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The small village of La Pointe, on Madeline Island, is the oldest settlement in the northern part of the state, and was enterprising enough to be the first community to report by a cable laid beneath Chequamegon Bay, its election returns on November 4. Eighty-four votes were cast at this village for president.

Solomon Juneau, the first mayor of Milwaukee, left his home in that city in 1852 and removed to what was then a rural neighborhood, in Dodge County, which was named Theresa for one of Juneau's daughters. There he built a large frame house overlooking Rock River, the major portion of which is still standing as a memorial to the founder of two of Wisconsin's communities. Solomon's son Narcisse, one of the most enterprising of the Juneau descendants, built a brick house at Theresa which is still intact.

A memorial was recently dedicated at St.-Germain-en-Laye, near Paris, to Emma G. Mullen of Fox Lake, who lost her life during the bombardment of Paris in 1918. Miss Mullen, who spent part of her life in Milwaukee, went to France to aid the cause of the allies and organized the credit system of the clearing-house of France and her allies. She was also an energetic worker in the Red Cross and initiated a series of lectures to promote interest in the arts during the darkest days of the war. The monument is the gift of her admiring friends on both continents.

The Reverend Olympia Brown, whose portrait we published as the frontispiece of this magazine in September, 1921, and who is recognized as one of the pioneers of the cause of woman's suffrage in Wisconsin, celebrated her ninetieth birthday in Baltimore at the home of her daughter, on January 5. A pioneer of Michigan, she came to Racine in 1878 as pastor of the Church of the Good Shepherd, which sent her a telegram of congratulations on her natal day.

We read in history of New Amsterdam, where New York now stands, but little is known of Wisconsin's New Amsterdam, in La Crosse County. However, the original records of the oldest survivor of the Holland colony that emigrated to Wisconsin in 1853 are being translated and published in the La Crosse Tribune, and a thrilling story of adventure they prove to be. Somewhere in the West Indies the ship on which the emigrants were crossing struck on a rock, and the captain deserted the ship and its passengers, who were finally saved after several had died of hunger and exposure. The rescued remnant at last reached La Crosse by way of New Orleans and the Mississippi River, on July 5, having embarked in Holland in February. Two members of the original body of emigrants are still living at New Amsterdam.

When Highway Number 17 was opened between Milwaukee and Sheboygan, F. A. Cannon, secretary of the Good Roads Association, published an interesting sketch of the old trails along the lake shore and early mail carriers' experiences in that region. The trip of these public servants generally occupied a month in conveying the mail from Fort

Howard at Green Bay to Chicago and return. They were obliged to carry provisions with them, and their camping places were the soft side of a log, or where the camp fire melted the snow. Congress in 1838 appropriated $15,000 to build a road from the state line of Illinois northward to Green Bay. Little was done, however, but to clear a pathway through the timber; and no wheeled vehicle could be driven north of Sheboygan for some years. Transportation was almost wholly by lake vessels in the summer, and in the winter the Canadian-French "train" was used-a rude sleigh. Such were the early transportation facilities of a region through which now runs a concrete-surfaced road of smooth perfection.

The early railroads of the state, although a great advance on the primitive methods of transportation, were themselves primitive in appliances and methods. A Juneau station agent recently found a book used by his predecessor fifty years ago, called the "wood book," giving the names and numbers of the engines in use on his road, and the amount of wood the agent would be expected to supply at his station. The average amount was about one to one and a half cords to each twentymile stretch. The use of coal did not become usual until after 1878.

The press of Wisconsin continues to supply its readers with historical material and reminiscences of the pioneers of several regions. The Jefferson County Union, of Fort Atkinson, is running a series of valuable papers containing the recollections of the Honorable L. B. Caswell, long a Congressman from Wisconsin. The Milwaukee Journal published November 16 an anniversary number containing several valuable historical articles-one on the pioneer press of the state; others on early social life, Milwaukee topography in the first years, etc. The occasion was the removal of the Journal to a new building.


Among recent gifts to the State Historical Museum are an interesting pioneer American deer rifle, five and a half feet in length, presented by C. H. Colton, Los Angeles, California; rafting plugs and chains formerly used on the upper Mississippi in log rafting, given by Charles G. Weyl, Fountain City; a part of a cache of flint and quartzite implements and copper pieces found in 1922 in the town of Weston, Marathon County, and a number of rhyolite and other implements from Smoky Hill, Wood County, all presented by Dr. A. Gerend, Milladore.

Mrs. J. M. Higgins, Madison, has donated a United States Naval Academy and a United States Military Academy dress coat, the one formerly worn by her son, Lieutenant John M. Higgins, U. S. N., and the other by Lieutenant John Salsman, U. S. A., former Madison boys.

From the Catholic Woman's Club, Chicago, there has been received a four-piece set of Wedgewood ware of about the year 1880. St. John's Home, Milwaukee, has presented a powder flask, case with draughting instruments, flat-iron, tortoise shell card-case, steel bead purse, tin pencil case, and razor, all of about the year 1850.

The large collection of Chinese ethnological material which was lent to the Museum in 1910 through the agency of Christ Presbyterian Church, Madison, by its owner, the Reverend H. C. Ramsay, now of Edgar, Wisconsin, was removed from the five cases where it has been long on public display and returned to him on December 11, 1924.

A case of Potawatomi Indian material collected by Dr. Gerend among the members of this tribe in Forest and Wood counties has been installed in the annex of the Indian history room.

Sixty representatives of thirty state, county, and municipal mueums in Wisconsin, Minnesota, Illinois, and Iowa held a meeting at the Milwaukee Public Museum, Milwaukee, on November 17 and 18, and organized the Wisconsin Museums Conference. Mr. Laurence V. Coleman, secretary of the American Association of Museums, New York, and Professor Fay Cooper-Cole, of the department of anthropology, University of Chicago, were present and delivered the principal addresses. Mr. Arthur C. Neville, of the Green Bay Public Museum, was elected president of the conference, Willoughby M. Babcock, of the State Historical Museum at St. Paul, vice-president, and Ralph M. Buckstaff, of the Sawyer Foundation, Oshkosh, secretary-treasurer. Miss Charlotte N. Partridge, of the Layton Art Gallery, Milwaukee, was elected a member of the executive board.

Mrs. Aden T. Newman and other public-spirited citizens of Bloomer, in Chippewa County, are engaged in organizing a public museum in connection with the public library in that village. Many contributions of historical specimens are being received.

Mr. Charles F. Carr, the late well-known naturalist of New London' has in his will bequeathed to the public museum of his home town his fine natural history and historical library of two thousand volumes and a money bequest of what will probably amount to fifteen thousand dollars or more. Some years before his death he gave to the museum, which he was chiefly instrumental in organizing, his fine collection of mounted birds, collections of shells, minerals, and archeological specimens. The Reverend Francis S. Dayton is the curator of the museum, which is now quartered in the public library building. Mr. Carr was for many years a member of both the State Historical Society of Wisconsin and the Wisconsin Archeological Society. He was until recent years the publisher of the New London Times.

The current issue of the Wisconsin Archeologist, published by the Wisconsin Archeological Society, contains illustrated papers by C. E. Brown, on "An Interesting Type of Flint Spearpoint" and "Delavan Lake Mounds"; by Theodore T. Brown, on "Some Curious Uses of Indian Mounds"; by Albert B. Reagan, on "The Bois Fort Chippewa"; by George B. Phillips, on "Analysis of Ancient Sinhalese Metal”; and by Alanson Skinner, on "Collecting among the Menomini" and "A Trip to the Potawatomi." The State Society is now preparing for publication a report on all of the heretofore unrecorded Wisconsin groups of Indian

mounds, camp and village sites, planting grounds, graves and cemeteries, shrines, pictograph rocks, cave shelters, and other landmarks located by its field workers since 1911 when the state archeological survey was organized. There are many hundreds of these.

Mr. Alonzo W. Pond of Janesville has returned from a six-months' trip to Europe, which he made in the interest of the Logan Museum at Beloit College. He visited nearly all of the noted archeological stations in Great Britain, Denmark, France, and Switzerland, and brought back large and fine collections of palaeolithic and neolithic implements from these countries, which will be used in connection with the course in American archeology now being given by Dr. George L. Collie at Beloit.

Some 6355 school children from Wisconsin cities visited the State Historical Museum at Madison in classes the past year. These children came from graded schools, high schools, rural schools, parochial schools, county and state normal schools, institutions for the deaf, dumb, and blind, and vocational schools. All of these were conducted through the Museum by the Museum staff. Classes from the University departments of art, education, economics, horticulture, agriculture, library work, journalism, domestic science, languages, engineering, pharmacy, and biology have come to the Museum halls for instruction. The Museum has also circulated traveling loan collections of historical materials among many state schools which were unable to send classes to its halls.


Frederick Jackson Turner ("The Significance of the Section in American History"), professor emeritus of Harvard University, read this paper at a meeting of the State Historical Society held January 15 at the Assembly Chamber, Madison.

Joseph Schafer ("Prohibition in Early Wisconsin"), our superintendent, presents in this article one phase of his study of the social history of Wisconsin.

Florence Bascom ("The University in 1874-1887"), professor of geology at Bryn Mawr College, wrote, at the request of our superintendent, her reminiscences of the time when her father, John Bascom, was president of the University.

Willard N. Parker ("Warren Downes Parker") was first assistant superintendent of public instruction of Wisconsin from 1899 to 1903, and was for twenty years, 1903-1923, editor of the Wisconsin Journal of Education.

Mrs. T. O. Bennett ("Mail Transportation in the Early Days") a resident of Houghton, Michigan, read this paper at a meeting of the local historical society in 1923.

Oscar H. Bauer ("Annals of a Country Tradesman”) is principal of the high school at Juneau, Wisconsin.


The History of the American Frontier, 1763-1893. By Frederic L. Paxson. (Boston, 1924). 598p.

In this volume Professor Paxson has brought to maturity the task he began in 1910 when he wrote The Last American Frontier. In that earlier volume he confined attention to the trans-Mississippi, and the period from 1830 onward. In this new volume the author sweeps into one full stream of narration the entire epic of the American westward movement from its crossing of the Appalachian barrier to the final disappearance of the frontier. Nearly one-half of the space is given to the earlier cis-Mississippi movements; and the chapters on the later frontier have been entirely rewritten and reconceived. In breadth of knowledge and handling and in depth of grasp this new volume shows an enormous advance over the earlier one. It is the work of a master of comprehension and an adept at showing the interrelationship of forces and their free interplay on the field of the West. The scholarship underlying the work is enormous, but does not obtrude its erudition more than to declare with firmness and conviction the writer's conclusions. Chief of these, possibly, is that stated in the preface that "the frontier with its continuous influence is the most American thing in all America."

That Professor Paxson has written the definitive history of the frontier or the westward movement, he himself would be the last to assert. That protean and remarkable phenomenon we call the frontier presents itself under as many aspects as the great region of country over which it sweeps, and its history will be seen in as many lights as subjective observers may choose. But Professor Paxson gives the American public in this volume a standard history of the West, which will bear the test of time and use and, we venture to believe, will grow increasingly valuable as it is employed and mastered. We heartily recommend it to Wisconsin readers, and to all who love the history of the land wherein we dwell.

America of the Fifties: Letters of Fredrika Bremer. Selected and edited by Adolph B. Benson. Published by the American-Scandinavian Foundation (New York, 1924). 340p.

In attempting to compress the thirteen hundred pages of the first edition of Miss Bremer's letters, a known classic of American travel, into one-third the space, in order to meet the exigencies of our less leisurely age, Mr. Benson has been obliged to omit or curtail some of the most charming passages. In the preface the editor states that "the selections here reproduced as America of the Fifties have been revised and normal

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