sugar and gallic acid, and dried. This gives good negatives after very sbort exposure on the application of an alkaline developer.
COMBINATION OF TøE SALTS OF SILVER AND LEAD IN PRINTING. M. Grune bas produced sone positives with the double oxide of silver and lead. His process rests upon Wohler's discovery that if we precipitate a mixed solution of a salt of lead and a sait of silver by potassa, a yellow precipitate is formed, which is a true alloy of the oxide of the two metals. This alloy, conBist ng of sixty-six parts of oxide of lead and thirty-four parts of the oxide of bilver, is sensitive to the action of light. It is said that the paper to wbich it is applied is printed as rapidly as paper coated with chloride of silver, yields the most delicate halt tones, and the fixing and toning are effected in the ordipary manner. Ordinary paper is placed on a balb composed of Nitrate of lead
20 When dried the paper is floated a second time upon a bath composed of one part of potassa dissolved in thirty parts of water. The paper now becomes yel. luw brown, it is dried and then exposed. Under the luminous action the lights become - brownish, but they return to a pure white ander the action of the byposulphite of soda. The process tones in the gold bath exactly like those upon albuminzed paper.
NEW METHOD OF PHOTOGRAPHIC PRINTING.
Mr. Thomas Fox bas patented a process of pringing without pitrate of silver, which he states pro luces p ctures of an intense black, equal if not blacker than any knowo process, and which will not fade from ordinary exposure. Sensitize the paper with a solution of bichromate of potass and sulpbate of copper, mixed in the proportions of one part of the former to two of the latter, and either float or steep the paper for a few mioutes, then dry in the dark by a fire, (this paper will retain sensitiveness for some days if carefully preserved from the light) then print from a glass transparency or a paper print. The time of exposure is much the same as in printing with nitrate of silver; in sapshine from one to three minutes is amply sufficient for glass. Prepare a strong decoction of logwood, and filter such a quantity as will float the print, add a little hot water to hasten the development, float the sensitized picture from half a minute to a minute, print side down, and then holding it by one corner gradually raise it from the logwood-a perfect deliveated copy is the result. Next dip it into hot or cold water and varnish. This gives a very distinct picture, with the shudes of a deep black, and the lights of a rather greyish yellow tint. ID order to obtain a white ground, I use a weak solution of alum, put in hot water.
RECOVERY OF SILVER FROM WASTE SOLUTIONS. It is stated tiat out of every one hundred ounces of silver used by a photographer, that pipety.three ounces may be recovered, which would be and is to a great extent in this country lost. It is but lately that they even saved the clippings of the prints and would not have done so then, but they found that there were men traveling around, who were wishing to buy them. A plate of copper left in the solution of nitrate of silver which constitutes the washings precipitates the whole of the silver in the state of metallic sponge in four and twenty bours. A plate of zinc acts in the same manner.
A plate of copper lest in the solution of hyposulphate soda, which constitutes the fixing bath precipitates the silver in the form of a coberent powder often even in a continuous plate but with less rapidity. Two days' contact are necessary at least, and four days are better, but at the end of this time the action may be considered as terminated, prolonging it will be neither injurious or adPantageous, if the precipitate be longer in presence of hyposulphate of soda. It is not moreover so complete. The quantity of silver lost by discarding the byposolution as is mostly done, is about 37 per cent.
We perceive from every point of view that there is an advantage in treating separately the wasbing waters before toning and the fixing solution. To this end the photographer must have either within or without the operating room, two eartben vessels of such diinensions that one may contain the washing water of two days, the other the fixing solutions and their first washing of four or six days. In each of these pots a number of plates of copper placed on two large plates placed opposite to each other answer the purpose very well. No sugpension or particular precaution is necessary. The sheets of copper may simply rest against the sides of the vessel. In the course of his working the photographer will throw the washings into the first pot and allow them to remain twenty-four or forty eight hours as required. Into the second pot he will throw the fixing bath and their first washings, taking care to leave them for at least a couple of days to settle.
THE MONSTER BELLS OF THE WORLD. Io making large bells, loudness rather than pitch is the object, as the sound can be conveyed to a much further extent. This accounts for the enormous weight of some of the largest bells. St. Paul's for instance weighs 13.000 pounds ; the bell of Antwerp, 16,000 pounds ; Oxford, 17 000 pounds; the bill at Rome, 19.000 pounds; Mechlin, 20,000 pounds; Bruges, 23 000 ; York, 24,000 pounds ; Cologne, 25,000 pounds ; Montreal, 29,000 pounds , Erfurt, 30,000 pounds ; “ Big Ben,” at the House of Parliament 31,000 pounds ; Sens, 34,000 pounds ; Vienna, 40,000 pounds; Novgorod, 69.000 pounds; Pekin, 139,000 pounds; Moscow, 141,000 pounds. But, as yet, the greatest bell ever knowo is another famous Moscow bell, which was never hung. It was cast by the order of the Empress Anne, in 1653. It lies broken on the ground, and is estimated to weigh 443,772 pounds. It is nineteen feet high and measures around the margin, sixty-four feet. No wonder that it lias never been sus. pended.
There are few bells of interest in the United States. The heaviest is probably the alarm bell on the City Hall in New York, weighing about 23.000 poundu.
As the Russians make their pilgrimage to the great Moscow bell, and regard it with superstitious veneration, so the American citizen honors and venerates the old Independence bell at Philadelphia, for he is not only reminded of the glory of the R:volution, but he believes, now more than ever, since the injunction has been obeyed. its inscription—" Proclaim liberty throughout the land, unto all the inhabitants thereof."
SALARATUS BY THE ACRE. Fitz-Hugh Ludlow, in bis overland trip to California, found between Utah and the Humboldt mountains a large desert composed, as be says, of " sand of spowy alkali” He describes it as one of the most dismal and forbidding spots that was ever traversed by the foot of man ; but, in view of the extension through it of the Atlantic and Pacific railroad, he suggests an interesting possibility is to iis Tuture use. He
says : “ In its crudest state the alkaline earth of the desert is sufficiently pure to make violent effervescence with acids. No elaborate process is required to turn it into commercial soda and potash. Coal has already beeu four.d in Utah. Silex exists abundantly in all the desert uplifts. Why should not the greatest glass-works in the world be reared along the desert section of the Pacific road? and why should not the entire market of the Pacific coast be supplied with refined alkalies from the same tract ?
WORSTED GOODS. The manufacture of worsted goods, consisting of all wool and cotton warp, mouseline delaide, bareges, cashmeres, etc., for ladies' dresses, is mainly carried op in three establishments, in the United States. These are the Manchester Print works in New Hampshire, the Pacific Mills at Lawrence, and the Hamil. ton Woolen Company's Works at Southbridge, Massachusetts. The product of the aforesuid establishments in 1864 was 22,750,000 yards, the appual value of the products $3.710.375, annual cost of labor $543,684, female bands 'employed 1.277, male hands' employed 101, sets of cards 110, cost of all raw material used. $2,442,775, pounds of cotton used, 1,653,000, pounds of wool, 3,000,000, capital invested, $3,230.000.
MANUFACTURES OF LOWELL. Lowell's 33 cotton mills employ 948 males and 1,650 females, and last year produced $7,125,753 worth of fabrics ; two calico and muslio delaine mills em. ployed 188 males and 11 females, and turned out $3,167.122 worth of fabrics ; 15 woolen mills employed 699 females and turned out $2,620,214 worth of fab. rics ; 5 carpet mills einployed 382 males, 573 females, and turned out $3,570,453 worth of carpeting.
STATISTICS OF POPULATION.
POPULATION, ETC., OF MEXICO IN 1865. The following table and remarks upon the same are from a late number of the Verican Times. Departmente.
Population. Capitale. Yucatan.
30,659 263,547 Merida. Campeche.
18,594 126,368 Campeche. La Lagnus
10,531- 47,600 El Carmer. Tobasco
11,906 94,9.0 6t Juan Bautiste. Chiapas
11696 157,318 San Cristobal. Tehuantepec
12,494 85,276 buchil. Dajaca
11,493 235,845 Onjaca. Ejutlan
93,675 Ejutlan. Teposcolula
8,450 160,720 Teposcolula Vera Cruz
13,243 265,159 Vera Cruz, Tuxpan
97,940 Tuxpan. Puebla
7,131 467,788 Puebla. Tlaxcala
6,437 33:4,571 Tlaxcala Valle de Mexico
2,562 481,796 Mexico. Tulancingo
6,437 266,678 Tulancingo Tula
3,856 178,174 Tula. Toluca.
6,841 811,853 Toluca Iturbide
5,:06 157.619 Tasco. Queretoro.
5,915 273,515 Queretaro. Guerrero
10,425 +24,836 Chilpancingo. Acapuleo
12,108 97,949 Acapulco. Michoacan
10,437 417,378 Morelia Tancitaro.
7,462 179,100 Tarcitare. Coalcoman.
961,450 Coalcoman. Colima.
7,049 136,733 Colima
7,826 219,987 Guadalajara Autlan
8,722 82,674 Autlan. Nayarit
10.737 78,6 5 Acaponita. Guanajuato
9,075 601,850 Guanajuato. Aguascalientes..
11,050 433.151 Aguascalientes. Zacatecas
11.156 192,823 Zacatecas. Fresnillo
14,368 8.860 Fresnillo. Potsi.
14,137 308,116 San Luis. Matehuala
18,116 82,127 Matehuala, Tamaulipas
12,506 71,480 Ciudad Victoria Matamoras.
13,719 49,031 Matamoras. Nuevo Leon
14,868 152,645 Monterey. Coahuila
63,178 Saltillo. Mapimi.
6.777 6. F. de Roses, Mazatlan
13,125 94,887 Mazatlan, Binalos..
28,100 82,185 Binalos. Durango
18,806 46,495 Indee. Alamos.
16,805 41,041 Alamon Sonora
26,212 80,129 Ures, Arizona..
30,325 25,608 Altar. Huijuquille
27,993 16,092 Jimenez. Batopilas
18,515 71,481 Hidal. o. Chihuahua
33,381 65,824 Chihuahua, California
62,731 12,420 La Paz