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5. Criminal Courts. These are the Courts of Oyer and Terminer and the Court of Sessions. The Courts of Oyer and Terminer, in each county, except in the city and county of New York, are composed of a justice of the Supreme Court, who presides, the county judge, and the two justices of the peace chosen members of the Court of Sessions. The presiding justice and any two of the others form a quorum. In the city and county of New York, they are composed of a justice of the Supreme Court, who presides, and any two of the following officers : judges of the Court of Common Pleas of the city and county ; the mayor, recorder, and aldermen of said city. These courts are all held at the same time and place at which the Circuit Courts are held. Courts of Sessions are composed of the county judge and the two justices of the peace designated as members of the Court of Sessions, and are held at the same time and place as the County Courts.

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6. Courts of New York City and County.

Superior Court.


Term expires.
Thomas J. Oakley, Chief Justice, $ 3,500 Dec. 31, 1851.
Lewis H. Sanford,


1853. Elijah Paine,


1855. J. L. Mason,*


1851. John Duer,


1853. Wm. W. Campbell,


D. R. Floyd Jones, Clerk.

Common Pleas.
Daniel P. Ingraham,

$ 3,000,

Dec. 31, 1851.
Charles P. Daly,


1853. Lewis B. Woodruff,


James Conner, Clerk.
Alex. W. Bradford, Surrogate, $ 3,000,

Marine Court.
Edward E. Cowles, 1st Judge, $ 2,000, 2d Tuesday in May, 1853.
James Lynch,



Education. — The amount of capital and annual revenue of the several funds appropriat. ed to the purposes of education, for the year ending September, 1849, was as follows:

Capital. Revenue. Common School Fund, .

$ 2,243,563.36 $ 108,236.91 United States Deposit Fund,

4,014,520.71 255,202.58 Literature Fund,


17,089.96 $6,524,050.85 $ 380,529.45

* Judges Mason, Duer, and Campbell attend only to suits transferred from the Supreme Court, which court is empowered to transfer pending suits, by order, to the Superior Court.

· There has also been paid from the general fund for the instruction of the deaf and dumb
$ 25,778.34; and to the institution for the blind, $ 18,476.89; making the whole sum paid
during the year for the purposes of education, $ 424,784.68. To the Common School Fund
belong about 301,759 acres of land, and to the Literature Fund about 10,880 acres.

Common Schools. — Of the funds devoted to education as above, what is exclusively the
Common School Fund may be stated as follows:
Productive capital of the School Fund as above,

$2,243,563.36 Amount from United States Deposit Fund which will produce $ 165,000,

the sum annually appropriated therefrom, for the support of Common Schools, at six per cent. interest, .

2,750,000.00 Sum reserved by the constitution to be added annually to the capital of the School Fund,

25,000.00 Making a total of

$5,018,563.36 The annual interest on this sum, at six per cent., is $ 301,113.80. The balance of the income of the United States Deposit Fund is appropriated to the support of Colleges, Acad. emies, the Normal School, Indian Schools, Teachers’ Institutes, &c. The income of the Literature Fund must, by the constitution, be applied to the support of Academies.

The whole amount of public money received from all sources by the Commissioners of cities, and town Superintendents, during the year ending July 1, 1849, was $ 846,710.45. Apportioned for teachers' wages, $ 625,456.69; for libraries, $ 93,104.82. Leaving balance unapportioned, of $ 128,148.94. The amount paid on rate bills for teachers' wages, besides public money, was $ 489,696.93.

Statistics of the Common Schools for the Year ending July, 1, 1849. — Number of whole districts in the 878 towns and 81 wards of cities of the State, 11,191. Number of parts of districts, 2,780. Returns were received from 10,928 districts. Average length of schools in all the districts, 8 months. Volumes in district libraries, 1,409,154. 778,309 children were taught during the year. 739,655 were returned between 5 and 16 years of age. 269,638 pupils attended school less than 2 months; 508,671 attended 2 months and upwards ; 315,430, 4 and upwards; 165,968, 6 and upwards ; 70,378, 8 and upwards; 21,793, 10 and upwards; and 6,687, attended school for 12 months. There are about 11,000 colored children between 5 and 16 in the State, and 4,006 in the 35 colored schools. $5,016.57 of public money was appropriated to these schools. 75,000 children are prob. ably taught annually in private schools. There are, besides, schools for the instruction of Indian children in the several reservations. 641 Indian children are reported between 5 and 16 years, and 500 as having attended school. A large and commodious edifice has been erected for the use of the Normal School. Between four and five hundred pupils attend this School annually, from all sections of the State. There has been a diminished interest in re. gard to teachers' institutes.


FINANCES. Debt of the State. - The general fund and railroad debt, at the close of the fiscal year ending September 30, 1849, was $ 6,389,693.32, and the canal debt at the same period was $ 16,414,523.67. Making an aggregate of $22,804,216.99, — on which accrues, annually, nearly $1,259,036 interest. There is also a contingent debt, consisting of State stock and comptroller's bonds, of $ 1,233,905.60, upon which the State does not pay interest. This will make the total indebtedness of the State $ 24,038, 122.59.

The property of the State, in addition to the educational funds mentioned above, consists of the works of internal improvement, which, at their cost valuation, (i. e. the amount expended upon them to date,) are worth $ 33,214,158.62. But the whole amount of tolls derived from them during the year is $3,442,906.62, which gave, after deducting expenses, the net income of $2,757,102.71. This is 6 per cent. interest upon $ 45,951,711.83, which may be taken as the worth of the works of the State. The average net annual income for the last five years is $2,370.78, which is equal to a capital of $ 39,515,279.66, at six per cent. interest

The amount of debt incurred for their construction, and yet unpaid, is, as stated above, $ 16,414,523.67. The taxable property of New York, in 1848, was $ 666,089,526, being $ 536,162,901 of real estate, and $ 129,926,625 of personal estate. The State and county taxes were $4,174,277.54 ; the town taxes, 1,374,703.74. Total taxation, $ 5,548,981.28, – making the rate of State, county, and town taxes, 8.3 mills on a $ 1.00 valuation. The highest rate was 26.7 mills on $1.00, in Hamilton County; the lowest 3.1 mills, in Ontario and Queens Counties.

General Fund. Revenue for the year ending September 30, 1849,

$ 992,688.00 Expenditures for the same period,

842,316.06 Surplus of revenue,

150,371.94 Deduct deficiency of last year,

37,092 72 Surplus on hand, Sept. 30, 1849,

113,279.22 Chief Sources of Income.

Principal Items of Expenditure. Auction duty, $ 93,025.46 Executive, .

$ 38,954.92 Salt duty, 51,598.98 Judiciary,

109,909.86 Register and clerk fees, 1,534.60 Legislature,

89,886.95 Fees of Secretary's office, 1,550.30 State printing,

75,448.37 Peddlers' licenses, 1,445.00 Deaf and dumb, .

40,778.34 Foreign insurance companies, 5,052.16 Blind,

33,476.89 Interest on arrears of county taxes, 16,797.17 Agricultural societies,

6,563.00 Treasury deposits, 14,428.12 Onondaga Salt Springs, .

29,754.05 Surplus revenue of canals, annual

State Prisons,

84,394.71 appropriation, 200,000.00 State Library,

7,901.37 278,843.10 Hospital, New York, .

22,500.00 Sales of land,

1,310.00 House of Refuge, for Western N. Y., 19,300.00 Sales of land for taxes, 203,341.55 Foreign poor,

5,000.00 Arrears of county taxes, 53,359.20 Orphan Asylums in State,

5,000.00 Scoharie County, for enforcing law, 1,000.00 New York Arsenal,

22,657.49 Miscellaneous and temporary re

Geological survey,

13,724.26 ceipts, · 4,684.33 Normal School building,

28,500.00 Miscellaneous and temporary, 35,477.54

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State tax,


Bank Fund. This fund was made up by annual contributions from the incorporated safety. fund banks, of one half of one per cent. on their respective capitals, and was by law appropriated to the payment of the debts of such banks liable to contribute the same, as should become insolvent. The fund has been exhausted, and there are $ 779,696.02 of six per cent. stock now outstanding, to meet the wants of the fund, - which stock, except $ 106,331.62, now in the treasury, or invested, is to be provided for out of the future contributions by the banks to the fund. The whole circulation redeemed for insolvent banks is $ 1,503,366.64; debts paid, $ 1,010,625.12; making a total of $2,513,991.76 that has been charged upon the bank fund. The notes of every insolvent bank which has failed have been redeemed. There are now 77 of these incorporated banks in operation, and two branches, whose aggregate capital amounts to $ 28,960,860. Circulation to which they are entitled, $ 23,282,40 Actual circulation, $21,406,86)

Free Banks. — The Free Bank Fund consists of bonds and mortgages, and stocks de. posited with the Comptroller, and moneys received on the same and held by him, for the redemption of the circulating notes issued by banks and individual bankers, under the general banking law. The whole number of associations is 58; of individual banks, 55; in all, 113, whose aggregate circulation, Dec. 1, 1849, was $11,180,675, and whose whole amount of securities deposited was $ 11,916,806.39.


Government for the Year ending January, 1851. Daniel Haines, of Sussex Co., Governor (term of office Salary. expires January, 1351),

$1,600 Ch. G. McChesney, of Trenton, Secretary of State,

Fees. Samuel Mairs, of Trenton, Treasurer,

1,000 Theodore F. King, of Perth Amboy, Superintendent of Public Schools. Ephraim Marsh,

of Morris Co., Pres. of the Senate, $ 4.00 a day. John T. Nixon, of Cumberl’d Co., Speaker of the Assembly, 4.00 a day. Philip J. Gray, of Camden Co., Clerk of the Senate,

3.50 a day. Alex. M. Cumming,

Clerk of the Assembly, 3.50 a day. JUDICIARY.

Court of Errors and Appeals. This court is composed of the Chancellor, the Judges of the Supreme Court, and six other judges appointed by the Governor, with the consent of the Senate, who hold office for six years, one judge vacating his seat each year in rotation. The court holds stated terms at Trenton, on the third Tuesday of January, April, July, and October.

Term expires. James Speer,

of Passaic Co.,


1851 Joseph Porter, of Gloucester Co.,

1852 Ferdinand S. Schenck, of Somerset Co.,

1853 Robert H. McCarter, of Sussex Co,

1854 Garret D. Wall, of Burlington,

1855 Robert S. Risley, of Salem Co.,

1856 Court of Chancery. The Chancellor is appointed by the Governor, with the consent of the Senate, for seven years. This court holds four terms annually at Trenton, on the third Tuesday in March, June, September, and Tecembe :

Term expires.

Salary. Oliver S. Halsted, of Newark, Chancellor, 1852 $ 1,800 and fees. Samuel R. Gummere, of Trenton, Clerk, 1850

Fees. Supreme Court. The judges are appointed by the Governor, with the consent of the Senate, for seven years. This court holds four terms each year at Trenton, on the first Tuesday in January, April, July, and October; and the judges of this court hold Circuit Courts and Courts of Oyer and Terminer four times a year in each county, except the counties of Atlantic and Cape May, in which only two terms are held. Courts of Common Pleas are held four times a year in each county, by judges appointed by the Legislature for five years, who receive fees, but no salary, and the number of whom is limited to five in each county.

Term expires.

Salary. Henry W. Greene, of Trenton, Chief Justice, 1853 $ 1,500 and fees. Elias B. D. Ogden, of Paterson, Associate Justice, 1855 1,400 and fees.



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Term expires. Salary. James S. Nevius, of N. Brunswick, Assoc. Justice, 1852 $1,400 and fees. Jos. F. Randolph, of N. Brunswick,

1852 1,400 and fees. Thos. P. Carpenter, of Woodbury,

1852 1,400 and fees. Lucius J. C. Elmer, of Bridgeton, Attorney-General, 1855 80 and fees. James Wilson, of Trenton, Clerk,


Fees. A. O. Zabriskie,


$ 200 FINANCES. Balance on hand, January, 1849,

$ 10,823.13 Whole amount received in 1849,


$ 136,513.95 Whole amount expended, .

126,552.75 Balance in Treasury, January 1, 1850,

$ 9,961.20 Prin. Items of Expenditure to Jan. 1, 1850. Chief Sources of Income to Jan. 1, 1850. Building, furnishing, and expenses

Transit duties on railroads and ca. of Lunatic Asylum, $34,407.93 nals, .

$ 66,298.56 Support of deaf and dumb and blind, 4,956.90 Dividends on stock of railroads and Salaries of Executive and Judiciary, 15,106.99 canals,

24,000.00 State Prison, 7,108.45 Taxes on railroad stock,

6,500.00 Transportation of prisoners and costs, 6,986.69 Interest on bonds of Camden and Legislature, 16,354.98! Amboy Railroad,

1,458.78 Court of Errors and Appeals, 2,507.60 Special loan,

22,000.00 Printing, 5,219.39 State Prison,

4,750.00 Pensions, 1,978.78 Incidental,

633.48 Various incidental expenses, 31,925.04

$ 125,690.82 $ 126,552.75 Balance on hand, January 1, 1849, 10.823.13 On hand, January 1, 1850, 9,961.20

136,513.95 $ 136,513.95 The whole amount of the absolute debt of the State is

$ 67,595.82 Annual interest upon absolute debt,

4,075.84 The value of the productive property owned by the State, in 1850, was

262,397.53 The value of the State property noť now productive, consisting of the Surplus Revenue lent to the counties without interest, .

764,670.60 Whole amount of School Fund owned by the State,

$388,582.86 Of this, there is unavailable the sum of

11,169.85 Total available School Fund, .

377,413.01 Common Schools. — Number of townships making returns, 166; number of districts in those townships, 1,561 ; returns received from 1,465. Children between 5 and 16, 118,992; children attending school less than 4 months, 7,525; less than 8 months, 8,319; less than 12, 8,107; colored children taught, 1,135; whole number of children taught, 70,053. Average length of schools in months, 9; average price of tuition per quarter to each pupil, $ 2.06; appropriated or received for school purposes, $ 119,351.39; expended for same, $ 75,029.80.

Banks, January, 1850. — There are 24 banks. Capital, $ 3,596,720 ; circulation, $2,548,352; deposits, $1,886,595; due other banks, $ 298,570; surplus, $ 543,776; bills receivab $6,192,575; due from other banks, ,452,057; specie, $630,734; real estate, $300,037; bonds and mortgages, &c., $ 257,568. Suspense account, $21,889.

State Lunatic Asylum, Trenton. - H. A. Buttolph, M. D., Superintendent. The asy. lum was opened for the admission of patients May 15, 1848, although the building was not then entirely completed. January 1st, 1849, there were in the asylum 83 patients (46 males, 37 females). Received during the year, 96 (55 males and 41 females); 69 were discharged; leaving, January 1st, 1850, 110 (62 males and 48 females); 182 (102 males and 80 females)

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