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Vol. II.] Original Memoirs of the Late Empress of Russia. 975 completed their travels through Ger-' empire in the last year, in a speech by gemany, Italy, France, Holland, the Ne- ' neral field-marshal Count Razomofskoi. therlands, &c. return to St. Petersburgh. The 18th, the Roman Catholic archbishop

In 1783, May 7, the Empress infti of Mohilef, Stanislaus Thesrentshevitch tutes a seminary for the education of of Boguía, constituted by her Majesty, is, young persons of quality at Kurik. with a variety of church ceremonies, so June 21, a treaty of commerce concluded lemnly invelied, in the Roman Catholic with the Ottoman Porte. Ju y, the in- Church at St. Petersburgh, with the palftitution of the other viceroyalties of the lium from his holiness the Pope, by the paempire follow in succession. July 21, the pal ambassador Count Archerti, archbishop Empress published a manifesto, by her of Chalcedon. Oet. 14, the Lesgiers, hava commander in chief Prince Potemkin, in ing crossed the river Alasan, invaded the the Krim, in regard to the taking poffef- dominions of Georgia, were repulsed with fion of that peninsula, the Kuban, and the great lofs by a detachment of Russian island of Taman. The 24th a treaty was troops. Dec. 29, Katolikos Maksim, the concluded with Heraclius II. tzar of Kar- serdar and court-marshal Prince Zeretelli, talinia and Kacheti, by which he fub- and the chief justice Kuinichese, ambarmits himself, his heirs and successors for fadors from David, tzar of Imeretia, were ever, with his territories and dominions, admitted to a public audience of her Man to the sceptre of her Majesty, and her heirs jesty, at which they submitted, in the and fucceffors. The 29th,' account was name of the tzar, him and his subjects, to received from the camp of Prince Potemkin the will and powerfui protection of her at Karas-Basar, that the clergy, the beys, Imperial Majesty, as the rightful head of and other persons of distinction, with the all the fons of the orthodox eastern church, towns of Karaíbasar, Bachtthisarai, Ach- and sovereign ruler and defender of the metshet, Kaffa, Kosoff, with the districts' Georgian nations. of Turkanskoikur and Neuhafar, and that i 1735. Jan. 1, the senate, in the name of Perekop, in the peninsula of the Krim, of the empire, humbly thanks her Majesty together with the hordes of Edisfank and for the benefits she has bestowed upon it in Dihambolusk, the Sultan Alim Girey, the foregoing year. The 8th and 15th, and his vassals, with all the Budfhaks and the Emprefs, in person, holds a public exBashkirs there, and all the tribes dwell. amination of the young ladies educated in ing beyond the River Kuban, the Sultan the Devitza Monastir. The 12th, Mauro Baatur Girey and his vassals, have taken Cordato, hospodar of Vallachia, was dethe oath of allegiance to her Imperial pofed, and Alexander Mauro Cordato, Majesty, and with willing hearts fubmit- his uncle, restored to that dignity. The ted for ever to her glorious (way. The 21st, the Empress visited the principal na30th, the hospodar of Vallachia was de- tional school, and passed a long time in posed, and Draco Surzo set up in his place. examining the classes, and the proficiency Sept. 22, her Majesty raised Gabriel, of the youth in that fe:ninary: on which archbishop of Novgorod and St. Peters occasion a marble tablet was fixed in the burgh, to the dignity of metropolitan. Oct. wall of the fourth class, with this in21, in the great hall of the academy of fcription in gold letters: THOU VISITsciences, the new institution of the Imperial Ruflian academy was opened, after a HAND HATH PLANTED. JAN. 21, 1785. fulemn consecration by the Metropolite April 21, the privileges of the nobility Gabriel, and other of the clergy, under were confirmed; and, on the same day, the presidency of Princess Dalhkoff. the burghers of towns constituted into Nov. 7, the Empress is mediatrix for ac. bodies corporate, by a particular mania commodating the difference between the festo. The public school in Vcroneth King of Prussia and the city of Davrzic. was opened. The 24th of May, her Ma. The school for surgery was opened at jesty goes to inspect the famous suices at Petersburgh the 18th. Dec. 13, a schools Vilhney Volotinok, and other water. commission was institute for fupervising communications, and from thence proall the public schools. The 28th, an act ceeds to Mosco. June 19, her Majesty was concluded with the Ottoman Porte, returns to St. Petersburgh. July 3, the by which the possession and sovereignty of visits the hardware manufactories at Sir. the Krim, the Kuban, &c. were folemnly terbeck, in Finland. 14th, a manifesto, authenticated to the Empress.

grauting full liberty of religion and com. 1784. Jan. I, the senate inof humbly merce, to all foreigners settling in the rethanks her Majesty for the benefactions gions of Mount Caucasus, under her go. the has graciously bestowed on the whole vernment. Sept. 15, the public school

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at Nithney Novgorod opened. Oct. 12, leaving teftimonies of her clemency and the Jesuits, in White Ruffia, in a general bounty in each, arrives at Kief. Feb. assembly, elect a vicar-general of their 6—7, the deposed hospodar of Molorder. Nov. 1, a treaty of commerce davia, Mauro Cordato, thinking his life with the Emperor of Germany. The not safe in Yaffi, finds opportunity pri24th, the Russian Consul, in Alexandria, vately to escape. March, public (chouls makes his public entry on horseback (an are endowed and opened at Roftof, Ughonour never before granted to any liefh, Malaga, and Romanof, in the vicepower); erects the Imperial standard on royalty of Yaroslauf; also at Ustiug and his house, with discharge of cannon, &c. Arasovitz, in the vice-royalty of Vologda. Dec. 28, a Ruflian mercantile frigate, April 21, a manifestó for promoting, full freighted, arrives at Leghorn from peace and concord among the burghers of Conftantinople.

the empire. The 22d, her Majelty pur. 1786. Jan. 1, senate returns thanks sues her journey from Kief to the Dniefor benefits conferred on the empire. The per. The 25th, the concerted interview sith to 10th, the new election of per- between her and the King of Poland, near sons to the offices in the Petersburgh the Polish town of Konief. The 30th, government; endir.g with masquerade the Empress vifits Krementshuk, in the and illuminations. The 29th, the Em- viceroyalty of Katarinoslauf. The treaty press confirms the plan of a naviga- of commerce with England being expired, tion school. Feb. 12, by a decree, the the British factory" were informed that usual llavish subscriptions to petitions, they must henceforward pay the duties &c. are to be discontinued; and instead on imports in filver money like the other thereof, only the words, humble or faith- nations, who have no commercial treaty. ful subject; and, in certain cases, only May. 7, the Empress hearing that the fubject to be used. March 2, the Ein- Emperor of Germany is at Cherson, propress grants the university of Mosco ceeds thither, and meets him there the 125,000 roubles, and all the materials of 12th. The 17th, she prosecutes her jour. the palace Kremlin, for increasing its ney to the Krim. 30, the Grand Duchbuildings. The 25th, a decree for mak. effes Helena and Alexandria Pavlev na are ing and repairing the roads throughout inoculated. June 2, the Emperor, after the whole empire, at the sole expence of travelling with her Majesty through the the crown, without the least burden to Krim, takes leave of her at Borislauff, in the subject, and sour millions of roubles the, viceroyalty of Katarinoslauf, to go were inmediately allotted for the road home. 23, the Empreis having returned between St. Peteríburgh and Mosco. April from the Krim, through Krementikuk, 10, a new war establilhment for the army Poltava Kursk, Orel, and Tula, arrives. was signed. 23, the hospodar of Val- at the village of Kolumensk, 7 verfts lachia was deposed, and Mavroyeni set up from Mosco. June 28, the 25th anniverin his place. June 28, the Empress infti. [ary of her reign, the displays various ru es a loan bank at Petersburgh, to the marks of her bounty. The debtors to fund whereof the allo:s 33 millions of the crown are forgiven, prisoners reroubles, of which 22 millions to be advanc- leased, impofts taken of, foldiers reed to the nobility, and 11 millions to the warded, &c. July 4, returns over Tver, burghers of the towns, on very advanta. Tula, Valdai, Vilhnei-Volotshok, and geous terms. Aug. 5, publishes rules to be Novgorod, to Zarfkoe Selo, where the arobserved in the public schools. Oct. 4, rives the 11th. 12th, the new built a large Russian thip, with Russian pro- town-school at Riga, called the Lyceum, ducts, from Petersburgh, arrives at Cadiz. folemnly dedicated. Aug. 5, Bulgakoff, Nov. 24, the Empress ereets public schools her ambassador at the Otroman Porre, is at Tambuf. Dec. 14, Prince Ypsilanti imprisoned in the Seven Towers, contrary is appointed hospodar of Moldavia in the to the law of nations, which the Empress room of the deposed Mauro Cordato. Dec. takes as a public declaration of war. 21st, 31, å treaty of commerce and navigation the Turkish fleet, at Orchakof, atrack between Russia and France.

the Russian frigate Skorui, and the floop 1787. Jan. 1, the senate thanks for fa. Bitingi, but was repulsed and put to vours received by the empire. 7, the fight by the bravery of the latter. Many Empress departs from Zaríkoi Selo on signal advantages are gained over the a journey to her southern dominions. Turks; several public schools founded in 29, after having vifited the towns of various parts of the empire between this Veliki-Luki, Smoleník, Starodub, Nov. and the August following, in which gorod Severikoi, Beresua, Thernigof, &c. time the war breaks out with Sweden.

1788. Aug.

Vol. II.] Original Memoirs of the Late Empress of Rufia.

977

1788. August 12, in the expedition former. May 3rft, victory over the beyond the Kuban, the Russian troops Swedes. June 5th, Sulkof' taken from entirely routed a company of 4000 Aru. the Swedes, and Fort St. Michael on tayans and Abafinians ; 800 of the ene- the 8th. July 15th, Admiral Tchitchamy were flain, and five villages destroyed. goff engages the Swedish feet under Isth, surrender of the Turkich fortress command of the Duke of Sudermania; of Dubitfha. 18th, the Turks made a no ship lost on either side. 2ift, battle violent forcie from Otchakof, but were of Fok thany, to the great loss of the repulsed by the Russian yagers, and, after Turks. Fok hany taken. August 13th, a battle of four hours, were driven back the Russian galley-fieer fights the Swed with the loss of 500 men. 23d, a fierce ith feet under Count Ehrenfchwerdt, battle was fought between the Ruffian the former takes a frigate and 5 other troops and the Sacubanians, in which the tips, and 2000 prifoners. August 2ift, latter loft 1000 men. The Ruflian flect another sea-fight; Prince Nafsau Siegen keeps tae Sivedih blocked up in Svea. makes good his landing of the Ruilian borg, ever since the battle of July 6. troops, in fight of the King of Sweden, The Swedilh army leaves the Russian ter- at the head of his army. September 7th, ritory in Finland. September 18, fur- Prince Repnin attacks the Serafkier Halrender of the town and fortress of Chot- fan Patha' near the river Seltika, and yim, with the garrison of 2000 -men,

takes his whole camp.

with, Count 153 canaon, 14 mortars, and much am- Suvoroff and Prince of Saxe Cobourg munition. 19th-29th, a small Rufiian engage, near the river Kymnik, the grand squadron from the feet at Sevastopol, Turkish army of between 90 and 100,000 cruising along the coast of Anatolia, de- men, and gain a complete victory; tromi stroys many of the enemy's vesels, pre

which Count Suvoroff bears the surname vents the transport of the Turkith Kymnikkoi. 14th, the Russian troops troops, and returns with great booty. under Major General Ribbas take the 20th, Ussenier Shamanachin, chief of the Turkish citadel Chodshabey, in the signe Bieduchovians; was, on his petition, of the whole of the enemy's feet. 30th, admitted a subject of Russia. 26th, a the fortress Palanka being taken, the numerous host of Kubanians and Turks town of Belgorod or Akermann surrenwere beat on the river Ubin, with the ders to Prince Potemkin Tavritshtíkoi.

en. Noveinber 7, Prince November 4th, the town and cattle of Potemkin, at the head of his Cossaks, Bender submit at discretion to the fame takes the island Beresan, with many pris commander. soners, and much ammunition. Decem- 1790. April 24, General Numsen ber 6th, the town and fortress of Ot- gains a victory near Memel. May 2d, chakof taken by Prince Potemkin Tav- a sca-fight off Reval, in which the Rura ritthefkoi ; 9510 of the enemy were

fians take the Prince Charles, of 64 guns, killed, 4000 taken prisoners, 180 staud. from the Savedes, in which engagement ards, 310 cannons and mortars. The those two gallant English officers, Cap. whole of the inhabitants taken prisoners tains Trevennen and Denison were kill: amounted to 25,000 persons; the Ruf- ed. 23d, the feet under Vice Admiral fians loft 956. killed and 1824 wounded. Cruse engages the Swedish fleet near the December 19, General Kamenskoy gains iland Silkar, in the Gulph of Finland, considerable advantage over the Turks without any advantage on either side, near Gangur.

though they fought the whole day. 24th, 1529. April 16th, Colonel Rimskoy the action at Savataipala, when the Korfakoff is surrounded by the Turks, Swedes are forced to fly. June 6th, the who are beat with great faughter by Swedis dcfeated by Major Buxhevden, Lieutenant General Von Dürfelden. on the iland Uransari. June 22d, the 17th-28th, fome Ruffian cruizers from whole Swedish feet, commanded by the Sevastopol effected a landing on Cape Duke of Sudermania, entirely defeated Karakarman, burnt 6 mosques, and car- by Admiral Tchitshagoff and the Prince ried off great booty. 20th, Lieutenant of Nassau Siegen ; on this occafon 5000 General Derfelden drives the Turks prisoners were taken, amongst whom from Galatih, gains a complete victory, were the contre-admiral and 200 officers. kiils 2000, takes 1500 prisoners, with 28th, General Denisoff defears the Swedes the Serafkier Ibrabim Palha, and the near Davidur. July 9, Admiral Ufha. whole camp.

Several fkirmishes be- krff obtains a victory over the Turkish tween the Russians and Swedes in Fin. Aect com.randed by the Capudan Palha, land, always to the advantage of the at the mouth of the Scraits of Yenikali.

August

loss of 1500

cerns.

August 3d, peace was concluded with lying between the Bog and the Dniester Sweden, without the mediation of any to Rullia. August 15th, 16th, at Pillother power. August 28th, 29th, an nitz, near Dresden, a Congress was held engagement on the Euxine, not far from by the Emperor of Germany, the King Chod habey, between the Ruffian Admi- of Prussia, the Elector of Saxony, the ral Uskakoff, and the Capudan Palha; Count a'Artois, &c. &c. &c. when the principal Turkish thip, of 80 It would be impossible here to do jusguns, was burnt, one of 70 guns and tice to the character of this extraordinary three others taken, the Admiral Said sovereign. Born with strong natural caBey being made ,prisoner, and another pacities, she had neglected no means of thip sunk, the rest made off. September their improvement; and, from the mo3oth, a great victory obrained over the ment the ascended the throne, she seems Turks by General Germann, with much to have devoted her talents' to the imilaughter, the Serafkier Batal Bey and provement and prosperity of her empire. the whole camp taken. October 18th, In the business of government her inKilia surrenders to Major Ribbas. No- dustry and application are almost unex, vember 6th, 7th, the fortress Cultlha ampled; while her ministers discharged and the Turkish flotilla taken. Decem- the routine of their several departments, ber 11th, the important fortress of Iso she was consulting the more arduous exi. mail, after a storming for seven hours gencies of both domestic and foreign conwithout intermission, surrenders to Count Her time of rising was generally Suvoroff Kymnikikoi, with the garrison between five and fix in the morning, of 42,000 men, 30,916 were slain on the and, in the long winters of that climate, spot, 2000 died of their wounds, 9000 she was usually at business three or four taken prisoners, 265 pieces of cannon, hours before 'day-break. She was not an incredible store of ammunition, &c. less temperate than industrious ; fhe usuThe Russians loft only 1815 killed, and ally sat down to dinner at one ; never 2450 wounded.

remained long at table; and her time of 1791. March 25th-31st, the cam- going to rest was about ten at night. paign opened by the troops under the The uncommon evenness of her temper command of Prince Potemkin Tavritshe- may, perhaps, be attributed in a great tkoi, not far from Brailof, when the measure to the regularity and temperance Turks were defeated in several battles, of her life. Her perspicacity was such, in which they loft upwards of 4000 men. that she was seldom mistaken in persons June şth, the troops under General almost at their first appearance. So meGolenii shef Kutufoff, near Tultsha, thodical was fhe in the distribution of drove the Turks beyond the Danube, her time, that ainid the various cares of and at Babada entirely routed a body of administration, the great benefits she was 15,000 men, of whom 1500 were left contriving and bestowing on her vast emdead upon the place. 22d, the fortress pire, it was not one of the least that Anap was taken by storin, when the she could allot so much of it to the edu. whole garrison, confisting of 25,000 men, cation of her grand-children. All mawere put to the sword, excepting 1000 nifestoes and state papers were of her who were taken prisoners. 28th, the original composition. She encouraged troops under the command of Prince industry; the liberally rewarded merit; Repnin ' attacked the Turkish army, the invited arts and talents from every consisting of near 80,000 men, commands foreign nation, to improve and adorn her ed by the Grand Vizir Yussuf Palha, own extensive empire. She was the mu8 Palhas, 2 Tartar Sultans, and 2 Beys nificent patroness of literature in every of Anatolia, and after a bloody battle of country of Europe ; the maintained the fix hours entirely routed them; sooo security of her subjects by an impartial Turks were killed in their flight. June administration of justice; she convoked 28th, Sudskuk Kale taken. July 31st, deputies from all the provinces of the Admiral Ushakoff beats the Turkish empire to prepare a rational and uniform feet on the coasts of Rumelia. gift, code of laws, the instructions for which, the General in Chief, Prince Repnin, being a very thick folio, is not only of and the Grand Vizir, Yussuf Pasha, con- her own composition, but entirely in her clude and sign the preliminary articles of own hand-writing; and what above all peace between the Russian empire and is worthy of being remembered to her the Ottoman Porte; by which the Dnies- immortal honour, she granted many ter is made the boundary of the two em. franchises to the peasants on her own pires, with the cession of the countries demesnes ; the ordained that all causes Vol. II.] Original Memoirs of the Late Empress of Rufia. 979 between noblemen and their vassals invariable order of succession to the should be tried before tribunals composed crown does not impose filence on the amof both these orders; and the directed bitious claim of rival princes. But there her whole system of internal policy to a are some acts, at the recital of which we gradual, but complete and universal, should thuddess even if the scene were emancipation of the Russian peasantry. laid in the empire of Morocco. The No examples have happened in her reign dark mysterious fate of Prince Ivan, in of a wanton and cruel abuse of abfolute 1765, can never be obliterated from the authority for the oppression of indivi- annals of her reign; and if a no less disduals. If she had ambition, it was the mal tragedy in 1775 does not yet fully ambition of a truly great and elevated the page of history, it is recorded in inmind. Conscious of that dignity, no one delible characters in many a feeling heart. ever more despised the empty arts of adu. The blood spilt in the long conceived lation ; and when Diderot, putting him- scheme, of expelling the Turks from Euself into a transport of French extasy, rope, and re-establishing the eastern em. in admiration of the grandeur and di- pire in the person of another Constanmensions of her palace, thought to flatter iine, will not be expiated in the eyes of her by adding : " Ah, madame! mais fi humanity by the gigantic magnificence le palais avoir assez de largeur pour con. of the project. Above all, the wound tenir teus les heureux qu'a fait son pof- inflicted on the principle of national insesseur !” She received it with indigna- dependence through the sides of Poland; tion, and it cost him her favour for ever. the dissentions and civil wars induftria She aspired not only to the fame of vic- cully fomented in that unhappy kingdom, tory and conquest, but to the more folid for a period of thirty years; the horrible and innocent glory of founding laws, of massacres which attended its final subjupatronising letters, of diffufing industry, gation, and the impious mockery of recivilization, and opulence, throughout her turning solemn thanks to hcaven for the vaft dominions. Her empire was four success of such atrocious crimes, will be rishing at home; her arms were victorj. a foul and indelible stain upon the meous, and her name formidable abroad. mory of Catherine. If ever the fatal She may, in a general point of view, be practice of dismemberment and partiregarded as a model for ambitious princes. tion shall prevail to such an extent as to She performed all the duties which the destroy the whole security of European morality of ambition prefcribes ; fhe both nations, it will not be forgotten that improved and extended her empire. Catherine II. gave the first example in

between

If we try her conduct by the purer modern times, of blotting a great kingcode of reason and humanity, even with dom out the list of independent states. all the indulgence due to the frailties of Her conduct during the present war, our common nature, to the allurements has, in a political view, been highly of supreme authority, and to the fascina- honourable to her great talents; and, in tions of martial glory, the most partial a moral view, has been such as the allied friends to her memory will not provoke powers, at least, have no right to blame. a dangerous scrutiny by indiscreet enco- She has kept the Turks fri m falling miums on her exemplary conduct in those upon Austria, prevented a confederacy particulars. A prudent panegyrist will from taking place in the north, kept dwell lightly on the steps by which the Sweden and Pruflia in awe, and extir. mounted the throne. The only pallia- pated the devoted Poles. Her policy was tion of that measure, which the most to exhauft her rivals, and to place herfriendly ingenuity can suggest, will be self in that situation which England once derived from the weaknels and impru- enjoyed, of being the umpire of the dence of her husband, from the evils that European states; and as to fidelity and might have arisen to the empire from his honour, she has been as faithful to her injudicious administration, involving an allies as they have been to their profeffimmensity of mischief to fo large a por- ed common cause, and to their pretended tion of the human race, and from the general object. They pursued their supfrequent usurpations to which the Ruf.. posed interest at the expence of their siaus had in a manner been habituated professions and engagements, and she fince the death of Peter the Great. He did no more. “ The princes of Europe, might urge too, that the court of Peters. (says Mr. Burke) were easily led to conburgh, with a specious exterior of Euro. lider the flames that were consuming pean manners, has still a strong taint of France, not as a warning to protect Afiatic barbarism, where a settled and their own buildings, but as a happy oc.

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