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printed alongside of each other. There have not been any other bills proposed, as far as I am advised.

I desire to have printed also the act of May 8, 1792, entitled "An act more effectually to provide for the national defense by establishing an uniform militia throughout the United States," in order to show that the subject of universal military training-or probably it might be better to say compulsory military service-is not new in this country. This act, adopted shortly after the Revolution, in view of the inherent weaknesses of the militia system as disclosed by that war, remained in effect until repealed in 1903.

At the last meeting of the Military Affairs Committee a subcommittee of three was appointed to hold these hearings and report the testimony and the form of bill, if they should agree upon any, to the full committee for action when the report has been made. It is in pursuance of this order of the committee, and of these several pending measures that this meeting is held this morning. The subcommittee desires to give all who desire to be heard, as far as it can reasonably be done within the time we have for this hearing, an opportunity to be heard by the subcommittee.

(The papers referred to by the chairman are here printed in full as follows:)

CHAMBERLAIN BILL AS ORIGINALLY INTRODUCED IN THE SENATE.

8. 1695. A BILL To provide for the military and naval training of the citizen forces of the United States

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That all able-bodied male inhabitants of the United States who have resided within the continental limits thereof for the period of twelve months who are citizens of the United States or who have declared their intentions to become citizens of the United States shall be liable to be trained between' the ages of twelve and twenty-three years, inclusive, as prescribed: Provided, That the following persons shall be exempt from the training prescribed in this act so long as the condition or status on which exemption is based continues: (a) Those who may be reported by the prescribed medical authorities as being physically unfit for any naval or military service whatever; (b) members of the permanent military or naval forces of the United States; (c) school-teachers who have duly qualified and are employed at a school of military or naval instruction or other prescribed course, as instructors or officers of the citizen cadet corps; (d) persons employed in the police or prison service of the United States, or of the several States, and of the several cities thereof; (e) those morally unfit; (f) members of any well-recogitized religious sect or organization, at present organized and existing, whose creed forbids its members to participate in war in any form—whose religious convictions are against war or participation therein, in accordance with the creed of said religious organization (the exemption of this class, however, to include only such portion of the prescribed training as requires the bearing or use of arms); (h) mariners actually employed in the sea service of the United States, or of any of the States, or of any citizen or merchant within the United States; (i) those excused by the President in the interests of the public service by reason of employment therein; (j) temporary exemptions for periods not exceeding one year, and renewable from time to time, will be granted to persons whose compulsory attendance at the prescribed training would impose great hardships, either by reason of excessive distance or other cause: Provided, That the district commandant of each training district shall have the power to issue permanent and temporary certificates of exemption for the above-mentioned causes: Provided further, What in cases where a permanent or temporary certificate of exemption is denied by the district commandant, an appeal may be taken to the United States district court or judge thereof nearest the permanent office of the district commandant: Provided further, That in all cases where an exemption is applied for the burden of proof of the existence of cause for exemption shall be on the applicant, and in all cases of appeal from a. denial of such permanent or temporary exemption the burden of proving the exemption shall rest on the person claiming the same.

Sec. 2. That all persons trained under the provisions of this act shall be known and designated as follows: (a) Between the ages of twelve and seventeen years, inclusive, as the Citizen Cadet Corps; (b) between the ages of eighteen and twenty-three years, inclusive, as the Citizen Army

Sec. 3. That the training of the members of the Citizen Cadet Corps shall be divided into three periods, as follows: (a) The first period shall commence on the first day of July in the year in which the persons liable reach the age of twelve years and shall continue for two years. This training shall consist of not less than ninety hours in each year, terminating on the thirtieth day of June, and shall be devoted during this period to calisthenics and such other physical and military instruction, without arms as may be prescribed: Provided, That in the case of persons who reach the age of thirteen years in the year in which this act becomes effective, the training for this class of persons shall commence on the first day of July of that year and continue for one year; (b) the training in the second period shall begin on the first day of July in which the person is liable reach the age of fourteen years, and shall continue for two years. The training during this period shall be not less than ninety hours in each year, ending the thirtieth day of June, and shall include military training with the rifle, including gallery practice: Provided, That for persons who reach the age of fifteen in the year in which this act becomes effective the training shall begin on the first day of July of that year and continue for one year; (c) the training in the third period shall begin on the first day of July in the year in which the persons liable reach the age of sixteen years, and shall continue for two years. The training during this period shall be not less than ninety hours, and in addition thereto ten whole days in camp in each year, ending the thirtieth day of June. The training during this period shall include field exercises and target practice, in addition to other training that may be prescribed: Provided, That in the case of persons who reach the age of seventeen years in the year in which this act becomes effective the training shall begin on the first day of July in that year and continue for one year,

Sec. 4. That the training for members of the Citizen Army shall be not less than one hundred and twenty hours, or twenty whole days, in each year, commencing on the first day of July and ending on the following thirtieth day of June, and shall continue for six years, and not less than ten whole days in each year shall be in camp of continuous training.

Sec. 5. That the training hereinabove provided for the third period of the Citizen Cadet ('orps and for the (itizen Army may be given in daily periods or it may be given in whole-day drills of not less than six hours, in half-day drills of not less than three hours, or in night drills of not less than one hour and a half: Provided, That this shall affect in no manner the prescribed days of consecutive training in camps of continuous training.

Sec. 6. That the members of the Citizen Army shall be allotted to the various arms, corps, and departments in such numbers as may be necessary for tactical organization.

Sec, 7, That those liable to military training who, on arrival at eighteen years of age, elect to enter the Citizen Navy shall undergo training for not less than the number of hours prescribed for training of members of the Citizen Army, and that this training shall include instruction aboard ship for a period not less than that prescribed for training of members of the Citizen Army in camps of continuous instruction.

SEC. 8. That the training prescribed by this act for the Citizen (adet ('orps and for the citizen Army and Citizen Navy may be given in public and private schools, academies, colleges, and universities, in the Organized Militia or Naval Militia of the several States, in organizations of Boy Scouts or similar organizations, provided that it conforms to the prescribed training for the corresponding years, is of equal annual duration, and is so certified by the district commandant of the district in which such Instruction is imparted.

Sec. 9. That all persons liable to training for the Citizen Army under this act shall, upon reaching the age of twenty-four years and having satisfactorily completed the prescribed training, become members of the Citizen Army Reserve without further training: Provided, That all persons liable to this training who have reached the age of twenty-one years in or before the year in which this act becomes effective shall, without training, become members of the Citizen Army Reserve, unless they elect to undergo such training: Provided further, That at the termination of each annual training period in the Citizen (adet (orps and in the (itizen Army or Navy each member shall be classified by the officers charged with that duty as efficient or nonefficient. Those classified as nonefficient either by reason of failure to attend during the prescribed period or because they have not attained a sufficient standard of efficiency shall be required to attend an equivalent additional period of training for each year in which they are rated as nonefficient.

SEC. 10. That every person who, without lawful excuse, fails to register or who evades or fails to render the personal service required by this act shall, unless and until he has performed equivalent personal service as prescribed, be and remain ineligible for employment in any position of trust and profit created and authorized by the Congress of the United States.

Sec. 11. That every person who in any year, without lawful excuse, fails to register or who evades or fails to render the personal service required by this act shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor and shall, in addition to the liability under section nine of this act, be liable to a fine of not to exceed $500 or to be confined for twenty days, or both: Provided, That in fixing the amount of the fine due regard shall be had to the means of the person offending and those of his parents: Provided further, That any person committed to the custody of a prescribed authority in pursuance of this section may be detained by that authority at any prescribed institution or place, and while so detained shall be subject to the regulations governing that institution or place and to training and discipline as prescribed.

SEC. 12. That no employer shall prevent, or attempt to prevent, any employee who is serving or liable to serve in the Citizen Cadet Corps, or in the Citizen Army or Navy, from registering or rendering the personal service required of him, or from attending any camp of instruction appointed to be held by proper authority, and no employer shall in any way penalize or prejudice in his employment, or attempt to penalize or prejudice in his employment, any employee for rendering, or being liable to render, such personal service, or för attending such camp either by reducing his wages or dismissing him from employment, or in any other manner: Provided, That this section shall not be construed to require an employer to pay an employee for any time when he is absent from employment for the purpose of training.

Sec. 13. That any person or corporation found guilty of violating any of the provisions of section twelve of this act shall be punished by a fine of not less than $50 nor more than $500: Provided, That in any proceedings for any violation of section twelve of this act the burden of proof shall be upon the employer to show that any employee proved to have been dismissed or to have been penalized or prejudiced in his employment or to have suffered a reduction of wages was so dismissed, penalized, or prejudiced in his employment or reduced for some reason other than having rendered or being liable to render the personal service required of him or attending the camp of instruction.

Sec. 14. That every person liable to training in the Citizen Cadet Corps or the Citizen Army or Navy who (a) fails without lawful excuse to attend a compulsory drill or instruction or (b) commits a breach of discipline while attending the same shall be guilty of a misdemeanor and shall be liable to a penalty not exceeding $25: Provided, That any penalty under this section may be recovered summarily on the information or complaint of a prescribed officer: Provided further, That in fixing the amount of the penalty the court shall have due regard to the means of the person offending and those of his parents: And provided further, That in addition to any penalty imposed or (where in the opinion of the court or the judge the imposition of a penalty would involve undue hardship) in lieu of imposing any penalty the court or judge may, if he deems it proper, commit the offender to the custody of any prescribed authority for such time, not exceeding twenty days, or for a time corresponding in duration to the time which, in the opinion of the court or judge, would be taken up in rendering the personal service required: And provided further, That it shall not be'necegsary for this confinement to be continuous, but the person having the custody of the offender may, subject to prescribed regulations, release him for such periods and call upon him to return to custody at such times as he sees fit, in order that the offender may follow his occupation: And provided further, That any person detained in any prescribed institution or place in pursuance of this section who escapes therefrom, or who being released from custody fails to return thereto, may be arrested without warrant by any prescribed person and taken back to the institution or place, and may, on the application of any prescribed officer, be ordered by any court of summary jurisdiction to be detained for such additional period, not exceeding twenty days, as the court deems fit to order: Provided, That the averment of the prosecutor of any offender of the Citizen Cadet Corps that he is duly authorized by the constituted authority to bring the prosecution shall be sufficient and shall not be controverted by the court or by the defendant.

Sec. 15. That a person liable to be trained for the Citizen Cadet Corps shall not be committed to jail in default of a pecuniary penalty imposed in this act or of any costs awarded in the proceedings for any such offense, but, in lieu thereof, a court may order that he be committed to the custody of a prescribed authority for such time, not exceeding the time for which the court could but for this section have committed him to jail in default of payment of the pecuniary penalty imposed or costs awarded, as the court deems fit: Provided, That the total duration of confinement of a person in respect of offenses committed in any one year or of costs awarded in proceedings for such offenses shall not exceed sixty days: Provided further, That in places where children's courts exist offenses against this act committed by citizen members of the Citizen Cadet Corps of the first and second periods shall be prosecuted in such courts as far as may be practicable.

Sec. 16. That no person shall be permitted to serve in the Citizen Cadet Corps or in the Citizen Army or Navy who is found by any court duly appointed for that purpose to have been convicted of any disgraceful or infamous crime or to be of notoriously bad character: Prorided, That any member of the Citizen Cadet Corps or of the Citizen Army or Navy who shall have been convicted of any disgraceful or infamous crime shall be dishonorably discharged from the service therein and shall not be eligible thereafter to hold any position of trust or profit created or authorized by the Congress of the United States.

Sec. 17. That each congressional district and the District of Columbia shall constitute a registration and training district, and in each such district units of the Citizen Cadet Corps and of the Citizen Army shall be organized and trained, and for the purpose of registration, organization, and training each of said ditricts shall be under the charge of an officer of the Regular Army, designated for the purpose, who shall have an office permanently located in the district and who shall be assisted by the necessary commissioned and enlisted personnel and by such other assistants as are duly authorized herein as instructors for imparting the prescribed training.

Sec. 18. That every male citizen, and those whose parents have declared their intention to become citizens, of each training district shall, upon arriving at theage of twelve years, be registered in the office of the district commandant of the district in which he resides. Such registration shall be made in the form and in the manner prescribed by the Secretary of War. Changes of address, removals from a district, and entrances into another district shall, within thirty days after such change, be recorded in the office of the district commandant of the districts concerned in the form and manner prescribed by the Secretary of War. The first registration under this act shall begin on the first day of January following the passage of the act, and thereaiter all males arriving at the age of twelve years during the year presceding the first day of January shall be registered during the months of January and February.

Sec. 19. That there shall be established in or contiguous to each training district one or more training centers, under such regulations as the Secretary of War may prescribe. And there shall be established such training centers for naval training as the Secretary of the Navy may prescribe.

SEC. 20. That all persons liable to training in the Citizen Army or Navy shall, before entering upon such training, be examined for physical fitness, and shall take the oath of allegiance to the United States as prescribed for enlisted men of the Regular Army and Navy.

SEC. 21. That the President is authorized to mobilize the Citizen Army and Navy in time of war or threatened war, insurrection, or rebellion, or when the public safety demands it.

Sec. 22. That officers and noncommissioned officers in the Citizen Cadet Corps shall be appointed by the district commandants, under such regulations as the Secretary of War may prescribe. They shall not bear commissions or warrants.

SEC. 23. That the President shall appoint and commission officers in the (itizen Army, in the Citizen Navy, and in their reserves as hereinafter provided:

Beginning from the first day of January after the passage of this act all appointments and commissions of officers in the Citizen Army and Navy shall be provisional, and shall continue in force, unless vacated by promotion or otherwise terminated by law, for a period of three years.

For one year, beginning with the first day of January after the passage of this act, provisional appointments and commissions shall be to the grades of captain, first lieutenant, and second lieutenant in the organizations herein authorized.

Two years from the first day of January after the passage of this act provisional appointments and commissions shall be to the grades of major, captain, first lieutenant, and second lieutenant in the organization herein authorized.

Three years from the first day of January after the passage of this act provisional appointments shall be to the grades of colonel, lieutenant colonel, major, captain, first lieutenant, and second lieutenant in the organizations herein authorized; and thereafter shall be to all the grades enumerated in this section: Provided, That in time of war or imminent danger appointments and commissions to all grades may be made as authorized by law for the armies of the United States.

Four years from the first day of January after the passage of this act the President is authorized to make original permanent appointments and commission officers to vacancies in organizations of the Citizen Army and Navy and in their reserves then existing, under such regulations as he may prescribe as to physical and mental requirements, grade for grade, from the officers then holding provisional appointments in these forces: Provided, That in case of failure of any officer to meet the prescribed requirements he shall, (a) upon the recommendation of the examining board, pass immediately to the reserve with the rank held by him at the time of the examination; (b) upon the recommendation of the board, be honorably discharged from the service: Provided, That for cause the President may revoke the appointment of any commissioned officer of the Citizen Army or Navy and of their reserves.

Original provisional appointments to the grades enumerated in this section shall, under such regulations as the President may prescribe as to age, mental and physical requirements, and previous military service, be from (a) those who have had previous service as officers of the Regular Army or Navy; (b) graduates of institutions having satisfactory military or naval training; (c) those who have had service as officers in the Organized Militia or Naval Militia of the United States; (d) enlisted men of the Regular Army or Navy and those who have served therein; (e) those who have satisfactorily completed training in the Citizen Cadet Corps.

Promotion of officers holding provisional appointments shall be under such regulations as the President may prescribe.

SEC. 24. That all vacancies existing in the organizations of the Citizen Army and Navy and their reserves four years from the first day of January after the passage of this act, not filled as hereinbefore prescribed, all vacancies occurring thereafter, and all vacancies caused by the organization of new units, except in the grade of second lieutenant, shall be filled from officers of the next lower grade of the arm of the service in the district in which the vacancies occur, under such regulations as to examination as the President may prescribe: Provided, That seniority to be given to an officer on promotion shall be determined by his order of merit in the examination for promotion to that rank.

Sec. 25. That the President is authorized, under such regulations as he may prescribe, to appoint and commission officers to the grade of second lieutenant of the Citizen Army and Navy from

(a) Graduates of institutions having military or naval training.

(b) Those who have had commissioned or enlisted service in the Regular Army or Navy and suitable enlisted men serving therein.

(c) Those who have had commissioned or enlisted service in the Militia or Naval Militia and those who are serving therein.

(d) Those who have completed the Citizen Cadet Corps training and the first year of training in the Citizen Army or Navy.

(e) Those who have served in military organizations not mentioned herein who demonstrate their fitness for such commissions.

Sec. 26. That the President is hereby authorized to call into the service of the United States such members of the Medical Reserve Corps, and for such periods of time, as may be necessary to exercise proper sanitary supervision of training centers and training camps, and to make the necessary physical examinations of persons liable to be trained in the Citizen Cadet Corps, in the Citizen 'Army and Navy, and in their reserves.

Sec. 27. That nothing contained in this act shall prevent any member of the Citizen Army or Navy from enlisting or accepting a commission in the Regular Army or Navy, or in the militia or volunteer forces when called into the service of the United States.

Sec. 28. That under such regulations as the Secretary of War may prescribe, noncommissioned officers in the Citizen Army and its reserves shall be appointed: (a) By district commandants for companies, troops, batteries, and detachments of the several staff corps under their command which are not a part of any permanently organized battalion, squadron, or regiment; (b) by battalion and squadron commanders for companies, troops, or batteries which are not a part of any permanently organized regiment; (c) by regimental or coast-defense commanders.

Sec. 29. That under such regulations as the Secretary of the Navy shall prescribe, warrant officers and petty officers of the Citizen Navy and its reserves shall be appointed by the commanding officers of vessels on which such members of the Citizen Navy may be serving, or by the commandant of navy yards or naval reservations to which such members of the Citizen Navy may be assigned.

SEC. 30. That persons trained in the ('itizen Cadet Corps or the Citizen Army and the reserves thereof may, when called into the service of the United States by the President, be assigned to active service with the Marine Corps of the Navy when the public interests demand such assignment.

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