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Year. Names of the Months.
5612 Tisri 16th, *Second Feast of the Huts,

Oct. 12, 1851. 21st, Feast of Palms or Branches,

Oct. 17, 220, *End of the Hut or Congregation Feast, Oct. 18,

23d, *Rejoicing for the Discovery of the Law, Oct. 19,
Marchesvan begins,

Oct. 27,
Chisleu begins,

Nov. 25,
25th, Consecration of the Temple,

Dec. 19, “ Thebet begins,

Dec. 24, 10th, Fast for the Siege of Jerusalem, Jan. 2, 1852. The Jewish year generally contains 354 days, or 12 lunations of the Moon; but in a cycle of 19 years, an intercalary month (Veader) is 7 times introduced, for the purpose of rendering the average duration of the year nearly or quite correct.

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MAHOMETAN CALENDAR. Year. Names of the Months. 1267 Saphar begins,

Dec. 6, 1850. Rabia I.

Jan. 4, 1851.
Rabia II.

Feb.
Jomadhi I.

Mar. 4, "
Jomadhi II. 66

April 3, " Redjeb

May 2, 6
Chaban

June 1,
Ramadan (Month of Fasting)

June 30, 6
Schewall (Bairam,) .

July 30,
Dsu'l-kadah

Aug. 28,
Dsu'l-hejjah “

Sept. 27, 1268 Muharrem

Oct. 27, " “ Saphar

Nov. 26,
Rabia I.

Dec. 25, " The Mahometan Era dates from the flight of Mahomet to Medina, July 16th, A. D. 622.

The Mahometan year is purely lunar ; it consists of 12 synodical periods of the Moon, or of 354 days 19 times in a cycle of 30 years, and of 355 days 11 times. The average length of this year is therefore 354}days, which differs only thirty-three seconds from the truth ; a degree of exactness that could only have been attained by a long series of observations. But as no allowance is made for the excess of 11 days in the length of a tropical year over the time of 12 revolutions of the Moon, it is obvious that once in about 33 years the above months will correspond to every season and every part of the Gregorian year.

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HEIGHT OF THE GREATEST OR SPRING TIDES IN 1851.

Computed by the Formula of Laplace (Mécanique Céleste, Vol. II. pp. 289,

Paris ed., and [2858] Bowd. ed.).

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New or Full
Height of New or Full

Height of Moon. the Tide. Moon.

the Tide d. h.

d. h. New Moon, Jan. 2, 5 M. 0.78 | Full Moon, July 13, 2 M. 0.76 Full 17, 12 M. 1.01 New

28, 10 M. 0.97 New Feb. 1, 1 M. 0.79 Full

Aug. 11, 5 A. 0.84 Full 15, 11 A. 1.09 || New

25, 12 A. 1.08 New Mar. 2, . 8 A. 0.84 || Full

Sept. 10, 9 M. 0.83 Full 17, 8 M. 1.13 | New

25, 1 M. 1.10 New April 1, 1 A. 0.88 | Full Oct. 10, 1M. 0.87 Full 15, 5 A. 1.06 | New

24, 10 M. 1.09 New May 1, 4M. 0.88 | Full Nov. 8, 6 A. 0.86 Full 15, 3 M. 0.94 | New

22, 9 A. 0.98 New 30, 4 A. 0.89 || Full

Dec. 8, 10 M. 0.84 Full June 13, 1 A. 0.82 | New

22, 10 M. 0.87 New

2:', 2 M. 0.89

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The unit of altitude at any place is the height at that place of that tide which arrives about a day and a half after the time of New or Full Moon, when the Sun and Moon, at the moment of conjunction or opposition, are at their mean distance from the Earth, and in the plane of the celestial equator.

This unit of altitude, which must be derived from observation for each place, multiplied by the quantities in the above table, gives the height of the spring tides at that place during the present year.

By the above table it appears that the highest tides of 1851 will be those of Jan. 19, Feb. 17, March 19, April 17, Aug. 27, Sept. 26, and Oct. 25.

The actual rise of the tide, however, depends so much on the strength and direction of the wind, that it not unfrequently happens that a tide, which would, independently of these, have been small, is higher than another, otherwise much greater. But when a tide, which arrives when the Sun and Moon are in a favorable position for producing a great elevation, is still further increased by a very strong wind, the rise of the water will be uncommonly great; sufficient, perhaps, to cause damage.

The formula from which these tides were computed is, however, strictly true only for Brest and its vicinity, and must be regarded as a very uncertain approximation for the coast of the United States.

DARKNESS OF THE NIGHTS DURING THE YEAR 1851.

For Boston, New York, Philadelphia, Washington, fc. The number of hours at the top of the page denotes the average time for the month from the end of the evening twilight io the beginning of the morning twilight.

The dots in the table denote the hours of entire darkness, when there is neither sun, moon, nor twilight; and their disposition denotes the hours before or after midnight.

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h. m.

h. m.

h. m.

Twilight begins and ends. Mean Time.
Ist day. 7th day.
13th day. 19th day

25th day.
Begins. Ends. Begins. Ends. Begins. Ends. Begins. Ends. Begins. Ends.
h. m.
h. m.
h. m.

h. m.
h. m.
h. m.

h. m. Boston, 5 48m 6 20a 5 48m 6 24a 5 48m 6 29a 5 47m 6 35a| 5 44m 6 42a N. York, 5 46 6 22 5 46 6 26 5 46 6 31

5 45
6 37

5 42 6 44 Wash'n, 5 43 6 25 5 44 6 29 5 44 6 34 5 43 6 39 5 41 6 45 Charles., 5 35 6 33 5 36 6 37 5 37 6 41 5 36 6 46 5 35 6 51 N. Orl's, 5 31 6 37 5 33 6 40 5 34 6 44 5 33 6 49 5 32 6 54

APOGEE AND PERIGEE OF THE MOON.
Apogee, 5th day, 11h. A.

Perigee, 18th day, 9h. M.

PHASES OF THE MOON. New Moon, 2d day, 5h. 35.8m. M. Full Moon, 17th day, 11h. 33.0m. M. First Quarter, 10th“ 11 13.3 M. Last Quarter, 24th 3 8.5 M.

Sun's upper limbrises and sets (cor. for refr.) M. Time. High Water. M. Time.

Days of Month.
Days of Week.

Boston, &c.

&c. P Washington,

&c.

Charleston,

Bostoa, &c.

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Charleston,

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&c. SS 5 N. Orleans,

11 S.

19

rises. sets rises sets rises. sets. rises. sets. rises. sets.
h.m. h. m. h. m. h. mh. m. h. m h. m. h. m. h. m. h. m h. m. h. m.

h. m. 1 W. 7 30 4 38 17 25 4 43 17 19 4 49 17 3 5 5 16 56 5 12 10 41m 8 2im 6 41m 2 Th. 30 39 25 44 19 50 3 6 56 13 11 16 8 56 7 16 3F. 30 40 25 45 19 50 3 7 57 13

11 57 9 37 7 57 4S. 30 40 25 46 19 51 3 7 57 14 о зза 10 13 8 33 5 Su. 7 30 4 42 17 25 4 47 7 19 4 52 7 3 5 8 6 57 5 14 1 9a 10 49m 9 9m 6M. 30 43 25 48 19 53 4 9 57 15 1 44 11 24 9 44 7 Tu.

30 44 25 49 19 54 4 10 57 16 2 16 11 56 10 16 8W. 29 45 24 50 19 55 4 11 57 17 2 53 0 33a 10 53 9 Th. 29

46 24 51 19 56 4 11 57 18 3 29 1 9 11 29 10 F. 29 47 24 52 19 57 4 12 57 19 4 9 1 49 0 ga 28 48 24 53 19 58 4 13 57

4 56 2 36 0 56 12 Su. 7 28 4 49 17 24 4 54 7 18 4 59 7 3 5 14 16 57 5 20 5 56a 3 36a 1 56a 13 M. 28 50 23 55 18 5 0 3 15 57 21 74 4.44

3 4 14 Tu. 27 51 23 56 18 1 3 16 57 22 8 14 5 54 4 14 115 W. 27 52 22 57 17 2 3 17 57 23 9 23 7 3 5 23 16 Th. 27 53 22 58 17 3 3 18 57 24 10 15 7 55 6 15

26 55 21 5 0 17 5 2 19 57 25 11 8 8 48 7 18

25 56 21 1 16 6 2 20 56 25 11 56 9 36 7 56 19 Su. 7 25 4 57 17 20 5 2 7 16 5 7 17 2 5 20 16 56 5 26 10 25a 8 45a 20 M.

21 58 20 3 15 8 1 21 56 27 0 45m 11 12 9 32 21 Tu. 24 50 19 4 15 9 1 22 55 28 1 32 11 59 10 19 23 1 19 6 14 10 1 23 55 29 2 19

11 8 23 Th. 22

2 18 7 14 11 0 24 55 29 38 048m 11 54 21 3 17 8 13 12 0 25 54 30 3 54 1 34

21 5 17 9 12 13 16 59 26 54 31 4 44 2 24 0 44m 26 Su. 7 20 5 6 7 16 15 10 7 12 5 14 16 59 5 27 16 54 5 32 5 41m 3 21m 1 41m

19 7 15 11 11 16 58 28 53 33 6 53 4 33 2 53

18 8 14 12 10 17 58 29 53 34 8 5 5 45 4 5 29 W.

17 10 13 14 9 18 57 30 52 35 9 19 6 59 5 19 30 Th. 16 12 12 15 8 19 57 31 52 36 10 17 7 57 6 17 31 F. 15 13 11 16 8 20 56 32 51 37 11 5

8 45

7 5

17 F. 18 S.

22 W.

24 F. 25 S.

27 M. 28 Tu.

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