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SEC. 30. That the Secretary of War is hereby authorized to issue to persons who have satisfactorily completed their training service, as prescribed in thie act, a distinctive rosette designated for wear with civilian clothes and showing the year's class to which the wearer belongs, and whenever a rosette issued under the provisions of this section shall have been lost, destroyed, or rendered unfit for use, without fault or neglect upon the part of the person to whom it is issued, the Secretary of War shall cause a new rosette to be issued to such person without charge therefor. Any person who is not entitled to such rosette, under the provisions of this section, who shall wear the same shall be guilty of misdemeanor, punishable by a fine of not exceeding $300 or imprisonment not exceeding six months, or both.
Sec. 31. That the President is authorized to make such regulations not consistent with this act, which by this act are required or permitted to be prescribed or which are necessary or convenient to be prescribed, for the securing of the discipline and good government of the citizens undergoing training or organized in reserve or for carrying out or giving effect to this act.
Amend the title so as to read: “A bill to provide for the military and naval training of the citizens of the United States."
REPORT OF THE GENERAL STAFF AND AMENDMENTS SUG
GESTED TO S. 1695.
Washington, February 18, 1916.
training of the citizen forces of the United States" (S. 1695, 1st sess., 64th Cong.).
1. The following report on the above-entitled bill is submitted pursuant to directions contained in first indorsement thereon as follows:
January 4, 1916. To the CHIEF, ARMY WAR COLLEGE Division:
For preparation of a report on the accompanying bill, for transmission to Congress.
· H. P. McCain,
The Adjutant General. A careful examination discloses the fact that as a whole it is founded upon sound basic principles. It is, however, believed to be defective with respect to some details and the following changes are therefore suggested:
Section 2: Add after “Army” line 22, page 3, "(c) between the ages of twenty-four and forty-five years, inclusive, as the Citizen Army Reserve."
It is believed that the services of persons trained in the Citizen Army and Navy should be saved to the Government during the period indicated above.
Section 4: Change to read as follows: That the training for the members of the Citizen Army shall not be less than six months' continuous training to be given as early as practicable during each person's liability to such training and in addition thereto training during such maneuver periods as the President may order pursuant to the provisions of section twenty-one of this act.
This change is suggested because it is thought that better results will be obtained if members of the Citizen Army be trained in one continuous period, and that it will cause less personal inconvenience to the individual than if given in short periods extending over a period of years.
Section 5: Omit "and for the Citizen Army,” lines 15-16, page 5. Change “consecutive" to "continuous,” lines 20–21, page 5, and omit in camps of continuous training,” line 21, page 5. This change is necessitated by change suggested in section 4.
Section 7: Change "elect to enter" to "are selected for,” line 2, page 6. Interpolate " the continuous” before "training, line 6, page 6, and omit "in camps of continuous instruction," lines 7-8, page 6. It is believed that training in the Citizen Navy should be placed upon the same plane as that in the Citizen Army.
Section 8: Omit "and for the Citizen Army and Citizen Navy," lines 10–11, add “in the Reserve Officers Training Corps” after "given,” line 11, and omit "in organization of Boy Scouts,” lines 13-14, page 6. The leaders of the Boy Scouts disclaim intention to impart military instruction.
Section 9: Omit from “Provided,” line 23, page 6, to “training,' inclusive, line 2, page 7. Omit" further,” line 3, page 7. This change is made necessary by change suggested in section 4.
Section 11: Change “every” to “the parents or guardian of any”) and add 'under eighteen years of age" after person” line 19, and omit "in addition to the liability under section nine of this Act,” lines 22-23, and “or to be confined for twenty days, or both,” lines 24-25, page 7. Omit “of the person offending and those”; change "his" to "the" and add or guardian of the person offending” after "parents,” line 2. Omit from “Provided," line 2, to "prescribed,” inclusive, line 8, page 8. It is believed that the parents or guardian and not the boy should be made liable to punishment.
Section 12: Interpolate the following as section 12: That every person liable for service in the Citizen Army or Navy who in any year, without lawful excuse, fails to register as required by this act, shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor and shall, in addition to the liability in section nine of this act, be liable to a fine of not to exceed five hundred dollars and to be committed to the custody of the proper military or naval authorities: Provided, That any person committed to the custody of the proper military or naval authorities in pursuance to this section may be detained by such authorities, and while so detained shall be subject to training and discipline as prescribed. And any such person who in any year, without lawful EICURE, evades or fails to render the personal service required by this act shall be punished as a court-martial may direct.
Men who commit the offenses of absence without leave and desertion in the Regular Army and other forces of the United States are tried and sentenced to punishment therefor by military tribunals. It is believed the same sanction for these offenses should obtain in the Citizen Army and Navy.
Section 12: Change to section 13.
Section 14: Omit entire section. It is believed that no sanction is necessary with respect to the Citizen Cadet Corps for the offenses mentioned in this section and that punishment for such offenses committed by members of the Citizen Army or Navy should be adjudged by military tribunal. If this section is omitted, the members
of the citizen Army or Navy will be subject to the Rules and Articles of War or to the laws and regulations governing the Navy.
Section 15: Omit entire section. This section is no longer necessary if section 14 is omitted.
Section 16: Change to section 15, and omit "dishonorably," line 25, page 11. It is not desired to confuse a discharge given under this section with a dishonorable discharge given pursuant to a sentence of a court-martial.
Section 17: Change to section 16. Omit from “That," line 4, to “trained,” inclusive, line 8, page 12, and substitute therefor:
That the President is hereby authorized to define, limit, establish, and maintain within the continental limits of the United States such number of military districts as he may deem necessary for carrying into effect the provisions of this act, and the President is likewise authorized to group such military districts into military departments or other higher commands at his discretion: Provided, That the President may at any time, in his discretion, increase or decrease the number of military districts thus established or change the limits of any such district or districts.
The number of districts established under the section as changed will be much less than the number of congressional districts, and economy and efficiency will result from the suggested change.
Section 18: Change to section 17. Add after "act," line 3, page 13, “and shall include all male citizens who in the ensuing year will be between the ages of twelve and twenty-three years, inclusive." Change “preceding,” line 4, page 13, to “following.
Section 19: Change to section 18. Section 20: Change to section 19. Omit from “and," line 15, to “Navy," inclusive, line 17, page 13. The oath of allegiance is deemed unnecessary where the training is compulsory.
Section 21: Change to section 20. Add after “it,” line 21, page 13, “or for purposes of training." Add “and their reserves after “Navy,” line 19, page 13. This addition is necessary in order that the Citizen Army and Navy may be assembled in higher tactical commands during peace.
Section 22: Change to section 21.
Section 23: Change to section 22. Omit all on page 14 and lines 1-2, page 15. Substitute therefor the following:
That the members of the Citizen Army and Citizen Navy trained during the first and second years after the passage of this act, shall be given such provisional organization as may be necessary in the discretion of the President to effect their prompt and orderly mobilization in the event of sudden emergency, and the President is hereby authorized to appoint and commission provisionally for a term of three years all officers in the Citizen Army and in the Citizen Navy necessary for such organization and for the training of the members of the units thereof.
Change "four” to “after three,” line 3, and omit "organizations of," line 6, page 15. Add "are serving or after “who," line 22, and "or of the Reserve Officers' Training Corps" after “training," line 25, page 15.
It is thought very important that the Citizen Army and Navy be completely organized and fully officered at the earliest possible date.
Section 24: Change to section 23.
Add “among those of the same grade promoted on the same date” after “merit,' line 19, page 16. Addition is intended to prevent possible ambiguity.
Section 25: Change to section 24.
Change "exercise" to "assist in exercising,” line 18, and "make" to assist in making,” line 19, page 17.
The original text might be construed as precluding officers of the Medical Corps from performing these functions.
Section 27: Change to section 26. Section 28: Change to section 27. Section 29: Change to section 28. Section 30: Change to section 29. Section 31: Change to section 30. Section 32: Change to section 31. Omit “established," line 25, page 19, and change “camps” to places,” line 1, page 20. This change is necessitated by the change recommended in section 4.
Section 33: Change to section 32.
Add after “of,” first word in line 8, page 20, “the Regular Army or Navy, the Organized Militia.” This in order that no question may arise respecting the wearing of the uniform by members of the Organized Militia named in the addition.
Section 34: Change to section 33.
Add "active" before "service," line 12, and omit from "and,' line 12, to "Navy," inclusive, last word in section. Add “except for training,” after “Act,” line 13, page 21. These changes are for the purpose of preventing claims for pay for service rendered while undergoing training and in order to make it clear that members of the citizen army and navy are at all times subject to military or naval law, not only while in active service but also while undergoing training
Section 38: Change to section 37. Add to section: "Provided, That no member of the citizen cadet corps, the citizen army, or the citizen navy shall be eligible to retirement or to retired pay.” This change is for the protection of the Government.
Section 39: Change to section 38.
Omit from "That,” line 18, page 22, to end of section. Substitute therefor:
That the President is hereby authorized to detail officers of the Regular Army and Navy of the grades of first lieutenant to colonel, inclusive, and of equivalent grades in the Navy for duty with and for the training of the citizen cadet corps, the citizen army, the citizen navy, and their reserves in such numbers as he may deem necessary: Provided further, That the number so detailed from each grade shall be in proportion to the number in that grade now provided by law for the whole Army: And provided further. That officers so detailed shall be subject to section twenty-seven of the act of February second, nineteen hundred and one, relative to details in the Staff Corps.
The addition of so many officers of the two lowest grades, as provided in the original draft would cause such stagnation in promotion as to greatly discourage junior officers.
Section 40: Omit entire section. This section is unnecessary if preceding section is changed as suggested.
Section 41: Change to section 39. This section is not commented upon, as its provisions relate solely to the Navy and the citizen navy.
Add new section numbered section 40, as follows:
That the President is hereby authorized to detail for duty with and the training of the citizen cadet corps, the citizen army, and the citizen navy, such number of noncommissioned officers of the Regular Army and enlisted men of equivalent grades of the Navy as he may deem necessary: Provided, That the enlisted men so detailed shall be additional in their respective grades to the numbers authorized therefor in the Regular Army and Navy.
The detail of enlisted men provided for in this section is deemed necessary for the proper training of the citizen forces.
Section 42: Change to section 41.
2. A draft of Senate bill 1695, revised in accordance with the foregoing recommendations is appended hereto. 3. The enactment of this bill as revised is earnestly recommended.
M. M. MACOMB,
Brigadier General, Chief of War College Division.
A BILL To provide for the military and naval training of the citizen forces of the
Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That all able-bodied male inhabitants of the United States who have resided within the continental limits thereof for the period of twelve months who are citizens of the United States or who have declared their intentions to become citizens of the United States shall be liable to be trained between the ages of twelve and twenty-three years, inclusive, as prescribed: Provided, That the following persons shall be exempt from the training prescribed in this act so long as the condition or status on which exemption is based continues: (a) Those who may be reported by the prescribed medical authorities as being physically unfit for any naval or military service whatever; (b) members of the permanent military or naval forces of the United States; (c) school-teachers who have duly qualified and are employed at a school of military or naval instruction or other prescribed course, as instructors or officers of the Citizen Cadet Corps; (d) persons employed in the police or prison service of the United States, or of the several States, and of the several cities thereof; (e) those morally unfit; (f) members of any well-recognized religious sect or organization, at present organized and existing, whose creed forbids its members to participate in war in any form—whose religious convictions are against war or participation therein, in accordance with the creed of said religious organization (the exemption of this class, however, to include only such portion of the prescribed training as requires the bearing or use of arms); (h) mariners actually employed in the sea service of the United States, or of any of the States, or of any citizen or merchant within the United States; (i) those excused by the President in the interest of the public service by reason of employment therein; (j) temporary exemption for periods not exceeding one year, and renewable from time to time, will be granted to persons whose compulsory attendance at the prescribed training would impose great hardships, either by reason of excessive