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log cabin a little to the west of where James A. Kirk of Chicago later erected his mansion. Peterson's family, consisting of his wife and eight children, joined him several years later. The Peterson home became a veritable social center in this colony. The latch-string hung outside, and as the settlement grew, there was always company. In that far time there were only two women in this entire sectionMrs. Stephen Warren and Mrs. Peterson. A story is told that Mrs. Warren became so lonesome and homesick that it seemed as if she could not endure it any longer, so she had Mr. Warren take her over to visit Mrs. Peterson. Now Mrs. Peterson could speak not one word of English, nor could Mrs. Warren talk Swedish, but it is recorded that they had the best kind of visit, and Mrs. Warren went home feeling much happier, for the sight of another woman's face and a sympathetic hand clasp of one of her own sex.

Captain Pallycarpus von Schneidau settled in 1841 on the southeast shore of Pine Lake, where Mark Gibson now resides, and Gustaf Unonius, also in 1841, on the place just to the north of them, afterward the old Chapman farm, now the country seat of the Mayer brothers of Milwaukee. Farther northward, beyond the Peterson estate, were J. O. Rudberg's holdings, which remain in the family to the present day. Mr. Rudberg, who came over in 1843, was a surveyor, having been educated in the colleges of his native land in engineering and forestry, and was perhaps the most practical member of the settlement at Pine Lake. He surveyed a large piece of land in this vicinity and as far north as Lake Superior, later holding the position of county surveyor for two terms. Baron Thott, a nobleman, of whom little seems to be remembered, became a cook for Mr. Rudberg in order to get bread, accompanying him on his journeys into the wilds. The baron did not remain here very long, however, and no one seems to know what became of him.

Lieutenant St. Sure, also a nobleman, lived over the hill, beyond the village, on the farm now known as the Christensen farm. The log house which St. Sure built for his family was one of the largest and finest of its day. It burned down only a few years ago, having been boarded over and used as a dwelling until that time.

George Bergwall, who was a revenue collector at the port of Gothenburg, Sweden, settled in 1842 one mile south of the village of North Lake, and Charles Balkman, a sailor who had tired of the sea and wanderlust, settled just opposite Bergwall, on the east shore of North Lake. Vohlene, another member, lived on the shore of Beaver Lake on the farm afterward owned by Hiram Simonds. On the west side of Pine Lake were located the Nordberg and Bergus families. Others in the colony were John Johnson, Ernest Eckedahl, a harness maker, who did not stay very long, George Gleerup, and a man by the name of Blanxius. Bergus, Gleerup, Blanxius, and Bergwall married daughters of the Peterson household.

Among the characters peculiar to this settlement was the hermit Peter Bokman, a dissenting Lutheran preacher and a religious recluse who lived in a cellar or cave roofed over with logs, on what was then a part of the Rudberg estate, now the Patrick Cudahy summer home. Bokman died there and was buried near by. When the late Dr. Luethstrom became the owner of the property, he rebuilt a little log cabin to mark the spot where the aged hermit dwelt, but this has in late years been removed.

The St. Sure family, who had been accustomed to much luxury in their native land, lived in most distressing circumstances for a time. St. Sure tried to break up a stony piece of land but failed completely, and in the early fifties sold the place and moved to Chicago. A story which illustrates the sad contrast in their lives in this new land is told about Mrs. St. Sure. Attired in a green velvet

riding suit, sole relic of her former grandeur, she sallied forth one balmy spring day to visit her neighbor Mrs. Peterson. As she went up the pathway to the house, a great black pig followed her. Her hostess, standing in the doorway, remarked, "You have company." Turning, Mrs. St. Sure saw the ugly animal and burst into tears, saying, "And have I come to this!" Silken gowns and bare feet were not conducive to conjugal felicity either, and it is related that husband and wife were separated after leaving here, St. Sure pursuing the study of medicine, for which his fine education had well fitted him. After many years, it is said, he was called to minister to a dying woman. It was his former wife, and it is a pathetic ending to the romance of their lives that a reconciliation was effected upon her deathbed.

The most romantic interest, however, lingers about Captain von Schneidau, his wife and family. Captain von Schneidau belonged to the staff of Prince Oscar of Sweden, and was his best friend and daily companion until he became enamored of a great beauty, Froecken Jacobson, a Swedish Jewess. As it was an infringement upon the matrimonial codes of Sweden for Jew and Gentile to marry, they journeyed across the channel to Denmark, where they were united, and then came to this country, joining the colony at Pine Lake. Thus they began life under the most trying circumstances and innumerable drawbacks, and they endured severe hardship. They conducted a very meager business here in the way of a grog shop and grocery, and a story is related of how the beautiful Fru Schneidau would tap her whisky keg until it was about full and then fill in the Pine Lake water, keeping on until there was not much whisky left. But it is also related that none were the wiser for taking in the little lady's wit and beauty at the same time. An infant son born to them at Pine Lake died from exposure to frost and cold. It was while they were suffering

the greatest hardship that they were visited by Mayor Ogden of Chicago, who induced Captain von Schneidau to go to the city, and afterwards adopted the daughter, Pauline. Von Schneidau conducted the first daguerreotype studio in Chicago.' It was located on Lake Street. Their fortunes changed after their removal to Chicago, and they lived very comfortably. Their home was frequented by many of the best people of the city, and among the celebrities whom they entertained was Ole Bull, the violinist. Von Schneidau's reputation as a daguerreotypist spread beyond the limits of Chicago, and he even went to New York to make a likeness of the already famous Jenny Lind. It may be that it was there that the incident occurred which, we are told, resulted in the singer's making a substantial contribution to the Lutheran church which Unonius was trying to complete in Chicago. Unonius, so the story goes, learned that Jenny Lind was to be at the von Schneidau studio on a certain day for a sitting, so he hied himself there at the appointed time; and when von Schneidau showed Jenny Lind the beautiful likeness which he had made of her, she fairly flew into a rage, asserting that it flattered her. She was quite plain herself and disliked flattery. Turning to Unonius for his opinion of the daguerreotype, he gently agreed with her that it was not a true likeness. Rejoiced to have a champion, she said she was happy to find a man

1 The discovery of the daguerreotype process of portrait making was first announced to the world by Jean Jaques Claude Daguerre, of Paris, in 1839. Professor S. F. B. Morse, who at the time of the discovery was residing in Paris, brought the details of the process to America, and immediately much experimentation began. By October, 1839, Alexander S. Wolcott, a worker in mechanical dentistry, and S. D. Humphrey were busily engaged in New York in making a camera according to Daguerre's instructions. To their surprise, the first exposure of the plates resulted in two successful impressions, each unlike the other; in time the experimenters learned that one picture was positive, the other negative. Humphrey tells us that, "another attempt was agreed upon, and the instruments, plates, etc., prepared and taken up into an attic room, in a position most favorable for the light. Having duly arranged the camera, I sat for five minutes, and the result was a profile miniature (a miniature in reality) on a plate not quite three-eighths of an inch square. Thus, with much deliberation and study, passed the first day in Daguerreotype-little dreaming or knowing into what a labyrinth such a beginning was hastening us."

Most of the portraits were of necessity profiles, as means had not yet been discovered sufficiently to lessen the intensity of the light for proper protection for the eyes. Extremes of light and shade had also to be overcome before pleasing portraits could be obtained.

so sincere in his judgment, and at the same time asked what she could do for him. Here was the chance he had been waiting for so long. He told her of his church and its needs, and the generous songstress opened her purse and contributed three thousand dollars, and in later years still further aided him. Upon the death of Mrs. von Schneidau the father and daughter visited Europe, but returned to Chicago in the course of two years, when Mayor Ogden claimed his adopted daughter and she went to live at his home. The father lived near by in the home of a friend until his death. Pauline von Schneidau was sent east to school, and while there met a son of Leonard Jerome, whom she afterward married. Their daughter became Lady Cornwallis West of England, whose son, Winston Spencer Churchill, was first lord of British admiralty.

A notable event in the Pine Lake colony was the visit of Fredrika Bremer, the noted Swedish novelist, in 1850. Of this visit I quote a reminiscence of Mrs. Hilda Spillman, who is a daughter of the Peterson household, and whose childhood days were spent in this historic colony. She says:

"At the time Fredrika Bremer came, it was my brother who waited upon her in Milwaukee and brought her to our home here, where my mother with her cheerful welcome and hospitable board was awaiting their arrival, and every neighbor who could come had been invited to the house to make the dear lady welcome. And I remember very well the evening was perfect, the lake like glass, and our guest proposed a row on the lake in the moonlight. Being a wicked coquette she walked up to my youngest brother and took his arm, and how could anybody resist it? And it was ideal. Then back to the house, where all were waiting to be entertained, the famous lady got out one of her books and read a very amusing story. Then there were games and dancing, but where was the music to come from? All at once my mother began to clear her throat and sang some

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