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that all male citizens between the ages of 12 and 50 years are liable to training for military or naval service. I agree with the classes to be exempted except as follows: I do not believe the class of persons mentioned in (j) should be exempt.
Reasons: I do not believe the Government should be restricted to training only those between the ages of 12 and 23. All between the ages of 12 and 50 should be made available and the Government should be given the right to select such as it desires to train. In any one year it may not desire any and on the other hand it may desire and need all able-bodied males of military age. This exemption (j) opens the way for much favoritism and politics and may lead to exempting citizens with influence. As a means of national defense, all aliens should be registered. The Government should know what aliens reside within its borders, who they are, and what their business is, and it should be able to control them to a certain extent in time of national danger.
Section 2: All citizens between the ages of 18 and 32 years should be included in ib). All citizens between the ages of 33 and 50, whether or not they have been trained should be included in (c).
Section 3: The period of training 6 months is entirely inadequate. I think this training should consist of a minimum of 12 months' continuous training, and, in addition thereto, training during such maneuver periods as the President may order pursuant to the provisions of section 21 of this act.
Reasons: If we are going to train our citizens for military or naval service, why not train them to make efficient soldiers and sailors? Why train them partially? I do not believe that under the provisions of this bill effective soldiers or sailors can be made in six months. Such a short period of training can only be based upon the azumption that a perfect organization exists for training and that all necessary trained instructors are available. Such can hardly be the case under this system. The "Statement of a proper military policy" prescribes 12 months as the minimum period of training necessary to make a soldier.
Section 9: I do not think a citizen who has completed the prescribed training should be passed to the Citizen Reserve at the age of 24. They should be held in the Citizen Army until 32. They need not be given additional training unless desired.
Section 11: In addition to the fine imposed the boy between the ages of 12 and 18 should be held for service and required to undergo the training prescribed.
Section 14: I believe this section should also provide not to exceed 3 months' imprisonment in addition to the fine.
Section 17: Provision is only made for the registration of citizens upon arriving at the age of 12 years. If this bill passes no citizen over 12 years of age will be registered. All citizens between the ages of 12 and 50 years who are males should be registered and subsequently each year all who arrive at the age of 12.
Section 26: I do not believe members of the Citizen Army or Navy should be permitted to enlist in the Militia or Volunteer Forces. Section 33: I do not approve of sec. 33. It should be eliminated from the bill.
W. T. MERRY, Captain General Staff".
Washington, February 19, 1916,
and naval training of the citizen forces of the United States, introduced by Mr. Chamberlain, chairman (ommittee on Military Affairs, United States Senate. The Mobile Army Division of the General Staff unanimously indorses the vital basic principle of universal training in peace and service in war, which this bill embodies
It is the consensus of the military opinion of the world, in which our General Staff has concurred, that tuo years of intensive training is the minimum required for the thorough disciplining and training of a soldier, and our General Staff held in the policy report of September 11 that one year intensive training is required before soldiers should be sent into battle, and has recommended in that report a minimum training of nine months be given to our troops that are to constitute the second line whose additional three months' training is to be completed aiter war is declared.
In policy report of September 11, after showing what the preparedness of the great powers for over-sea expeditions was in 1914, the General Staff held that the minimum number of troops needed by the United States was 1,000,000—500,000 thoroughly trained troops with a minimum of two years' training and 500,000 partially trained troops with a minimum of nine months' training. The report clearly pointed out that two expeditions alone would provide a force large enough to cope with our 1,000,000 mobile troops. No one can thoughtfully study the policy report without agreeing that the number mentioned above and that the training specified above is the irreducible minimum. The Mobile Army Division concurs in the revision of the bill herewith made by the War College Division of the General Staff, with the distinct understanding that we must have in our first line a minimum of 500,000 thoroughly trained troops—that is, with an average period of training of not less than two years, and that the troops that will be provided by the provisions of this act are to be considered second-line troops that must complete their training after war has been declared.
The bill as originally drawn provides for a total of approximately 1,400 hours' training spread over the period included in the years from 12 to 23, inclusive, and follows very closely in its provisions the universal system of training provided by Australia. The distribution of periods for training provided in the bill is as follows:
The War College in its revision has changed the period of training for the Citizen Army given above to six months continuous training to be given in any year between the ages of 18 and 23.
The Mobile Army Division unanimously concurs in this change in its application to boys who have received the cadet training, but unanimously recommends that those who will fail to receive the cadet training, due to living in sparsely settled districts, where the hardship imposed on the individual or the cost to the Government would be too great to give the prescribed cadet training, should receive the minimum of nine months as laid down in the policy report of September 11. This proviso would recognize the value of the cadet training and, at the same time, provide an automatic penalty for those who failed to take the cadet training provided in the bill.
As pointed out by the Judge Advocate General, in his report on this bill, one of the primary defects in the bill as originally drawn, was that it sought to establish Federal military training and to punish evasions of training and infractions of discipline through the medium of civil courts, the character of which, whether State or Federal, was not prescribed. In other words, it sought to establish universal military training without giving to the persons charged with the duty of conducting it such authority as would be necessary to maintain discipline and enforce the provisions of the bill. Since the offenses would be violations of the United States statutes only, they would be cognizable only by United States courts, and the attempt to give State and municipal courts jurisdiction is contrary to existing decisions that this can not be done.
The War College in its revision partially remedies the defect pointed out by the Judge Advocate General by giving courts-martial jurisdiction over any person liable for service in the Citizen Army who, without lawful excuse, evades or fails to render the personal service required by the act. For the offense of failing to register on the part of a person liable to service in the Citizen Army, or for neglect or connivance on the part of parents or guardians in permitting boys under their charge to evade service in the Citizen Cadet Corps, the United States district court will have jurisdiction. As the trial of cases in these courts by reason of their distance from the centers of training will cause great expense to the Government for the transportation of witnesses, etc., and due to the congestion of cases cause unusual delay and inconvenience in awarding punishment which should be summary in character, the suggestion of the Judge Advocate General. that in addition to giving courts-martial jurisdiction, the jurisdiction of United States district court commissioners should be extended for the trial of cases under this act not subject to the jurisdiction of courts-martial, with the
right of appeal on the part of the United States or the individual concerned to the United States district court, is concurred in by the Mobile Army Division.
The enactment of this bill with revision as recommended above, and by the War College Division, is earnestly recommended.
Major General, General Staff, Chief Mobile Army Division. (The letter of the Secretary of War transmitting the memoranda and other data and the draft of an act providing for a system of national defense based upon universal liability to military service and training are here printed in full as follows:)
Washington, D. (., February 23, 1917. MY DEAR SENATOR: On the 19th day of December, 1916, Maj. Gen. Hugh L. Scott, Chief of Staff, United States Army, discussed before the Committee on Military Affairs of the Senate certain suggested bills for the purpose of carrying into effect liability to universal military training in the l'nited States. He was asked to embody the vews expressed by him in a bill for the consideration of your committee. Gen. Scott had, in October, directed the War College Division of the General Staff to study and prepare in detail such a bill, and immediately after the hearing, with my approval, he directed the War College to proceed with all possible speed to comply with your request. Such delay as bas ensued will not be thought unnatural when the size of the task is considered and the relatively small number of men available for this and the ordinary labors of the War College Division.
Pursuant to your request, I have the honor to hand you the following papers:
Three memoranda from the War College Division of the General Staff, discussing various aspects of the subject of a system of national defense based upon liability to universal military training and service.
A draft of an act providing for a system of national defense based upon universal liability to military service and training.
A memorandum from the War College Division on the subject of a proper military policy for the United States.
Cetrain extracts from the testimony of Maj. Gen. Hugh L. Scott before the Senate Committee on Military Affairs.
A table showing the strength and organization of the land forces of the C'nited States under the plan proposed in the War College Division draft.
A table showing the estimated cost of the Military Establishment proposed in the National Army plan.
A memorandum prepared by the president of the War College showing a comparison of costs of training troops under different plans and a discussion of the minimum time required for proper training.
For some time Congress has been considering the military policy and establishment of the country. Various plans of enlargement and reorganization have been considered, and in June of last year there was passed the nationaldefense act, popularly known as the plan of federalizing the militia of the States into a National Guard which would be more intimately associated with the Regular Army, and, by virtue of a more intensive system of training, would prove a better secondary reliance than it had previously been. Discussion of the subject, however, has continued, and throughout the country much attention has been given to general ideas of universal compulsory training and service. So far as I am aware, the study here presented from the War College is the first attempt to present those ideas in a comprehensive and detailed form, to show the number of men who would be thus trained, the exemptions, the investment, and the continuing annual cost.
This plan is regarded by the military experts of the General Staff as ideal. They recognize, however, that it involves not only a radical departure from the military traditions of the country, but that it presents a vast scheme of organization far larger, both in cost and results, than anything yet seriously considered by the people of the United States. The General Staff believe the plan, however, to have this merit: That it can be used, in part, for the training of a less number of men, and at a less cost in proportion, so that, should the opinion of the country--when thoroughly informed-come to favor the
principles upon which this measure is based, its application could be as rapid or as gradual as the Congress may determine wise under the circumstances.
The bill here transmitted looks to the annual training of about 500,000 men, who, when trained, pass into the reserve until ultimately there will be available an aggregate force in the active and reserve force of the country of about 3,000,000 men. The War College will place itself at your disposal, either to study any other suggested plan or to advise upon modifications of the draft herewith transmitted should your committee desire such modifications in any of the details.
This draft is not transmitted with the thought that the present Congress, in its closing days, will find it possible to give thorough consideration to so large and intricate a matter, but rather in the hope that by its publication all the details of the plan can be made available for the general information of the country at large, and with the feeling that the more or less undefined ideas which have been so widely discussed throughout the country can, on the basis of this orderly statement, be maturely considered. In this way the effect of the proposal upon our preparation for national defense, as well as upon the life and institutions of the country, may be weighed, to the end that both Congress and the War Department can, in any subsequent consideration given to the subject, have the benefit of an enlightened, thoughtful, public opinion upon the needs and wishes of the country.
The questions at issue in any such project as this a re to measure, first, the prospective need of the country, and then to determine the measures appropriate to meet it. The plan is, therefore, to be examined from both points of view, and its discussion throughout the country will throw light on both questions. As yet I am not prepared to say officially for the War Department that the need of the country can reasonably be said to be for so great an establishment; nor can we yet, without further study and deliberation, be confident that the means suggested are the most appropriate to the need which it shall be determined wise to foresee.
I, therefore, venture to suggest that the papers herewith transmitted be authorized to be published for distribution. Respectfully, yours,
NEWTON D. BAKER,
Secretary of War. Hon. GEORGE E. CHAMBERLAIN, Chairman of the Committee on Jilitary Affairs,
United States Senate.
DRAFT OF AN ACT FOR PROVIDING A SYSTEM OF NATIONAL DEFENSE BASED UPON
UNIVERSAL LIABILITY TO MILITARY TRAINING AND SERVICE, AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES.
Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatires of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That the land forces of the United States shall consist of the l'nited States Army. All male citizens of the United States between the ages of eighteen and forty-five years, all males between the ages of twenty-one and forty-five years who have legally declared their intentions to become citizens, and all males between the ages of eighteen and twenty-one years whose parents have been naturalized shall be liable for military service in the United States Army, Navy, or Marine Corps, except as provided otherwise in this act, when called out by the President for military service in accordance with the provisions of this act; and from and after the date of any such call until such time as they shall be released from such service by competent authority all persons included in such call shall be subject to the Rules and Articles of War so far as they shall be applicable to persons whose permanent retention in the United States Army is not contemplated.
SEC. 2. COMPOSITION OF THE U'XTIED STATES ARMY.--The United States Army shall consist of over-sea garrisons, the frontier forces, the training forces, the first reserves, the second reserves, the unorganized reserves, the brigade, division, Army corps, and Army headquarters, with their detachments and troops, a General Staff Corps, an Adjutant General's Department, an Inspector General's Department, a Judge Advocate General's Department, a Quartermaster Corps, a Medical Department, a Corps of Engineers, an Ordnance Department, a Signal Corps, the officers of the Bureau of Insular Affairs, the detached officers and chaplains, all organized as hereinafter provided, and the following as now authorized by law: The officers and enlisted men on the retired list; the additional officers; the professors, the Corps of Cadets, the general Army service detachment, and detachments of Cavalry, Field Artillery, and Engineers, and the band of the United States Military Academy; the post noncommissioned staff officers; the recruiting parties, the recruit depot detachments, and unassigned recruits; the service-school detachments; the disciplinary guards; the disciplinary organizations; the Indian Scouts; and such other officers and enlisted men as are now or may be hereafter provided by law.
SEC. 3. The United States Army shall include a permanent and a temporary personnel. The permanent personnel shall include officers, enlisted men, and civilians. The officers of the permanent personnel shall include all persons who, on the date of the passage of this act, held commissions or appointments in the Regulary Army and such other persons who shall, in accordance with the provisions of this act, be hereafter appointed or commissioned either permanently or provisionally in such personnel, and the temporary second lieutenants appointed pursuant to section forty of this act: Provided, That the term “ permanent” is employed in this act in connection with the personnel of the several staff corps and departments solely to distinguish the officers and enlisted men permanently belonging thereto and officers of the line detailed therein from reserve officers and noncommissioned officers and recruits temporarily serving therewith, and nothing in this act shall operate to increase the number of officers permanently commissioned in any staff corps or department.
The enlisted men shall include all persons who shall be serving an enlistment in the Regular Army on the date of the passage of this act and all persons who inay hereafter enlist in the United States Army in accordance with the prorisions of this act: Provided, That hereafter all enlistments in the United States Army shall be for a period of three years unless sooner discharged in accordance with the provisions of existing law: Provided further, That commanders of divisional areas and Coast Artillery districts may, upon the recommendation of commanders of regiments, battalions, or equivalent units, authorize the enlistment and reenlistment for periods of one year unless sooner discharged pursuant to existing law of selected men for service only in the training forces. The civilians shall include all persons other than permanent officers, reserve officers, enlisted men, reservists, and recruits employed for duty with any headquarters or unit of the United States Army. The temporary personnel shall include reserve officers, reservists, and recruits. The reserve officers shall include all persons holding appointments in the Reserve Officers' Corps. The reservists shall include all persons liable to military service who have completed their prescribed period of training and service in the training forces and all other persons liable to military service who are not liable to training and service in said forces. The recruits shall include all persons undergoing training and service in the training forces who have not completed their prescribed periods of training and service therein. White and colored enlisted or enrolled men shall not be organized in or assigned to the same company, battalion, or regiment.
SEC. 4. THE OVER-SEA GARRISONS.---The over-sea garrisons shall consist of such permanent commissioned officers, enlisted men, and civilians as shall be required for garrison duty outside the continental limits of the United States and shall be organized as provided in this act into three division headquarters, ten brigade headquarters, three Coast Artillery district headquarters, twenty-nine regiments of Infantry, five regiments of Cavalry, six regiments of Field Artillery, seventyfour Coast Artillery company or equivalent units, three regiments of Engineers, three field signal battalions, eight aero squadrons, three balloon companies, the Philippine Scouts organized as now provided by law and such additional staff personnel, and such numbers of Engineer, ammunition, supply, and sanitary trains or such portions of such trains as the President may direct in accordance with the requirements of the service: Provided, That the President is hereby authorized to retain within the continental limits of the United States, until such time as in his discretion their services can be spared, and barracks or quarters therefor provided overseas, such number of units herein authorized as are not on the date of the passage of this act stationed beyond the continental limits of the United States.
Sec. 5. THE FRONTIER FORCES.-The frontier forces shall consist of such permanent commissioned officers, enlisted men, and civilians as shall be required for frontier protection and expeditionary duty at all times, and shall be organized as provided in this act into one division headquarters, three brigade headquarters, six regiments of Infantry, three regiments of Cıvalry, two regiments of Field Artillery, forty-seven Coast Artillery company or equivalent units, one regiment of Engineers, one field signal battalion, and two aero squadrons, and