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from all provincial offices. In 1691, the of New-Netherlands to the Catbolic Duke charter of Maryland was declared forfeited, of York. The settlement of New York took and King William, by his own power, con place under the Dutch in 1633. The setstituted the colony a royal government; and tlers were hunters and Indian traders. Alin 1692, the Church of England became though in the fatberland the power of the the established religion therein. In 1704, people was unknown, yet in New-York, as Benedict, the son of the proprietary, re early as 1642, we find, according to Bannounced the Catholic Church for that of croft, that "they had become convinced, England, and, thereafter, (in 1715,) this Pro without a teacher, of the right of resistance.” testant heir of Lord Baltimore was restored In 1647, Stuyvesant appears as Governor, to the rights of proprietorship, and Protest under orders of the West India Company, ant Maryland became again a proprietary and through him "the persecuted of every government, under wbich it remained until creed and country were invited to the colothe Revolution. Thus the government grant-ny." In 1653, the people met in assembly, ed to Maryland by a Protestant monarch, against the will of the Governor, and framed and protected by Protestant governments their demand throughout, has, through the monarchical

" that no new laws shall be enacted but with contendencies of its Papal rulers, had to yield

sent of the people; that none shall be appointed to the republican spirit of the age. Its his

to office but with the approbation of the people;

that obscure and obsolete laws shall never be retory proves the incompatibility of Papacy vived." and republicanism. And the sublime doctrine given in the quotation from the speech

They had previously resisted arbitrary taxes ; of — , commissioner of Lord Baltimore,

and although Governor Stuyvesant then dismade by Bancroft thus: “The power, there

persed the assembly, yet in 1663 he had to fore, whereof I speak, being, as said, firstly,

concede to the people the right of represenin God and from God; secondly, in the king

tation. The municipal authority chosen by and from the king (or Pope either ;] thirdly,

the people in 1664, in opposition to the in his lordship; fourthly, in us;" as estab

Governor, surrendered New-York to the lishing divine right to rule and govern, ap

English squadron then in the harbor, and pears not to have been an element in the

thereupon the Catholic Duke of York became atmophere of these United States, even at

proprietor under a charter granted to him that early period.

some months before by his Protestant broThe Archbishop says:

ther, Charles II. of England. “And if,"

says Bancroft,“ to fix boundaries and grant “It was not in Maryland alone that the Catho the soil could constitute a state, the Duke of lics, in the early history of the Colonies, gave proofs of their devotedness to the principles of civil and

York gave political existence to a commonreligious libcrty. The State archives of New York wealth. Two months before the conquest, furnish testimonies in this respect not less honorable than those of Maryland. The Duke of York

he had assigned to Lord Berkeley and Sir was a Catholic; and although school-books say he George Carteret the land between the Hudwas a tyrant, etill it is a fact of history that to him the inhabitants of New-Netherlands, whether Dutch

son and the Delaware." Bancroft also inor English, were indebted for their first possession forms us that “the moral character of the and exercise of civil and religious liberty." state was moulded by New-England Puri

| tans, English Quakers, and dissenters from • We shall show from history the above to

Scotland." be in perfect keeping with the rest of the

The city of New-York was now incorpoArchbishop's “Catholic Chapter," false in

rated, yet no popular representation, no true fact and inference; and thus will have an opportunity to exhibit the “ devotedness" of

English liberty was conceded. In 1666, Catholics, their “honorable” acts, and the

the Governor was instructed that nature of the indebtedness of the inhabitants “The method for keeping the people in order 25

severity, and laying such taxes as may give them trol of a Catholic Duke, through his repreliberty for no thought but how to discharge them."

sentative and governor, deprived of their This is very Catholic, truly! The people liberties, and heavily taxed to keep their remonstrated and resisted the taxation, and, thoughts from wandering from the imposiaccording to Bancroft, the government of tions of their ruler. And although it was the Duke of York was hated as despotic. not until 1682 that the people became

In 1673, the city surrendered to a small finally roused against the tyranny practised Dutch squadron, but was restored to the over them, and that the Duke, who even English in 1674. Andros became Governor “the school-books say was a tyrant,” felt by appointment of the Duke of York; and, the necessity of making concessions to the as a Catholic specimen of civil and religious colony, yet it is precisely at this period, it liberty, we may notice his answer to Andros will be observed, that the Archbishop dates in 1677:

the advent of Catholic devotedness to the “I cannot but suspect assemblies would be of principle of civil and religious liberty, as dangerous consequence, nothing being more known emanating from and practised under the than the aptness of such bodies to assume to them. Duke of York, who “ was a Catholic.” In selves many privileges which prove destructive to, and very often disturb the peace of government, proof of his assertions, the Archbishop quotes when they are allowed."

from Bancroft as follows: Customs were now levied without consent

“The Duke of York,” says the historian," was of the people. In 1679, the Dutch Calvin. at the same time solicited by those about him to

sell the territory. He demanded the advice of ists had been inflamed by an attempt to one who always advised honestly; and no sooner thwart the discipline of the Dutch Reformed had the father of Pennsylvania, after a visit at

New-York, transmitted an account of the reforms Church. In 1681, discontent created a

which the province required, than without delay popular convention; and although five per- Thomas Dongan, a Papist, came over as Governor,

with instructions to convoke a free legislature.sons were arbitrarily summoned to New

“At last," Bancroft goes on to say, “after long York and thrown into prison, yet the fixed effort, on the seventeenth day of October, 1688, purpose of the yeomanry remained unshaken. about seventy years after Manhattan was first

occupied, about thirty years after the demand of In New-Jersey, (1680,) the people resisted the popular convention by the Dutch, (and nineAndros.

teen years after the Duke of York became propri

etor,] the representatives of the people met in “We are the representatives of the freeholders assembly, and their self-established Charter of of this province," said the Puritans, “and His Ma- Liberties' gave New-York a place by the side of jesty's patent, though under the great seal, we Virginia and Massachusetts.” dare not grant to be our rule or joint safety; for the Charter of England, alias Magna Charta, is

It will be observed that this concession the only rule, privilege, and joint safety of every on the part of the Duke was made under free born Englishman."

existing necessities. How long it lasted we In New-York, the attempt to levy customs will soon see. We should also remember without a colonial assembly (1682) had been that the self-established charter was framed defeated by the grand jury, and trade be- by Protestants, and must be passed to their came free just as Andros was returning to credit, and not to that of Catholics. It proEngland. All parties now joined in entreat vided that ing for the people a share in legislation.

"Supreme legislative power shall ever be and Now, in the face of the foregoing histori- reside in the governor, council

, and people met cal facts, the Archbishop, with a peculiar in general assembly. Every freeholder and free

man shall vote for representation without restraint. regard for truth, remarks thus :

No freeman shall suffer but by judgment of his « The colony of New-Amsterdam and New

peers; and all trials shall be by a jury of twelve

men. No tax shall be assessed, on any pretext Netherlands had been in existence, under the sway

whatever, but by consent of the assembly. No of a Protestant government, from that time (the discovery of the Hudson, 1609] until 1683;"

seaman or soldier shall be quartered on the inhab

itants against their will. No martial law shall when for the last nineteen years, that is, exist. No person, professing faith in God by Jesus

Christ, shall at any time be any ways disquieted from 1664, they had been under the con

or questioned for any difference of opinion."

We present this quotation to ask the of the accession of William and Mary to the throne

of England. The people joyfully received the inquestion, to whom were the people indebted

telligence, and rose in open rebellion to the existfor the wording of the Charter of Liberties ing government." but to Protestants ? and also to illustrate

The colony being now Protestant, and the practical villany of presenting these

continuing so to the Revolution, we close things to an intelligent audience and to the

this part of history, to introduce the Archworld as evidences of Catholic labor, and

bishop's remarks immediately following his honorable devotedness to the principle of

illustration of the Duke of York : civil and religious liberty, when the very page of Bancroft's History from which the

“I know not how it happens that, in treating

this subject, I bad hardly launched my slender Archbishop took the quotation advised him

skiff, when I found it heading up stream, instead in these words :

of gliding gently down the current of historical

events.... But the events are the same, no But the hope of a permanent representative matter under which order of chronology they are government was to be deferred. It shows the true considered. That little skiff, if I may be allowed character of James, that on gaining power by as to extend the figure for a moment, bas stemmed cending the English throne, be inmediately threw the flow of a certain prejudice which calls itself down the institution which he had conceded." history; has overcome successfully even the rapids

of the adverse tide; and now ... I can guide its And it might have been added, only un onward course, with gentle and recreative labor, der the previous necessity of the case were

to the very well-springs of American history." these institutions conceded.

Can we trust one who cannot stem with Bancroft, in treating of the causes of large honesty and overcome in truth the adverse emigration from Scotland, draws a picture tide that history bears against his cultured of this Catholic Duke of York, who even bigotry? Never let him appear again as an "the school-books say was a tyrant," and to historian before an enlightened public, until whom the inhabitants of New-Netherlands, he does penance for the sin of writing the according to the Archbishop, were indebted | false Catholic Chapter of these United States. for their first possession and exercise of civil | He further remarks: and religious liberty. He ascended the

“Now, the Catholic Church has no recognized throne of England in 1685, tried to over

theory on the subject of forms of civil government; throw the Protestant religion, became wo

... is not an approver of revolutions, except when

they are clearly justifiable. ... Yet the principle fully alarmed for his own safety, and finally of passive obedience on the part of subjects, or of fled to France, after a reign of about two absolute and irresponsible authority on that of sove

reigns, never was, and certainly never will be, an and a half years. Now follows the picture

approved principle of hers.” of his Catholic work in his own country, as drawn by the historian :

By all of which, although not expressed

in words, we are to understand that the - "Every day wretched fugitives were tried by a Catholic Church is a political organizationjury of soldiers, and executed in clusters on the highways; women, fastened to stakes beneath the

a ruling power—having an implied right to sea-mark, were drowned by the rising tide; dun | interfere with the subject while struggling geons were crowded with inen perisbing for want of water and air. The humanity of the government

against or yielding passive obedience to the was barbarous. Of the shoals transported to Ame civil government, in order to release him rica, women were often burnt in the cheek, men from thraldom, or chain him therein; and, marked by lopping off of ears," &c.

" It was the evident intention of the King," says on the other hand, to interfere with the Wilson, “ to introduce the Catholic religion into the

government or sovereign, as the case may province, sof New York,] and most of the officers appointed by him were of that faith. Among the

be, either to sustain or overthrow them, inodes of introducing Popery, James instructed whether they are exercising rights or pracGovernor Dongan to favor the introduction of Catholic priests by the French among the Iro

tising despotism; and witbal, in any event quois; but Dongan, although a Catholic, clearly making out a clearly justifiable case for inseeing the ambitious designs of the French for extending their influence over the Indian tribes,

terference, since it has no recognized theory resisted the measure. . . . . In 1689, news arrived on the subject of forms of civil government,


and is ever found meddling in the political had no allies. The religion of this country affairs and governments of men. The sym- was Protestant, and that of the nation against pathy, if any, which we received from the whose political control we were contending Catholic Church, as such, during our strug- was also Protestant; and consequently they gle for independence, could not have arisen were not enemies as concerning religion, but from a desire for our religious prosperity, simply in a political sense, as above stated being Protestants; but rather from a desire by the Archbishop; and therefore the subto crush that older Protestant government tlety in handling these questions thus coupled (England) against whom we were contend together is without excuse. Reflection will ing; and that sympathy must have rested make this apparent to the reader. The upon the possible basis, that when the greater whole subject is intricate, but should be body is removed the lesser may be converted. thoroughly studied by every true American. If " passive obedience on the part of the In relation to the two questions above, it subject " is not an “approved principle" of may be said that within them, as placed in the Church, we should like to know, in the juxtaposition, is embodied a triangular group name of all that is impudent, by what ele- of interests, typifying the times, and through ment of the Church all her subjects are so which we are to trace the development of held in passive obedience! But in the mat civil and religious liberty, that masterly ter of revolutions, the Archbishop proceeds achievement of the American mind. In to say:

Pole this triangulation stand, con egy 2007 “But a revolution begun under such circum

First, Rome and her satellites, seeking stanees as marked the commencement, the prose through Papacy political and religious concution, and completion of the American struggle for freedom, it would be impossible for her (the

trol; Church] to condemn."

Second, England, rejecting Papacy, and Well, considering the state of religion in seeking to extend her political power only; Maryland, and throughout the country, at

Third, These United States, seeking to the time of the Revolution, it being decidedly themselves, in justice and right, both civil Protestant, it is at least some gratification to and religious liberty. learn that Rome herself could not condemn

In the old world, the yearning for relithe American action. This, however, is gious liberty led to Protestantism-a protest mere palaver, thrown in to introduce the against the Church of Rome as a Church ; name of Charles Carroll, together with that the yearning for political liberty led to a of Commodore John Barry, as Catholics who protest against the despotic temporal rule fought the good fight in word and deed, not of the Papal power. In the new world, the as Catholics, but as honest, high-minded yearning for civil and religious liberty led to republicans. For to them the country was the Declaration of Independence; a titleknown to be Protestant, and in the struggle page in the history of these United States against England no religious question arose. sufficiently expressive to convey to the mind

The Archbishop states that for the reality that despotism, whether practised * The issue involved in the War of Independ

under a political or a religious garb, was to ence was a choice, as England presented it to the have no foothold here. Rome and her sacolonists, between political freedom and political tellites had sought to plant the authority of slavery."

the Papal See within this happy clime, but And he asks:

chan A

were entirely foiled by Protestant England "During the contest, so far as religion is con- and the colonists. The latter power then cerned, who were your allies and friends! I am sought to exercise an oppressive political this contest between slavery and freedom, who control over the land, which ultimately led were your enemies! Protestants." Bomoh

to resistance and independent nationality, Now, so far as religion was concerned, we The Archbishop states that Lord Howe wrote to the British ministry that he “ dis- cans entered as a Protestant people. The liked and could not depend on Irish Catholic latter conclusion we may draw from the lansoldiers." This only gives them a bad name, guage of the Archbishop, thus : without helping the cause. Let us say that

"At the period of the Revolution, the Catholics their religion prevented: what then! Why, of the British colonies were no doubt few." if Catholic Rome, with her “ Papa," had a

And of the few it may be said that, alholy hatred against her great Protestant en though they entered that struggle holding, emy, England, how could it be expected but through force of education, a preference for that, on her own hook, she would endeavor a differing religious creed, yet, having reto stay the hand of the Catholic Irish sol- ceived of God a perception of the inaliendiers, as one means of harming her declared able rights of man, they quickened in the Protestant enemy? Collateral causes aiding American political faith, and, as our foreour independence we thank God for, and not fathers, became Protestants at least as against the Catholic Church. Yet no remark of ours temporal tyrannical rule. They must have must be taken in disparagement of the gal differed widely from Catholics, who, in this lant souls who braved the storm, who passed day, would uphold the thrones of despotism. the baptism of '76, be their religion what it Be that as it may, our period commences might.

properly with the Constitution, at the conThe Archbishop brings in a bill of items templation of which the Archbishop extroops, vessels, money, military stores, and claims :clothing-furnished" by Catholic France to

"All credit and all gratitude to the liberality of aid in the war of American independence,” the great men who framed that document, who remarking at the same time :

were almost, if not altogether, Protestants." " It may be said that France did all this from This admission of the Archbishop does not political motives, with a view to damage the power tally well with a subsequent jesuitical exof England. But I have intended only to state the facts, not to discuss the motives."

pression, wherein he says :And, he might have added, for the pur- “There yet survives a certain vague, pose of prefixing the word Catholic to that memory of Protestant ascendency, fed by an here

ditary prejudice." of France, to make religious capital. Was the Archbishop too ignorant at the time to What can this contradiction mean? Is it state that the treaty was one of alliance given through hypocrisy, or merely as jes agaidst a “common enemy;" that each par- itical falsity, excusable in an arch-father, who ty was to fight "independent of the other, would thus by falsehood guide the Pope's in such manner as they saw fit;" “neither children to the great God of Truth? Is to make peace without the consent of the there an end to justify the use of such means? other;" and, no matter what the event of The Archbishop advises us that the issue, “no differences in account were to " In other countries, toleration was granted by be charged or paid for by either party ?" the civil authority. Here, the great

framed the Constitution saw, with keen and deliWe are compelled to suppose so, because he

cate perception, that the right to tolerate implied shows us a bill of items to prove our indebt- the equal right to refuse toleration; and on behalf edness to France for aid in fighting a

of the United States, as a civil government, they com

denied all right to legislate in the premises one mon enemy," as Catholic aid to a Protest-way or the other." ant republic. To the reflecting mind, such Again he says: an attempt to make religious capital by fal

“The matter was not one which they might dissifying history must appear contemptible. pose of according to the impulses of their own

high and generous feelings; and if there had been

only one form of Protestantism professed in all the This period commences just after that colonies, I fear much that, even with Washington

at their head, the Constitution would not have been memorable revolution into which the Ameri- what it is."


men who


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