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the flag. About three thousand muskets fired into them in one volley by Stanley's division made them hesitate, but they rallied and came on again, bound to take that eagle. Our boys were ready for them and were reinforced by the Second Iowa Battery, who commenced firing canister into them. They fell back, badly broken up, with their appetite all gone for young eagles; in fact, they did not want any Wisconsin eagle. When they made the first charge, a bullet cut the cord that held the eagle to his perch, when he flew off about fifty feet from the flag and I think about ten feet high. I was right after him, caught him, tied the cord, and set him on his perch again. About the time that the cord was shot he was shot through one wing, three of his quill feathers being cut out. At the same time the bearer was shot through the left shoulder of his blouse and right leg of his pants. In both cases, happily, no blood was drawn. This only goes to show how dangerous a place the eagle bearer had.

The cutting of the cord and the eagle's flying about fifty feet down the line must have been what caused the newspapers to come out the next week with great headlines telling about the eagle of the Eighth Wisconsin getting away after a rebel bullet had cut his cord and soaring over the lines of both armies and back to his own perch, which was not so. He was always excited in battle and would spread his wings and scream, but he never flew over the lines of either army. I was told at our reunion at Eau Claire last week by Jesse Cole, a member of Company B of my regiment, who is now chaplain of the Iowa Soldiers' Home, that he heard a man there tell that the eagle got loose at the battle of Corinth and flew and lit on a stone fence and rose again away up in the air with a large stone in each talon, flew over the rebels, and dropped the stones on their headsand he said that the man believed it.

The battle of Corinth was one of the hardest fought

battles of the war considering the number engaged. Company C lost fifty per cent of its members. It was finished on October 4, 1862. We were not engaged the second day, but the rebs went back the second day with a badly demoralized army. Our next campaign was down through central Mississippi to try to get in the rear of Vicksburg to capture that position, which proved to be a failure. Then we fell back to La Grange, Tennessee, where I resigned my position as eagle bearer about December 28, 1862. While I was his bearer I taught him to drink water out of a canteen, thus saving him much suffering on long, hot marches in a dry country. There was not a soldier in the regiment but would have divided his last drop of water to quench Old Abe's thirst.

Ed. Homeston was now detailed in my place as eagle bearer. By this time Old Abe was getting rather heavy. I think he weighed about twelve or fourteen pounds, and on hot days was very troublesome. When he got tired on his perch he would want to fly to the ground to rest. But we got along with him fairly well.

In the spring of 1863 we went down the Mississippi to take part in the Vicksburg campaign. Old Abe at this time was carried by Homeston. The Eighth Wisconsin and their eagle took part in all the fighting to get in position in rear of Vicksburg and in the assault on the fortifications on the twenty-second of May, 1863, also in the siege and capture of that place July 4, 1863. In the assault on May 22 Homeston in hurrying to the charge fell over a log. It was thought at first that he had been hit by the enemy, but it was found out later that no harm had been done to either eagle or bearer. The bearer was merely stunned by the fall.

Sometime in September, 1863, Homeston resigned his position as eagle bearer, and John Burkhardt of Eau Claire took his place and carried the bird until their three years were up and the nonveterans were discharged. Burkhardt

carried the eagle through the Red River (Louisiana) campaign in the following battles and skirmishes: Fort Drussa, La., March 16, 1864; Henderson Hill, La., March 18, 1864; Pleasant Hill, La., April 8-9, 1864; Moore's Plantation, La., May 8 and 12, 1864; Bayou de Glaise, La., May 18, 1864; Hurricane Creek, Miss., August 13, 1864. Hurricane Creek was the last skirmish in which Old Abe was engaged. He had served his three years faithfully and well.

The regiment marched down to the landing at Memphis, Tennessee, where we bade the eagle and the boys who had not reënlisted good-bye, they taking the steamer going up the river to home and friends. We who had reënlisted took a steamer down the river to start on a new campaign-but such is war.

When the nonveterans arrived at Madison inSeptember, 1864, they marched to the capitol with their eagle, and Captain Victor Wolff of Company C, the Eagle Company, presented him to Governor Lewis, who made a speech of acceptance on behalf of the state, saying that the state would take care and provide for him as long as he lived, which it certainly did.

Now I shall pass over the regiment's final years of service. We did our last fighting at the capture of Mobile, Alabama, when we assaulted and took Fort Blakely on April 9, 1865, the very day on which General Lee surrendered to General U. S. Grant at Appomatox, Virginia. We were discharged at Demopolis, Alabama, September 10, 1865.

In conclusion I shall tell you the duties of the eagle bearers. They had no guard or fatigue duty to do, but they had full charge of the eagle, to see that he was fed properly. This was a difficult task on a march, as he would not eat grain of any kind. We fed him principally fresh beef when we could get it. Sometimes some of the boys would catch a rabbit or a squirrel, and if one was caught

in the division, the boys would be sure to bring it to the eagle and watch him eat it. Sometimes we would get a chicken or a duck for him. He was very fond of minnows; quite often we could get some in the creeks, and then he would have a feast. He was very particular about what he ate. He would not touch meat that was the least tainted. We always did the best we could to get rations for him, as we were very proud of him.

I have frequently seen Generals Grant, Sherman, McPherson, Rosecrans, Blair, Logan, and others, when they were passing our regiment, raise their hats as they passed Old Abe; this always brought a cheer from the regiment, and then the eagle would spread his wings as he always did when the regiment cheered; and he did look magnificent at such times.

Old Abe died March 21, 1881, at Madison, Wisconsin.



I was born in Knockahollet, County Antrim, Ireland, on May 13, 1843. We were a village of weavers and small farmers—the Lynns, Moors, Hughys, Wallaces, and Cains. All of these families except the Cains finally became related by marriage.

Ireland was just emerging from that distressing period known as the potato famine. While I do not recall any shortage of rations in our little village during my childhood, I have no doubt the restlessness and discontent of the young people, which I distinctly remember, was due to the hard times. They were keen to be off over the sea to either America or Australia, while the conservative older heads of the families were against such a change. There were many heated arguments of the question, but it was not until my mother's oldest brother, John Lynn, returned after stealing away surreptitiously and roving about the world for seven years that the young people won and the exodus began. So completely was Knockahollet depopulated that not so much as one stone of the many stone houses now remains. Two families of Hughys clung to the old site until about twelve years ago; but at last the buildings have all been razed and the land turned back into the commons.

It was in the fall of 1848 that Uncle John returned to Knockahollet with a deed to three hundred and twenty acres of Wisconsin land in his pocket and a glowing description of its hills and valleys on the tip of his tongue. He had been a soldier in the Mexican War, and bearing his own land grant, and another purchased from a comrade, he had wandered west in search of a farm. Jeremiah Avery with his large family was already located on a farm on the banks of Little Sugar River in Exeter, Green County, Wisconsin. It was due largely to his kindness that Uncle John decided to locate in that section.

By March, 1849, John was back in Wisconsin with his cousinbride, Elizabeth Gambel, to help him grub a home out of the

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