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“A very important and interesting experiment was recently made for the purpose of testing the comparative value of the red and the white ash coals for domestic purposes. Two rooms of nearly the same size, and have ing the same temperature, were selected to ascertain how many pounds of each kind would be required to heat them to a temperature of 65 degrees, during a period of 15 hours, when the temperature out of doors at 9 A. M. was at ten degrees below the freezing point. Two days were occupied in the trial, so that the red and the white ash coals might be used in alternate

Fires were made at 9 A. M., and continued until 12 P. M. Two thermometers (one in each room) were suspended at the greatest distance from the grates, and the temperature was carefully registered every hour. The result was as follows:

Thirty-one pounds each day of the Schuylkill red-ash coal gave a mean temperature of 64 degrees; and thirty-seven pounds each day of the whiteash, taken from a vein of high repute in the Lehigh region, gave a mean temperature of 63 degrees ; – making 2,000 pounds of the red-ash to be equal to 2,387 pounds of the white; or red-ash coal at $5.50 per ton to be equal to white-ash at $ 4.61."*

Table I. gives a comparative view of the areas of coal lands, and the production in 1845 of the six principal producing countries. As to the area of coal formations in France, it is to be remarked, that the area of the "concessions," or grants made for working, is all that is given. The amount of coal produced includes 152,900 tons of lignite or brown coal in France, and over 700,000 tons in Prussia. The fourth column gives the relative parts in 1,000 produced by each country.

TABLE 1.1

Official estimated Value at
Square Miles Tons of Fuel Relative
Countries. of Coal For-

the Places of Production.
produced in Parts of
mations.

1,000.

American Pounds Ster-
Dollars.

ling. Great Britain, 11,859 31,500,000 642 45,738,000 9,450,000 Belgium,

518 4,960,077 101 7,689,900 1,660,000 United States, 133,132 4,400,000 89 6,650,000 1,373,963 France,

1,719 4,141,617 84 7,663,000 1,603,106 Prussian States, not defined. 3,500,000 70 4,122,945 856,370 Austrian States,

659,340 14 800,000 165,290 Total,

49,161,034 1,000 72,663,845 15,108,729 Table II. gives an analysis of different kinds of coal, arranged more particularly to show the adaptation of each variety to the manufacture of iron. The difference in the amount of carbon, volatile matter, and ashes is very striking between the bituminous coals and anthracite. Anthracite has now been successfully introduced in the manufacture of iron in Pennsylvania and in South Wales. In 1842, but four furnaces used this coal in Pennsylvania. In 1846, nearly one third of all the iron manufactured in that State was made by anthracite, as may be seen by the following statement:I

1815.

* Taylor, Introduction, p. lx.

Ibid., Introduction, p. XX.

1 Ibid., p. 135.

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Number. Tons made Annually.
Furnaces employing charcoal, 274

248,569
anthracite, 43

119,487 In Swansea Valley, South Wales, there were, in 1847, 23 furnaces using anthracite, producing annually 59,800 tons, while ten years before there were but three or four furnaces.

TABLE II.*

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I. Fat bituminous adhesive coals; the greater part close burning or strong burning, blazing coals.

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America, West Penn., Ohio, Virginia, Ill., Various persons 52.0 14 0 4.0
Newcastle upon Tyne, Birtley, Berthier,

60.5 35.5 4.0 England, A, Northumberland, Tyne works,

67.5 30.0 2.5 Staffordshire, Apdale works,

62.4 34.1 3.5 Wednesbury,

67.5 30.0 2.5 do. B, Derbyshire, Butterley, Cherry,

57.0 40.0 3.0 Codnor Park,soft coal,

151.5 45.5 3.0 Lancashire, cannel-coal, Karsten, 56.0 38 5 5.5 do. C, Scotch,

Lismahago,
Mushet,

39.4 56.6 4.0 Derbyshire, Morely Park,

45.0 45.0 10.0 Anzin,

Berthier, 70.5 25.0 3.5 France, Rive de Gier,

66.5 31.5 2.0 Saint Etienne,

Gruner, 74.3 24.2 1.5 Clyde, splint coal,

Mushet, 59.0 36.8 4.2 clod coal, richest,

70.0 26.5 4.5 Scotland, near Glasgow,

Berthier, 64.4 31.0 4.6 Calder, near Glasgow,

51.0 45.0 4.0 Monkland, near Glasgow,

56.2 42.4 1.4
Pennsylvania, Philipsburg, Johnson, 68.0 22.0 10.0
America,
Karthaus,

68.1 26.8 5.1 Virginia, Richmond,

Clemson,

64 2 26.0 9.8 Illinois, Ottawa,

62.6 35 5 1.9

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II. Dry coals, not very adhesive; can be used crude in the furnace with heated air.

Open burning coals.

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Fraser,

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Dowlais, iron works,

79.5 17.5 3.0 Merthyr Tydvil,

78.4 18.8 2.8 South Per-y-Daran,

Mushet, 86.0 12.0 2.0
IV.
Wales, Aberdare,

Unknown,

87.0 11.5 1.5 Steam coals, very

Rhymney and Tredegar, works, Mushet, 81.0 15.0 4.0 dry coals, with excess Steam coal, Pembrey & Llanelly,

[mean] 80.0 17.0 3.0 of carbon.

Belgium,
Mons, Dour,

Berthier, 85.0 12.7 2.3 Open burning.

France,

Auvergne, Saint Etienne, Gruner, 74.8 21.7 3.5 Semi-bituminous. Dauphin Co., Pa., Ratiling Run, Lea,

76.1 16.9 7.0 Maryland, Savage River, Jackson, America,

177.0 16.0 7.0 Pennsylvania, Blossburg, Clemson, 75.4 16.4 8.21 Broad-top,

70.1 16.7 13.2 South Wales, Neath Valley, Mushet, South

91.0 8.0 1.0 Ystal-y-ferra,

92.5 6.0 1.5 Wales, Cwm Neath,

95.7 2.8/ 1.5 Pennsylvania, Pottsville,

Rogers,

94.1 1.4 4.5 V.

Black Sp. Gap, Lea,

88.6 7.1 4.3 Anthracite. America,

Mauch Chunk, Rogers, 88 5 7.5 4.0

Sugar-loaf, Johnson, 90.7 7.0 2.3 Rhode Island, Portsmouth, Jackson, 85.0 10 0 5.0 Massachusetts, Mansfield,

92.0 6.0 2.0 Russia, Territory of the Don Cossacks, Voskressensky, 94.2| A, Coals which cannot be employed in iron works in the crude state,

B, Coals which cement less in the fire, and which it is practicable to use raw in furnaces worked with heated air. C, Chiefly for illuminating gas.

* Taylor, Introduction, p. i.

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Table III. shows the specific gravity of a great variety of coals. The third column gives the weight per cubic yard of solid coal, — not of coal in its marketable state. It is observable that the specific gravity of any coal increases as the quantity of bitumen decreases. It is also observable of the Pennsylvania coals, that the specific gravity increases in going from west to east.*

It may here be stated, that this table has been somewhat condensed from Mr. Taylor's. Sor of the other tables from the same author have been slightly altered; though it has not been thought necessary to specify these alterations in every case.

TABLE III.

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Specific
Gravity.
Weight of

one cubic
Yard in lbs.

I. BITUMINOUS COAL.

United States.
Pennsylvania,
Virginia,
Ohio,
Kentucky,
Indiana,
Illinois,

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III. ANTHRACITE.

United States. 1.312 2,213 Lyken's Valley,

Pa., 1.327 2,240 1.212 2,095 Lebanon Co., gray vein, 1.379 2,327 1.270 2,140 Schuylkill Co., Lorb'ry c'k," 1.472 2,484 1.250 2,106 Pottsville, Sharp Mount., 1.412 2,332 1.260 2,126

Peach

1.416 2,440 1.273 2,146

Salem vein,

1.574 2,619 Tamaqua vein, N.,

1.600 2.700 Mauch Chunk,

1.550 2.615 11.259 2,125 Nesquehoning,

1.558 2,646 1.299 2,191 Wilkesbarre, best,

1.472 2,484 1.315 2,218 West Mahonoy,

1.371 2,313 1.285 2,166 Beaver Meadow,

1.600 2,700 1.266 2,135 Girardville,

1.600 2,700 Hazelton,

1.550 2,615 Broad Mountain,

1.700 2,869 1 368 2,303 Lackawanna,

1.609 2,715 1.447 2,441 Mansfield, Mass.,

1.710 2,883 1.275 2,151 Portsmouth, R. I.,

1.810 3,054 1.308 2,207

Europe. Swansea, South Wales, 1.263 2,131 1.453 2,452 Ynis-cedwin,

1.354 2,284 1.552 2,619 Ireland,

1.445 2,438 (1.450 2,447 France,

11.400 2,363

Europe.
England,
Scotland,
France,
Belgium,
Silesia,

Asia.
Bengal, Hurdwar,

Chirra Punjee, Assam, Kosya Hills, Aracan,

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II. SEMI-BITUMINOUS COAL.
Pennsylvania,
Maryland,
Tennessee,

Table IV. is taken from Professor Walter R. Johnson's Report to the Navy Department of the United States, on American Coals, as given by Mr. Taylor. This table gives important information relative to the evaporative power of various coals under the same bulk. “In steam navigation,” says Professor Johnson, “ bulk, as well as weight, demands attention; and a difference of twenty per cent., which experiment shows to exist between the highest and the west average weight of a cubic foot of diff

rent coals, assumes a value of no little magnitude. This is obviously true, since, if other things be equal, the length of a voyage must depend on the amount of evaporative power afforded by the fuel which can be stowed in the bunkers of a steamer, always of limited capacity.”

* Taylor, Introduction, p. lviii.

TABLE IV. Adaptation of different Varieties of Coal to the Purposes of Steam Navigation.

Saine Coals.

Classification of Coals in the order of evaporative power under equal bulks, to which is added the relative numerical rank of the same coals under equal weights, also in the order of their specific gravity, and of their marketable weight.

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25

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Pounds of steam from 2120, produc-
ed by one cubic foot of each Coal.
Relative evaporative power for

equal bulks of Coal.
In the order of evaporative pow.

er under equal weights. In the order of their specific

gravity.

the marketable state.

-88Drow GE***********S65 8800 x was not co 88T XE - In the order of their weight in

Names and Localities.

State, County, or
Country:

Quality. 1 Alkinson's Cumberland, Maryland, Dry bituminous, 566.21 000 1 29 21 2 Beaver Mead., Slope, V., Pennsylvania, Anth'ite, white-ash, 556.1 .982 7 3 1 3 Peach Mountain, Schuylkill Co., Pa., red-ash, 545.7 .964 3 6 11 4 Forest Improvement,

white-ash, 540.8.955 4 5 13 5 Easby's Cumberland, Maryland, Dry bituminous, 535.6 .946 6 21 23 6N. Y. and Maryland Co., Cumberland, Md., Dry free burning, 524.8 .927 9 9 12 7 Queen's Run,

Clinton Co., Pa., Moderately bitum., 517.0913 2 22 28 8 Blossburg, Tioga Co., Pa..

515.9 .911 10 9 Neft's Cumberland, Maryland, Free burn'g bitum., 512.7) 906 12 20 9 10 Easby's "coal in store." Cumberland, Md.,

511.1 .903 5 30 16 11 Beaver Meadow, No. 3, Pennsylvania, Anth'ite, white-ash, 505.5 .893 15 1 5 12 Navy Yard.

500.0 .883 18

4 13 Mixture 1-5 Cumb. and 4-5 Beaver Meadow,

Mixed,

498 5.880 16 14 Lehigh,

Pennsylvania, Anth'ite,white-ash. 494.0.872 23 2 3 115 Ralston,

Lycoming Co., Pa., Moderately bituin., 193.3 .871 24 16 2 16 Summit Portage, Cambria Co., Pa., Bituminous,

486.9.860 14 12 17 17 Mixture 1-5 Mid-Lothian and 4-5 Beav. Meadow,

Mixed,
1481.1 .850 25

8 18 Barr's Deep Run, Near Richm’d., Va., Bituminous, 478.7 .845 19 17 19 19 Lackawanna,

Pennsylvania, Anth'ite,white-ash. 477.7| .844 8 10 30 20 Karthaus,

Moderately bitum.. 477.4 .843 17 34 22 21 Stony Creek, Persever. ance Seam,

Dauphin Co., Pa., Semi-bituminous, 472.8 .835 13 8 26 22 Lyken's Valley,

Anthracite,

1459.71.812 il 15 31 23 Pictou,

Nova Scotia, Bituminous, 450.6 .796 33 28 15 21 Mid-Lothian average, Richmond, Va.,

448.5 .792 35 31 10 25 Crouche's pits,

445.0 .785 34 7 14 26 Newcastle,

England,
Fat bituminous,

439.6 .776 27 38 25 27 Mid-Lothian, 900 ft. sh'ft,|Virginia,

Bituminous, 433.7 .766 29 13 27 28 new shaft,

418.6.739 26 24 32 29 Pictou, Cunard's, Nova Scotia,

417.9 .738 30 23 29 30 Chesterfield Company, Richmond, Va.,

1110 91 .726 20 32 40 31 Mid-Lothian screened,

408.7 .722 22 35 39 32 Natural Coke,

395.3 .698 31 26 37 33 Creek Company, IChesterfild Co., Va.,

391.8 .692 32 27 38 34 Pittsburg,

Pennsylvania, Fat bituminous, 384.1.67 36 39 36 35 Sydney,

Cape Breton, Bituminous, 378.9 .669 37 19 35 36 Liverpool,

England,

Fat bituminous, 375.4.663 38 37 33 37 Scotch,

Scotland,

Bituminous, 353.8 .625 42 4 24 38 Tippecanoe, Near Petersb'g, Va.,

350.2.618 39 18 42 39 Cannelton,

Indiana,
Cannel,

348.8 .616 41 36 34 40 Clover Hill,

Richmond, Va., Bituminous, 347.4.614 40 33 41 41 Coke of Cumberland coal Maryland, Coke,

284.0 .502 21 44 42 Coke of Richmond coal, Virginia,

282.6 .499 28 43 43 Dry Pine Wood,

98.61 .175 43 40 45 There are some discrepancies between the columns. Thus, in the last column, the num. bers 7 and 18 are not found, and the numbers 44 and 45 are found, though not in the first column.

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Table V. is also taken from Professor Johnson's Report. Forty-two different kinds of coal were the subjects of experiment, and this table exhibits the relative rank of six principal varieties of bituminous coal.

TABLE V.*

Nova Scotia

or Pictou. Rank of Coals, according to the several Practical Charac

ters, out of Forty-two Varieties.

Mining As-
sociation.

Sydney.
Pennsylvania,

terfield. E ver Cape Breton or

| Virginia, ChesAS 8- Cunard's.

voor Queen's Run. 66 SOY Liverpool.

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Arrangement in the order of
Their rapidity of ignition,

6
completeness of combustion,
evaporative power under equal bulks,

29
evaporative power of the combustible matter, 31
freedom from waste in burning,

33 freedom from tendency to form clinker,

41 maximum evaporative power under given bulks, 30 maximum rapidity of evaporation,

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23 30 37 40 23 25

13 16 30 23 20 28 32 1

$ 237

Table VI. shows the importations of coal from Great Britain, British America, and all other places, into the United States. Mr. Taylor has three tables on this subject, from which this table compiled. It is impossible to reconcile the discrepancies which these tables contain. In 1843, for instance, one table gives the gross importation as stated below; another makes it 75,103 tons; yet opposite to this is given the gross value as $116,312, and the value per ton as $2.83, evidently contradictory statements.

TABLE VI.
Year.
Total Impor. Av’age Value per Ton

Year.

Total Impor: Av’age Value per Tony tation in Tons. at the Shipping Ports. tation in Tons. at the Shipping Ports. 1830 58,582

$ 3.49

1840 163,510 1831 36,509

1841 155,394

237 1832 83,144

1842 141,521

2.68 1833 92,432

2.61
1843 41,163

2.83 1834 91,632

2.18
1844 87,073

2.72 1835 59,972

2.39
1845 85,776

2.60 1836 108,432

2.27
1846 156,853

2.41 1837 153,450

2.36
1847 148,021

2.50 1838 129,083

2.40
1848 196,251

2.76 1839 181,551

2.29

1849 Table VII. is taken from the American Railroad Journal. It exhibits the production of Pennsylvania anthracite from the beginning of the trade in 1820 to 1849, and shows how rapidly this fuel, at first despised as worthless, has risen to its present important position among the products of American industry. The column of totals, after the year 1834, includes, besides the product of the fivè localities in the table, a considerable amount from Pine Grove and Lyken’s Valley.

* Taylor, p. 124.

† Ibid., pp. 12 - 14.

1 Vol. V. p. 198, and Vol. VI. p. 37.

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