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CASION FOR PILLAGING THE GOODS, net, after drinking a dish of coffee, to AND FOR CARRYING OFF THE MA- pass fome time, according to her conftant
THEIR NEIGHBOUR's custom, in writing, till the hour of the HOUSE." “ Some sought an accession of arrival of her ministers to traofact busistrength at the expence of France ; fome ness. About ten o'clock in the torenoon, at the expence of each other; fome at the first valet de chambre Zachari, being the expence of third parties.” “THERE returned from executing a little comCOULD BE NO TIE OF HONOUR IN mission on which he had been sent (with A SOCIETY FOR PILLAGE!” Letters papers to prince Zuboff, grand master on a peace, &c. page 146, 148, 149. Such of the artillery, &c.), not finding her a picture, drawn by the hand of a great Majesty in her cabinet, after waiting an. mafter, we ihall not presume to deface unusual time for her coming out of her by any touch of ours.-England, under moft private closet, in an inner room, pretence of restoring order in France, opened the door, as if to go through the aimed at the acquisition of Dunkirk and large chamber in which it itood, in one the colonies, Austria, with the same corner, within a kind of venetian tent, profeffions, at the conquest of Flanders was surprized to see her Majesty's feet and Alface. The Empress of Ruffia, sticking out of the closet door, having because she was too remote to make apparently been struck with the fit of conquests from France, plotted and per- apoplexy that killed her, whilft seated petrated the robbery of Poland, and on the stool within, and nipt down from consulted the interest of her ambition it in this position, as her body was found and her greatness by encouraging her lying between that and the wall, while moft formidable rivais to waste and ex her feet, as faid above, pushed open the haust their strength. The motives were door and appeared without. She lanfimilar, the conduct was of the same fort, guished till about ten at night on the 6th, the morality was equal, and the con when the expired, without having thewn fummate fkill and masterly policy of the the least sign of sensibility from the Empress Catherine have vindicated the moment of the accident. On opening fuperiority of her exalted genius, above her head, a small blood-vessel was found the puny intriguers, to whom in this cri. burst, the immediate cause of her death. fis of the fate of Europe, heaven, for The faculty, proceeding to open the . the punishment of our offences, has com- corpse, found a couple of linall gall stones mitted the management of the affairs of in ihe gall bladder, but which could bave nations. She was more politic than her had little share in the death of the Emallies, and as honeft,
press. Catherine II. after a reign of 34 years, Some were of opinion that the only during all which time the enjoyed an fainted on the stool, and that the blood uninterrupted flow of excellent health, vessel was burnt by the fall. But such complained, on the 4th of November, a !uppofirion seemed to the rest unnecef0. S. towards the evening, of some slight fary, as an extravalation of blood is compain in the bowels, which usually accom men in apoplexies. panied a gentle diarrhæa to which she The day following the new Emperor was cerasionally subject, ard which she made his public entry into St. Peterf. regardeal, with much reason, as a princi- burgh, amidit the acclamations of all pal caule of her continual health. ' Next ranks of people. What measures may morning, November 5th, O. S. her prin• be pursued by a Prince whole talents cipal femme de chambre, Maria Savishna, have never yet, at the age of made the usual inquiries concerning her called forth either in the cabinet or-the Majesty's health, and how she had passed field, on coming suddenly from retreat the night, when Catherine assured her and silence into the disposal of the trea. that she never was better, nor hod ever sures and power of that immense empire, enjoyed a more found repole, defiring, it is impossible at present to divine ; but as the lay yet in bed, to know what fort from the general character of PAUL of weather reigned abroad; and being PETROVITCH, it may be presumed that answered, a gentle fruft of two degrees, he will take that part in the present viih snow, her Majesty exclaimed, that crilis which will be most favourable to Die could have almost divined that to be the cause of humanity, by offering his the cale, as she commonly slept heft in mediation to the bulligerent powers, for froty weather. The Empress being put:ing a stop to the horrid ravages of got up and dressed, went into her cabi. the present cruel and flagitious war.
[ 981 ]
ANCIENT AND MODERN STYLES OF MUSIC,
IN WHICH THE
Merits and Demerits of each are respectively pointed out. SINCE the great revolution in inftrun their interest to blend the two ftyles tout
much to all the custom in England for musical ama tastes. They take especial care to preteurs to be prejudiced in favour of one of sent the votaries of each style with a few the two styles, either the ancient or the pieces adapted to their several tastes, modern, and to reprobate the other. without regard to the other pieces; and, They do this as though the encourage- in consequence, produce, by this variety ment of both styles must necessarily in and contrast, much greater satisfaction to terfere, or that the one could not possibly nine-tenths of the audience. flourish without the extinction of the With regard to the votaries of the two other. By the new style or species of styles, I have always observed that elderly composition here alluded to, is meant people are generally the most attached to that of the modern symphony, in which the ancient, and young people to the ftring and wind instruments are mixed modern music. The reason for which, together, and that of the folo-concerto, the former will, perhaps, assert to be concertante, &c. as opposed to the an- obvious, and that people of experience cient style of overtures on Lully's plan, and mature judgment will naturally preand of full concertos with repieno parts fer the good folid harmony of the anfor ftring instruments exclusively. This cient system to the light and trifling revolution in music seems to have been music of the new. chiefly occafioned by a more general Perhaps, however, there may be other knowledge of the powers and effects of reasons for this preference, at least equally wind instruments.
obvious. People who have been long acThe partial attachment of amateurs customed or confined to a particular fyftem to one style has, perhaps, been too fas elderly people must formerly have much countenanced by the managers of been), especially if they are performers, the principal subscription concerts in find the modern music more difficult in London, who always adhere entirely eie its execution from the mere novelty of the ther to the ancient or the modern Ityle, style, and the rapidity with which its and do not admit of a mixture of both. allegros and prestos are required to be On such conduct I cannot but remark, performed. Thorough bass players, who that if the managers of the Concert of have been chiefly used to the works of old Ancient Music wish to discountenance authors, object to the reiterated quavers the modern style of composition, and to on the same note, frequently introduced encourage the ancient, by suffering no in the modern fymphonies, it being piece of music to be performed that has more difficult to read them and to di not been composed within a limited ftinguish one bar from another. Tenor number of years, they entirely frustrate players also, who were barely qualified their own design. What composer, how to amuse themselves with the performever, attached to, or capable of writ. ance of the works of Corelli, Geminiani, ing in the ancient style (of which there Handel, &c. in which that instrument are doubtless many in the metropolis) has always the least to execute, find in can have the least encouragement to do modern music that it is frequently made fo, whilst his works must necessarily be of equal consequence with the other inrejected at both the above mentioned con- ftruments, and requires, therefore, much certs ; at those of modern music, on ac the same degree of execution and artencount of its antique style, 'and at those tion. of ancient music, because recently com Another difficulty to performers of posed. Such music, however excellent, moderate abilities occurs in modern mu. can, therefore, only be performed at the fic, in the want of repieno parts. For. inferior concerts, or at benefits. In merly if a good leading first and second these the profiting parties always find it violin, and principal bass, could be proSUP, to MONTHLY MAG. Vol. II.
cured, very indifferent players were The demerits of the ancient music competent to make up the rest of the seem to proceed from the author freorchestra, the principal parts being ge- quently being content with mere cornerally played single, whilst the repie- rectness of composition, and adhering nos were doubled, or even trebled. In closely to the subject, without regard to modern music, however, all the violins light and shade, or to what is understood and balles are generally obliged to take by modern amateurs, under the general principal parts. Amarcurs, therefore, denomination of effe&t. Many entire who have applied to music as a secondary movements (and fometimes whole pieces) amusement, and as such have not spent of ancient composers, have not a single the greater part of their leisure in the piano marked in them. There is also, practice of it, nevertheless find them. from the fame cause, sometimes à barfelves at a loss, and are disconcerted in renness of air or melody. They appear not being able to support their parts fo to have frequently thought it sufficient well in modern pieces as they did in the that their works should possess good harancient.
mony and classical accuracy, and stand But though modern music, for these the test of theoretical examination. This, reasons, may not be so greatly enjoyed, however, at best, is but negative praise. yet surely it by no means follows that it is The same merits might exist without inferior either in its kind or quality, e- melody being much attended to; melody fpecially finee the apparent difficulties of being, indeed, of a mere arbitrary nait are not found to be
great as to occa ture, cannot be subjeéted to those me. fion any deficiency of good performers. chanical rules of criticism by which Those who have principally applied harmony is judged. On these accounts themselves to modern music, find it, in many ancient pieces, in which all the fome respects, easier to perform than the rules of composition are more strictly repieno parts of the old concertos, observed than in many modern pieces, wherein great accuracy is required in prove dry and uninteresting, and totally counting the rests, and keeping the time devoid of taste and effect. in adagios, fugues, &c.
If in modern music harmony be not Instead, however, of attempting to so much attended to, nor made so effen. determine which of the two styles is the tial a requisite as in the ancient, yet beft, or the most rational, I thall subjoin melody is certainly more regarded, and a few thoughts on the merits and deme- rendered more distinct, from its being sits of each.
generally confined to the uppermost part The ANCIENT Music, in all the in the composition. Though the air is classic anthors, abounds with fine har- frequently divided among the different mony: fimple · melody, and with good parts, as in the ancient style, and is not and natural modulation. The melody always engrossed by the first violin or is, however, frequently not confined, as leading part, still whichever part porin modern music, to a single part, to fesses the air, or pro tempore takes the which the others are mere accompani- lead, that part for the time is usually the ments, but dispersed throughout all the upper one. This certainly renders the parts. The second violin part is nearly air the more predominant and intclligible as airy and of as much consequence as than where it is inclosed, if I may so the first. The bass sometimes (parti- speak, between accompaniments. cularly in Corelli) is of as much or more Greater attention is also generally paid consequence than either of the violins; by modern composers to contrast and confequently, although a first violin per- effect. These they produce, partly by former may find less air in the ancient the more general use of pianos and fortes, than in modern music, yet the other per. and the introduction of the crescendo and formers will find more ; and to an audi- riminuendo, and partly by the intro. ence, who judge of the effe&t from the duction of a greater variety of instruwhole, there will, perhaps in many ments than were in common use among pieces that may be feleeted), seem to be the ancients. Wind instruments, in para as much air in the ancient style as in ticular, which are now in general use, the modern. The ancient composers were formerly never introduced, except were also, in general, very correct and in theatrical accompaniments. In refpeat aceurate in their compositions, particu- to modulation, it seems, at the present larly with regard to the avoiding of con- period, to be quite as much, if not more, fecutive fifths and eighths, and in attend- attended to than it was formerly. Many ing to uniformity of metre in every new effects in modern music are almost Strain.
Vol. II.] Comparison of Ancient and Modern Mufir.
983 solely produced by due attention to mo- vehicle for conveying particular posages dulation. The fashionable composers, that are intended to exhibit the execution HAYDN and PLEYEL, by avoiding oc- and dexterity of the performer. In these casionally the regular and studied unifor- folos many pauses are introduced to give mity of modulation and style, which has him an opportunity of showing off in an 'been generally adopted by most of their ad libitum cadence, which (though genc. predecessors, have certainly attained far rally unconnected with the subject of the more originality and greater variety. piece) is frequently the only part attend.
In Chamber Music, the moderns have ed to by the audience. These cadences likewise, by the introduction of quar- are also constantly introduced by a very tettos, quintettos, &c. made considerable full noisy passage, seeming to announce improvement. The ancients had chiefly to the audience what is to follow, and inconfined themselves, in this species of duce them to resume their attention to music, to trios for two violins and a bass. the music. Thefe, though complete in themselves, Among the demerits of modern music have yet been greatly improved by the may also be reckoned the too great exten. addition of a tenor. This latter inftru- fion of the compass of the violoncello, ment_fills up, the harmony without tenor, and violin: The former of these double stops, which have generally a bad is too frequently made to encroach on the effect, from the necessity of using open scale of the tenor, which not poffeffing ftrings, and the difficulty of stopping the capacity of extending its (cale downthem in time. It moreover gives an op- wards, into that of the violoncello, is portunity for one of the parts to rest oc- made to encroach in its turn on the scale casionally for a few bars, by which of the violin; which latter instrument, means a much greater contrast can be at- having no superior, whole province it tained than with fewer instruments. may encroach on, is at liberty to range
MODERN Music certainly also has its to an unlimited height, or finds no other Thare of demerits. As too much atten, boundary than the bridge.Were, how. tion is sometimes paid to harmony in the ever, first-rate performers and professors ancient music, to the neglect of melody only to avail themselves of this extension and contrast, so in the modern too much of compass, and were even they to be attention is frequently paid to air and more sparing in the practice of it, this contrast, to the neglect of harmony, and objection would, perhaps, in some de. sometimes of modulation. Harmony and gree, fall to the ground. In their hands melody are esential to all good music, as it must be allowed, that novel and sur. well as modulation and contrast. If the prising, as well as pleasing effects, may picces be not very short, none of these be occasionally produced by the practice; effentials ought to be particularly re- but unfortunately almost every inferior garded, to the exclusion of the others, performer and amateur aims at the same except, however, in cases where, to vary extent of compass, and unwisely negthe style, any of them may be made to lects the natural scale and useful compass predominate occasionally.
of the instrument. Another fault of modern composition Having mentioned is, that the strains are frequently much one of the principal requisites in a piece too long and tedious. On this account of music, it may here be observed, that much music, in which no other fault by blending or chequering the ancient and can be found, is thrown away upon an
the modern styles in one performance, the audience, and which, if properly ma- effect of each of them will be improved. naged, might have given pleasure, and A piece of ancient music, in which the excited attention throughout. Though harmony chiefly predominates, will cer. many ancient pieces inay also be thought tainly be heard with double pleasure by too long, yet their length is generally all lovers of harmony, immediately after occasioned by the number of the strains a modern piece, in which the harmony of which they confift. These succeeding is subordinate to the melody. In like each other in different measures and de- manner, a good modern piece will seem grees of time, prevent the tediousness to have a greater degree of brilliancy, occasioned by a single strain or movement and appear to greater advantage, after protracted to a great length. This fault, one in which classical accuracy is more in the length of the strains in modern attended to than general ciiect. music, occurs the most frequently in solo hering, therefore, as is so much the preconcertos, in which the body of the fent practice, to one particular style, to composition may be considered as a mere the total exclusion of the other, the very
6 K 2
By ada obvious advantages of CONTRAST are The first inventor of the style of the injudiciously abandoned.
modern symphony is said to be Richter, I also cannot help thinking that mo- whose compositions being more scientific dern amateurs are far more tenacious of than those of the generality of his imthe old style of writing than the com- mediate fucceffors (the last strains of posers themselves would have been, had many of them being short fugues) are the modern style been introduced in their therefore more pleasing to connoisseurs. days.
Music, however, is capable of being so The modern style of composition was constructed, as to give pleasure to people principally brought about by the use of in general. Perhaps the proper teft of wind instruments, of which the ancients excellence in this art should not be, that had, not experienced the good effects, it affords pleasure to professors and con. and were also probably prejudiced against noiffeurs only, but to the greatest numthem. The great Scarlaiti declared to ber of amateurs indiscriminately taken. Hasse, on the latter defiring to intro. As we are therefore obliged to Richter duce Quant, the Aute-player, to him, for the invention of this style, so we are, (as related by Dr.. BURNEY, in his perhaps, much obliged to others for the German Tour) that he hated wind in- improvement of it. To Stamitz, the ftruments, as being never in tune. In elder, we are indebted for the introduc. this affertion he might probably at tion of the crescendo and diminuendo, that period have been right, from the effects of which are so wonderfully the then imperfection of those instru. striking in modern music. The forte, ments; but, as great improvements have piano, and even fortissimo and pianissimo, lately been made by means of additional had been long before in use, yet the rekeys, &c. the objection no longer holds gular, and almost imperceptible gradagood.
tion from the one to the other, had not Amongst the first that introduced wind been discovered. That this invention of instruments in overtares, concertos, &c. were Handel and Martini, so far they celled in the practice of: many of his fiddle were innovators"; string instruments be. ing chiefly used before their time. More passages lie very aukwardly for the hand, and
difficult to be taken without frequent and modern composers have, however, much unnatural thiftings. The French horns also, improved the mode of introducing them, in the fugle of the overture in Sampfon, are which is no disparagement to Handel, made to execute the same kind of paffages as &c. because it is quite as meritorious the violins and tenor, though in the highest for one person successfully to introduce and most difficult key for the inftrument. a new lyftem, as it can be for others to It is said of Handel, that when he sat at improve upon it. Neither can it, I the harpsichord in a modern symphony (in think, be doubted, that had Handel and
the latter part of his life) he used to ridicule Martini lived and enjoyed their faculties
the reiterated quavers on the same note in
the bass, for several bars together, saying, a few years longer, but that they would themselves in some measure have altered
« Now D is trumps, now A is trumps,'
&c.—But however unmeaning this repetitheir style, and conformed to that of the
tion of the same notes may appear in them modern symphony.
ielves, and independent of the variety of The first composers of these sympho- harmony that is usually made thereon by the nies observed, and with reason, that hold- other parts, it cannot possibly be more uning notes or passages in the cantabile meaning than a long holding note for several style were best calculated for wind in. bars, which frequently occurs in the ancient ftruments, to which they accordingly
music. The fact is, that these reiterated applied them, leaving difficult passages quavers in the bass, and femiquavers in the to be executed by string instruments. In violin parts, were introduced after wind inthe generality of Handel's overtures the sake of variety and additional brilliancy.
struments came into use, and merely for the hautboy parts are mere duplicates of Reiterated femiquavers in the fiddle parts those of the violin, without regard to
are, therefore, generally accompanied with the compass of the instrument, or the
plain or holding notes in unison in the hautdifficulty of executing many passages on boy parts, and repeated quavers in the bass, it. The solo passages in the overtures by long or holding notes in unison in the of Esther and Justin were evidently at horn or baffoon parts; by which means a first composed as harpsichord passages * new effect is introduced, and the wind and
string infiruments are kept distinct from * The harplichord and the organ appears
each other, while each plays in the style peindeed, to have been the only instrument culiar to itself. Handel perfectly understood, or, at least, ex