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courts, are held at such times, during the sitting of the Court of Appeal, as the chancellors and judges may appoint.

Courts of Common Pleas and General Sessions. — These courts have original jurisdiction in all civil cases where legal rights are involved (except in matters of contract where the amount is $ 20 or under) and in all criminal cases affecting free white men; and appellate jurisdiction in all appeals from Magistrates' Courts, and in appeals from the Court of Ordinary in

cases except in matters of account. They are held in each and every district of the State twice in each year. The times of holding the court for Charleston District are the first Monday in May, to sit six weeks, and the fourth Monday in October, to sit four weeks. Daniel Horlbeck, Clerk for Charleston District.

Courts of Equity take cognizance of all matters belonging to a court of equity, as contradistinguished from a court of law. A term is held by one chancellor, annually, in each district, except Charleston District, where two terms are held; viz. on the first Monday in February, to sit six weeks, and on the second Monday in June, to sit four weeks.

City Court of Charleston. An inferior court of limited jurisdiction both in civil and criminal causes. William Rice, Recorder.

Ordinary's Court. Each district has its own Ordinary. The principal duties of the Ordinary are to grant letters of administration; probate of wills; examine executors and administrators' accounts, &c. His office is the proper depository of wills and other papers relative to the administration of estates. An appeal lies from his determination, in matters of account, to the Court of Equity, and, in all other cases, to the Court of Common Pleas. M. T. Mendenhall, Ordinary for Charleston District.

Magistrates' Courts have exclusive jurisdiction in matters of contract of and under twenty dollars.

Court of Magistrates and Freeholders for the trial of slaves and free persons of color for criminal offences.

FINANCES. Whole amount received during the year ending 30th September, 1849, $ 481,613.34 Whole amount expended,

418,723.95 Whole amount of State debt,“

2,310,896.81 Property of the State in 1847. Bank of the State of South Carolina, for capital,

$ 2,933,611.10 for sinking fund.

653,022.77 for balance due Treasurers,

101,071.15 Debt of railroad and canal companies,

523,396.69 Shares in S. C. Railroad Co, and Southwestern Railroad Bank,

800,000.00 Balances due by tax-collectors, sheriffs, &c.,

9,415.61 Total,

$ 5,020,517.32 Taxes for 1849. 358,714 slaves, $ 186,531,28|Lots,

$ 45,554.64 2,679 free negroes, . 5,358.00 Lands,

30,567.23 Goods, wares, and merchandise, 23,348.21 Double taxes, arrears, &c., .

1.279.22 Professions, 6,516.35 Total,


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Free Schools. - Number of schools in 1849, 1,023; number of teachers, 1,019; number of scholars, 9,122. Amount expended by the Legislature, in 1848, $ 40,561.53. These schools are under the superintendance of commissioners appointed by the Legislature.


Government for the Year 1851. GEORGE W. Towns, of Muscogee Co., Governor (term of office Salary. expires November, 1851),

$3,000 George W. Harrison, of

Secretary of State,

1,600 William B. Tinsley, of Baldwin Co., Treasurer,

1,600 E. S. Chandler, of Carroll Co., Comptroller-General, 1,600 J. R. Butts, of Sumpter Co., Surveyor-General,

1,600 John S. Thomas, of Baldwin Co., Director of the Central Bank. Anderson W. Redding, of Harris Co., Keeper of the Penitentiary. Jesse H. Campbell, of Baldwin Co., Commissioner of Deaf and Dumb. William B. Wofford, of Habersham Co.,President of the Senate, $5 a day. Luther J. Glenn, of Henry Co., Secretary of the Senate, 500 John W. Anderson, of Chatham Co., Speaker of House of Rep., $5 a day. B. K. Harrison,

of Stewart Co., Clerk of House of Rep., 500 The

pay of members of the Legislature is $ 4 a day. The Legislature meets biennially. The last Legislature met in November, 1849.

Supreme Court.

Term ends.
Joseph H. Lumpkin,
Chief Judge,

1852 Hiram Warner, Judge,

1850 Eugenius A. Nisbet,

1854 The judges of the Supreme Court are elected by the General Assembly, and are removable upon address of two thirds of each house. All causes shall be determined at the first term; and in case the plaintiff is not ready for trial, unless he be prevented “ by some providential cause,” the judgment of the court below shall be affirmed. Judges of the Superior Court are elected for six years, with jurisdiction exclusive in criminal cases, and in land cases, and concurrent in all other civil cases. Justices of the inferior courts are elected by the people, and act as probate judges. Justices of the peace are elected by the people in districts. The State is divided into eleven circuits, with a judge for each.

Salary. Eli H. Baxter, of Chatham Co., Judge of Northern Circuit, $1,800 Henry R. Jackson,


1,800 Augustus H. Hansell,


1,800 James Jackson,


1,800 Ebenezer H. Starnes,


1,800 Herschell V. Johnson, .




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Salary. James H. Stạrk,

Judge of Flint Circuit, $ 1,800 Alford Iverson,


1,800 John H. Lumpkin,


1,800 Edward Y. Hill,


2,100 Lott Warren,

Southwestern “

2,100 Alpheus Colvard, .

Attorney-General, $250 and perquisites. Alex. Drysdall, of Chatham Co., Judge of Court of Oyer and Ter

miner, Savannah,

1,000 John W. Wilde, of Richmond Co., Judge of Court of Oyer and Ter

miner, Augusta,

1,000 S. J. Ray, of Bibb Co., State Printer.

FINANCES. The public debt of the State consists of bonds issued for the construction of the Western and Atlantic Railway. Its aggregate amount may be stated at $1,828,472, of which $1,756,472 are in federal bonds payable at the treasury, and $ 72,000 in sterling bonds sold by Messrs. Reid, Irving, & Co., of London, England. The semiannual dividends of interest, as well as the principal of the sterling bonds, are payable in London. $23,000 of this debt is payable in January, 1850, and $10,000 in July, 1853. The rest is redeemable from 1863 to 1874. The annual interest on the debt is $ 110,223.33.

The annual receipts into the Treasury for all purposes average nearly $ 300,000, and the annual expenditures are about $ 290,000. This includes a payment of about $ 107,000 for interest on public debt, and nearly $ 70,000 towards a sinking fund, for the payment of the debt. The chief sources of income are the general tax, and a special tax on bank stock. The principal items of expenditure are, the pay of the Legislature, biennially, about $ 65,000; of the civil establishment, including the judiciary, annually, about $45,000; Deaf and Dumb and Lunatic Asylum, about $ 17,000; printing, an annual average of about $6,000; and miscellaneous expenditures, annually, about $ 12,000. The items of interest on, and reduction of, the public debt are additional.

There is in the State an asylum for the deaf and dumb, under the management of com. missioners, and another for lunatics, in the hands of trustees.

State Penitentiary, Milledgeville. — William W. Williamson, Keeper. Convicts in priso on, October, 1843, 98. Admitted during the year, 31, including one female; making in all, 129. 37 have been discharged during the year; 1 pardoned by the Legislature; 33 pardoned by the Executive, and 3 died; leaving in prison, 92. The pardons by the Executive are with a view to restoring the convict to his civil rights.


Government for the Year 1851. Thomas Brown, of Tallahassee, Governor (term expires Salary. October, 1853),

$ 1,500 Chas. W. Downing, of Jacksonville, Secretary of State, Fees & 600 Simon Towle, of Tallahassee, Comptroller,

1,100 Wm. R. Hayward,


800 John Beard,

Register of Public Lands, and
Sup't of Schools, $1,200 and travelling expenses.

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Salary. Wm. B. Lancaster, , of Key West, Clerk of the House, $5 a day during

[the session. Thos. J. Eppes,

Private Secretary of Governor, $ 200 The members of the General Assembly are chosen on the first Monday of October, biennially. The Assembly meets biennially on the third Monday in November.

Circuit Courts.

Salary. Thomas Douglas, of Jacksonville, Chief Judge, Eastern Circuit, $2,000 Thomas Baltzell, of Tallahassee, Judge,


2,000 George S. Hawkins, of Apalachicola,

Western 2,000 Joseph B: Lancaster, of Key West,

Southern 2,000 David P. Hogue, of Tallahassee, Attorney-General and Rep.,

500 Rob't S. Hayward,

Clerk of Supreme Court, Fees. James M. Landrum, of Walton Co., Solicitor, Western Circuit, 800 Samuel B. Stephens, of Gadsden,

Middle John P. Sanderson, of Jacksonville,

Eastern Ossian B. Hart, of Monroe,

Southern The State is divided into four circuits, Eastern, Middle, Western, and Southern; and the judges of the Supreme Court, in the order in which they are named above, preside in their respective circuits.

Internal Improvements. — There are no railroads or canals in operation in this State. The General Assembly of 1848 - 49 chartered three companies for the establishment of railroads; one, the Atlantic and Gulf Railroad Company, to connect the waters of the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico, upon such route as may be deemed most advisable and judicious by the company; another for the purpose of constructing a communication between the Chatahoochee River and the Gulf of Mexico, at some point on St. Andrew's Bay, to be called the Florida and Georgia Railroad Company; and another for the purpose of constructing a road from some point on the St. Mary's River to Pensacola.

FINANCES. Balance in the Treasury, for the year ending Nov. 1, 1847, .

$3,755.10 Receipts during the year ending Nov. 1, 1848, .

56,832.72 Total revenue,

60,537.82 Expenditures during the year,

59,259.72 $1,328.10

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Government for the Year 1851. Herry W. COLLIER, of Tuscaloosa, Governor, (term of office ex- Salary. pires on the 1st Monday in December, 1851),

$2,500 William Garrett,

of Montgomery, Secretary of State, Fees and 1,200 Joel Riggs,

of Montgomery, Comptroller of Public Accounts, 2,000 William Graham, of Montgomery, State Treasurer,


Salary. Marion A. Baldwin, of Montgomery, Attorney-General, Fees and $ 425 James G. Carroll, of Montgomery, Adj. and Inspector-General, 200 Carter R. Harrison, of Tuscaloosa, Quartermaster-General,

200 Michael Toumey, of Tuscaloosa, State Geologist. Francis S. Lyon, of Demopolis, Comm'r & Trustee to settle affairs

of State Bank and Branches, 5,000 Henry W. Collier, Nimrod E. Benson, Commissioners for rebuilding State Capitol. Daniel Pratt,

The Senate consists of 33 members, elected for four years, one half going out every two years. The House of Representatives consists of 100 members, elected for two years. The Legislature meets biennially in the city of Montgomery, on the second Monday of November. The third biennial session will be held in 1851. The pay of the members of both Houses is $4 a day each. The public records, archives, and offices were removed from Tuscaloosa to Montgomery, iň November, 1847. The new State Capitol was destroyed by fire in December, 1849. A new one is to be erected on the same site, and completed by October 1st, 1851.

Supreme Court.

Salary. Edward S. Dargan, of Mobile, Chief Justice,

$ 2,250 William P. Chilton, of Tuskegee, Associate Justice,

2,250 Silas Parsons, of Huntsville,

2,250 N. W. Cocke, of Tuskegee, Reporter,

Fees. Marion A. Baldwin, of Montgomery, Attorney-General, Fees and 425 George C. Ball, of Montgomery, Clerk,

Fees. The judges of the Supreme Court, and the chancellors, are elected by a joint vote of the two houses of the General Assembly, for six years. The Supreme Court has appellate jurisdiction only, and holds its sessions at the seat of government, on the first Monday of January and June of each year, for hearing and determining points of law taken by appeal or writ of error from the Chancery, Circuit, and Probate Courts. The volumes of reported decisions are thirty-five in number. Court of Chancery.

Salary. Joseph W. Lesesne, of Mobile, Chancellor Southern Division, $1,500 Wiley W. Mason, of Auburn,


1,500 David G. Ligon, of Moulton,


1,500 The State is divided into three chancery divisions and thirty-seven districts, in each of which one session of the court is held annually, except in some of the larger districts, where two sessions are held.

Circuit Courts.

John D. Phelan,


William E. Clarke.
Ezekiel Pickens,


James A. Stallworth.

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