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islature, and hold office for one year from the 4th of July of the year of
their appointment. They have jurisdiction in all civil actions where the
damages, or matter in dispute, exceed $35. In civil cases, an appeal lies
in all cases from the County to the Superior Court, where the matter in dis-
pute exceeds the sum of $ 70. The clerks of the County Courts are like-
wise clerks of the Superior and Supreme Courts of their respective coun-

Items of Expenditure. Expense of managing school fund, 34.00
Debenture and contingent expenses

$ 118,392.09 of General Assembly,

$25,986.28 Salaries of officers of government,


Chief Sources of Income. Contingent expenses of

From taxes, government, 15,399.32

$ 73,557.54 Judicial expenses,

avails of Courts,

1,517.91 Expense of supporting State paupers, 2,291.66

State prison, surplus earnings, 3,000.00 superintendence of com

forfeited bonds, &c., • 4,376.70 mon schools,


dividends on bank stock, 37,053.00 Salary of directors of State Prison, 300.00

licenses to peddlers, •


miscellaneous sources, • Quartermaster-General's Department, 1,806.07

2,594.58 Public buildings and institutions, 8,609.60

Banks in Connecticut, April 1, 1850.

Capital stock,
$ 9,907,503 Specie,

$ 640,622 Circulation, 5,253,884 Bills of other banks,

245,349 Deposits, 2,357,939 Due from other banks,

1,247,771 Due other banks, 468,768 Due from brokers,

439,640 Dividends unpaid, 37,372 Stocks and bonds secured,

372,842 Surplus fund, . 753,654 Over drafts,

23,193 Earnings since dividend, 304,396 Expenses since dividend, .

51,878 Other liabilities,

38,691 Checks and other cash items, 103,614 Total liabilities, 19,122,207 Real estate,

389,983 Bills discounted,

15,607.315 Total resources,

19,122,207 Common Schools. - The number of towns is 146; of school societies, 217; of school districts, 1,649; of children between four and sixteen, 92,055. The amount of the School Fund, September 2, 1849, as appears from the biennial exhibit, was $2,076,602.75, and the amount of dividends for 1850 was $ 137,449.51; which gives $ 1.50 to every enumerated child. The returns in Connecticut do not give the number of teachers, or their wages, or the length of schools; but only the information indicated above., The Legislature, at the session of 1849, appropriated $10,000 for the establishment of a State Normal School, " for the training of teachers in the art of instructing and governing the common schools of the State.” This institution is placed under the control of eight trustees, appointed by the General Assembly, one from each county. The principal of the Normal School, Henry Barnard, of Hartford, is, ex officio, Superintendent of Common Schools, an office heretofore attached to that of Commissioner of the School Fund. The number of pupils is limited to 220, to be selected one from each school society. Tuition free. Schools or conventions for training teachers have also been held in each county the last year, generally by the Superintendent of Schools. Retreat for the Insane, Hartford. - John S. Butler, M. D., Physician and Superintend

The whole number of patients, April 1, 1849, was 133; 135 were admitted in the

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125 were

course of the year, making 268 in all, 121 of whom were males, and 147 females. discharged during the year, leaving in the Retreat, April 1, 1850, 143; 73 of whom were males, and 70 females. Of the 125 patients discharged, 64 were recovered, 24 improved, 7 not improved, and 30 died. The whole number admitted, from the opening of the institution, in 1824, to this time, is 2,032. 1,389 have been discharged; of whom 1,076 have recovered, 628 have improved, and 185 have died. Of the 60 males admitted during the past year, 18 were farmers; and of the 75 females, 10 were wives or daughters of farmers, and 33 engaged in domestic occupations. Of the 135, 46 were married, 73 single, and 16 widowed.

The terms of admission are, for patients belonging to the State, with the usual accommodations, $3.00 per week; for those belonging to other States, $3.50 per week. For patients belonging to the State, with accommodations in the centre building, and a separate attendant, $ 10.00 per week; for those belonging to other States, $ 12.00 per week. No patient is admitted for a shorter term than three months, and payment for that term must be made in advance. For admission, apply to the Superintendent.

American Asylum for the Deaf and Dumb, Hartford. - Lewis Weld, A. M., Principal. The number of pupils for the year ending May 1, 1950, was 210; of whom 122 were males, and 88 females. Of these, 20 were supported by friends; 32 by the State of Maine; 23 by New Hampshire; 19 by Vermont; 75 by Massachusetts; 7 by Rhode Island; 26 by Connecticut; and 8 by South Carolina. The cost for each pupil for board, washing, fuel, tuition, and the incidental expenses of the school-room, is $ 100 per annum. In sickness, the necessary extra charges are made. Payment must be made six months in advance, and a satisfactory bond for punctual payment will be required. Applicants for admission must be between 8 and 25 years of age, of good natural intellect, capable of forming and joining letters with a pen legibly and correctly, of good morals, and free from any contagious disease. Applications for the benefit of the legislative appropriations in Maine, New Hampshire, and Massachusetts should be made to the Secretaries of those States respectively, stating the name and age of the proposed beneficiary, and the circumstances of his parent or guardian. In the States of Rhode Island and South Carolina, they should be made to the commissioners of the funds for the education of the deaf and dumb, and in Vermont and Connecticut, to the Governor. In all cases, a certificate from two or more of the selectmen, magistrates, or other respectable inhabitants of the township or place to which the applicant belongs, should accompany the application.

State Prison, Wethers field. — Leonard R. Welles, Warden. A. S. Warner, Physician. David Miller, Chaplain. The whole number of convicts, March 31, 1850, was 175. During the year, 61 had been received, and 43 discharged. 35 were discharged by expiration of sentence, 4 were pardoned, and 4 died. Of those remaining in prison, 163 are males, — 121 white, and 42 colored; and 12 are females, -7 white, and 5 colored. The males are em. ployed in making cabinet-work, cutlery, and shoes; and the females in washing, cooking, making and mending clothing, and binding boots. The average number in confinement during the year was 160. A small library was purchased for the use of the prisoners, under the resolve of the General Assembly of 1847, and instruction in the rudiments of learning has been given them. There is also a Sunday school connected with the prison. The receipts for the year show a balance in favor of the prison.

Registration. — An act providing for the registration of births, marriages, and deaths was passed by the General Assembly in 1848. The returns made under this act, for the year ending August 5, 1849, are far from complete, though more so than those of the previous year,--several towns wholly failing to comply therewith, and in others only a part of the school districts making the required returns. The report of the Secretary of State (May, 1850) exhibits the following results, from all except six towns. Of the deaths, 709 were under 1 year of age; 703 were between 1 and 5 years; 243 between 5 and 10; 298 between 10 and 20; 533 between 20 and 30; 446 between 30 and 40; 373 between 40 and 50; 350 between 50 and 60; 400 between 60 and 70; 471 between 70 and 80; 341 between 80 and 90; 80 between 90 and 100; and 8 were 100 or upwards. The greatest number of deaths in any month was (in 1848) 398, in March; the smallest was 252, in December.





New Haven,
New London,


705 663 24 1,392 393 47 20 542 480 494
673 655 34 1,362 514 9 19 544 455 462
557 541 13 1,111 372 24 135 546 345 375
491 470 64 1,025 227 7 3 306 351 298
295 291 2 589 207 13 38 300 232 234
385 368 7 760 270 19 8 299 280 257
295 239 37 571 155 15 10 216 191 189
216 197 16 429 147 12

167 161

191 3,617 3.424 197 17,239 2,285 1146 2 3 / 2,920 2,495 2,500

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Government for the Year 1850.

Hamilton Fish, of New York, Governor (term ends Dec. 31, 1850), $4,000
Geo. W. Patterson, of Westfield, Lieutenant-Governor, $6 a day.
Christopher Morgan, of Auburn, Sec. State & Sup't Com. Schools, 2,500
Washington Hunt, of Lockport, Comptroller,

2,500 Alvah Hunt, of Oxford, Treasurer,

1,500 Levi S. Chatfield, of Laurens, Attorney-General,

2,000 Hezekiah C. Seymour, of Rockland Co., State Engineer and Surveyor, 2,400 Samuel Stevens, of Albany, Adjutant-General,

1,000 Daniel Lee, of New York, Commissary-General,

700 Lewis Benedict, of Albany, Judge-Advocate General, 500 Frederick Follett, of Batavia,

Canal Commissioner,

1,700 Jacob Hinds, of Hindsville,

1,700 Charles Cook, of Havana,

1,700 Darius Clark, of Canton, Inspector of State Prisons, 1,600 David D. Spencer, of Ithaca,

1,600 Alexander H. Wells, of Sing Sing,

1,600 David K. Abell, of Albany,

$4 a day, and Gideon Hard, of Albion, Canal Appraisers,

5 cents a mile Elihu L. Phillips, of Syracuse,

for travel, each. Alex. G. Johnson,

of Troy,

Dep. Sec. of State f. Clerk of

Comm’rs of the Land-Office, 1,500 Philip Phelps, of Albany, Dep. Comptroller,

1,500 Charles C. Clark, of Albany,

Dep. Treasurer,

1,300 Francis H. Ruggles, of Fredonia, Auditor of Canal Department, 1,500 Alexander G.Johnson, of Troy, Dep. Sup't of Common Schools, 1,000 Alfred B. Street, of Albany, State Librarian,

600 Elisha W. Skinner, of Albany,


600 Robert H. Morris, of Albany, Private Secretary of Governor, 600 Noble S. Elderkin,

Speaker of the House, $4.00 a day.

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Legislature. The Senate consists of thirty-two members, who are elected for two years, one from each senatorial district. The Assembly consists of one hundred and twenty-eight members, elected annually. The pay of Senators and Representatives is $3 per day, and $ 1 for every 10 miles' travel.

JUDICIARY. 1. Court for the Trial of Impeachments. This court is composed of the President of the Senate (who is president of the court, and when absent the chief judge of the Court of Appeals presides), the Senators, or the major part of them, and the judges of the Court of Appeals, or the greater part of them. It is a court of record, and, when summoned, meets at Albany, and has for its clerk and officers the clerk and officers of the Senate. . If the Governor is impeached, the Lieutenant-Governor cannot act as a member of the court. Two thirds of the members present must concur for conviction. The judgment of the court extends only to removals from or disqualifications for office, or both; the party being still liable to indictment.

2. The Court of Appeals. This court has full power to correct and reverse all proceedings and decisions of the Supreme Court, or of the old Supreme Court and Court of Chancery. It is composed of eight judges, of whom four are elected (one every second year) by the people at large, for eight years, and four selected each year from the justices of the Supreme Court having the shortest time to serve. These selections are made alternately from the first, third, fifth, and seventh, and from the second, fourth, sixth, and eighth judicial districts. The judge (of the four chosen at large) whose term first expires presides as chief judge. Six judges constitute a quorum. Every cause must be decided within the year in which it is argued, and, unless reargued, before the close of the term after the argument. Four terms must be held each year, and every two years there must be one term in each judicial district. Each judge has a salary of $ 2,500 per annum. The court for 1851 is thus constituted :: Chosen by the People at Large.

Term expires. Greene C. Bronson, of Albany,

Chief Judge, Dec. 31, 1851. Charles H. Ruggles, of Poughkeepsie,

1853. Addison Gardiner, of Rochester,

1855. Freeborn G. Jewett, of Skaneateles, Selected from the Justices of the Supreme ourt to serve until Dec. 31, 1850. W. T. McCoun, of Oyster Bay. Hiram Gray,

of Almira. Alonzo C. Paige, of Elizabethtown. James Mullett, of Buffalo. Charles S. Benton, of Mohawk, Clerk. Salary, $2,000.

3. The Supreme and Circuit Courts. The Supreme Court has general jurisdiction in law and equity, and power to review judgments of the County Courts, and of the old Courts of Com


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mon Pleas. For tne election of the justices, the State is divided into eight judicial districts, each of which elects four to serve eight years, with an annual salary of $ 2,500. In each district one justice goes out of office every two years. The justice in each district whose term first expires, and who is not a judge of the Court of Appeals, is a presiding justice of the court, and the clerks of the several counties serve as clerks. At least four general terms of the Supreme Court are held in each district every year. Every county has each year at least one special term, and two Cir. cuit Courts. Any three or more of the justices (including one presiding justice) hold the general terms; and any one or more hold the special terms, at which are heard all equity cases, and Circuit Courts, which are held exclusively for the trial of issues of fact.

Justices of the Supreme and Circuit Courts. Justices. Residence. Term expires. Justices. Residence.

Term expires. First District.

Fifth District. E. P. Hurlbut, New York, Dec. 31, 1851. Daniel Pratt, Syracuse, Dec. 31,-1851. J. W. Edmonds, New York, 1853 Philo Gridley, Utica,

1853. H. P. Edwards, New York, 1855. Wm. F. Allen, Oswego,

1855. Wm. Mitchell, New York, 1857. Fred. W. Hubbard, Herkimer,

1857. Second District.

Sixth District. W. T. McCoun, Oyster Bay, 1851. Hiram Gray, Elmira,

1851. Nathan B. Morse, Brooklyn, 1853. Charles Mason, Hamilton,

1853. Seward Barculo, Poughkeepsie,1855. Levinus Munson,* Hobart,Del.Co., “ 1855, John W. Brown, Newburg,

1857. W. H. Shankland, Cortlandville, 1857. Third District.

Seventh District. Ira Harris, Albany,

1851. Henry W. Taylor, Canandaigua, 1851. Malbone Watson, Catskill,

1853. Henry Welles,

Penn Yan,

1853. Amasa J. Parker, Albany, 1855. Samuel L. Seldon, Rochester,

1855. W. B. Wright, Monticello, 1857. Thomas A. Johnson, Corning,

1857. Fourth District.

Eighth District. Alonzo C. Paige, Elizabethtown," 1851. James Mullet, Buffalo,

1851. John Willard, Sarat. Springs, 1853. Seth E. Sill, Buffalo,

1853. Augus. C. Hand, Schenectady, 1855. R. P. Marvin, Jamestown, 1855. Daniel Cady, Johnstown, 1857. James G. Hoyt, Attica,

1857. 4. County or Surrogates' Courts. When the real estate, or all the defendants, or all the parties interested, are in the county, the jurisdiction of the County Courts extends to actions of debt, assumpsit, and covenant, when the debt or damages claimed are not above $ 2,000; to actions for injury to the person or trespass upon property, where the damages are not above $ 500; and to replevia suits, where the property claimed is not above $ 1,000. They have equity jurisdiction for the foreclosure of mortgages; for the sale of the real estate of infants ; for partition of lands; for admeasurement of dower; for the satisfaction of judgments where above $ 75 is due on an unsatisfied execution ; and for the care and custody of lunatics and habitual drunkards. The Surrogates' Courts have the ordinary jurisdiction of courts of probate.

* Appointed by the Governor, in place of Judge Morehouse, deceased. † Appointed by the Governor, in place of Judge Maynard, deceased.

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