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efficient and largely unremunerated service during those years were, Rev. Dana Lamb, a shrewd, magnetic, and courageous man; Rev. J. W. Walcott, who, though buffeted, never allowed his love for the college to grow cold; Rev. H. W. Chapin, a determined and persistent solicitor for funds; and Rev. J. J. Miter, the scholarly and accomplished pastor of the church at Beaver Dam."

G. B. Cooley, Martha J. Adams, and later C. C. Bayley and Mrs. Clarissa T. Tracy, were the teachers who carried the bulk of the work from 1857 to 1861. Mrs. Tracy remained with the institution from the time of her coming, October 3, 1859, to the time of her death, which occurred November 13, 1905, and for many years she was affectionately called the "grand mother of Ripon College." The following is a very just and true estimate of her by one who knew her during this entire period: "The appointment of Mrs. Tracy was an event of providential significance. A woman of great intellectual vigor; well equipped in the branches of her department, especially in mathematics and botany, in the latter of which she was an acknowledged expert; of uncommon strength and nobility of character; unconquerable in courage and fertile in resources; selfsacrificing in the last degree for any good cause she may have espoused-she has been a center of moral and intellectual unity through trying years, on which the faith of weaker natures has taken hold as of a cable of steel in a difficult pass."

In September, 1861, the buildings and grounds were granted to the government to be occupied by the First Regiment of Wisconsin Cavalry, and the East Building and campus were so occupied as a military camp by that regiment until November 28 of that year, when the property was vacated. During the year 1861-62 college classes were suspended, owing principally to the financial distress of the institution. Mrs. Tracy, however, occupied two rooms in

the completed portion of the dormitory, and conducted a private school on her own account; and Martha Wheeler, who later became Mrs. George M. Paine, of Oshkosh, occupied other rooms in the same building and taught music to private pupils.

School was reopened in September, 1862, amidst great discouragement, for there was an overhanging debt of from ten to twelve thousand dollars drawing twelve per cent interest, the building which had been occupied by the soldiers had depreciated greatly, and the pledges made to the support of the college had such conditions attached to them that it was next to impossible to realize upon them. Nevertheless the following teachers were engaged and began work: Edward H. Merrell, principal; Mrs. Tracy, matron and teacher of mathematics and botany; Julia R. Hosford, teacher of French and English; and Augusta Camp, teacher of music. Of this new force, Dr. Merrell continued with the college to the time of his death, February 23, 1910, serving as instructor and afterwards professor, as president of the college from 1876 to 1891, as professor again, and then later retiring on the Carnegie Fund as professor emeritus. Miss Hosford later became the wife of Dr. Merrell, and died in 1876.

The spirit of the school took on a new air of hopefulness from within during 1862, and finally, with the election of the Reverend William E. Merriman, April 23, 1863, as president of the college, a new era began in earnest. Dr. Merriman was then pastor of the Presbyterian church at Green Bay; he accepted the election on July 21 and immediately began work at the munificent salary of $1,000 a year. Says Dr. Merrell of him: "The obstacles that confronted him were extraordinary, but he at once exhibited a power to overcome them which was also extraordinary. He was in the prime of mature manhood, and though infirm in health even then, he had the power of swift and effective

work. His intellect, naturally of great strength, was so completely trained that he was a master in dialectics. He was looked for to make the best speech on any occasion that called strong men together, even when he had received no previous notice that he was expected to appear. His princely will commanded every last faculty and resource within him. His Christian consecration and enthusiasm were so complete and magnetic that he carried about with himself a living rebuke for selfishness and inspiration for the fainting.

He was full of schemes, using the word in its best sense, and if one failed he was ready with another. His quiver was full of arrows, and a second was instantly in place if the first failed of the mark. . . .Although the institution had at this time no endowment, only one professor besides the president, and less than a half dozen students of college grade, yet it took its place at once among the churches and people of intellectual and moral leadership."

That we may have some idea of the condition of the two buildings at this time, it is well to state that the west half of the square section of the East Building and the third story were merely bare walls, while the Middle Building needed doors for the upper story, and a large number of other details to be finished before it could be called completed. These buildings were completed and furnished within the year after Dr. Merriman came. In addition the new president was able to report to his board in July of the following year that "both mortgages on the college property have been paid up and satisfied."

This year 1863-64 was the first year when the school offered distinctively college work, the class entering that year graduating as the first class, the class of 1867: Luthera H. Adams, Harriet H. Brown, Susan A. Salisbury, and Mary F. Spencer, of whom only Miss Adams now survives, at Omro, Wisconsin.

William S. Brockway, for whom the college was named, had died some years before, but his brother and relatives were among those who had exhibited a hostility to the administration of Mr. Walcott, and it was thought best to apply to the legislature for an amendment to the charter, which among other things should change the name of the college. Accordingly a draft of the proposed amendments was made, presented by William Starr, a trustee and then a member of the Assembly, and enacted into law, and published April 11, 1864, as Chapter 220 of the Private and Local Laws of that year. From that date the name of the institution has been Ripon College.



An interesting and romantic feature of the early settlement of this section of Waukesha County was the location of the Swedish colony that settled about Pine Lake in 1841 and subsequent years. Twelve families came over originally, including two noblemen of the realm and one baron. These people had held political positions in Sweden, but the death of the old king and the ascension of a new ruler with the consequent change in administration policies had caused them to lose their offices. All were anxious to better their conditions in some way, and so came to America, which they regarded as a land of beauty and golden prospects. The new colony was called New Upsala, and a leading spirit was the Reverend Gustaf Unonius, an enthusiastic young minister, a graduate of the Swedish university of Upsala. It was the intention of Unonius and the others to found a Swedish university here, and a quantity of cedar logs was got together to build a church on the point where Hotel Interlaken now stands. They finally did build a small log church on the west side of Pine Lake, where Holy Innocent's Cemetery is now located. This building was in later years removed to a lot just east of Nashotah, where it is still occupied as a dwelling.

The early history of these people, formerly accustomed to every luxury, is one of deprivation, suffering, and lack of the actual necessities of life. Their money soon exhausted, and not knowing how to work to advantage, some of them were reduced to absolute beggary.

The first member of the colony to come over was Knut Bengt. Peterson, a regimental paymaster in the Swedish army, who arrived as early as 1841, and took up a halfsection of land on the east shore of Pine Lake, building his

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