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The allowances which are made to her entended is most perillous, and greater reaCounfell learned, are so small, that in polo . fon teretayne them as they are that licie it were more fite to be augmented all differences of language, customes, then diminished, the smallness of their fti. & difpocicions may be reconciled by the pend not yelding now competent maynte- communion of laws and government as nance to them of that worthines who' the only linewes by whch these diverse thould there ferve her Majestie, & for that members may be united into the same forvice foregne all practize of the lawe body. elsewhere, which want of reward is dain. For this reason (as I thinke) the Kings gerçuse for difcurraging men of fuffici. of this Realme named that Countell the ency, & for corruption of fuch who feele Counsell in the Marches, and appoynted the finarte of poverty:
houses for their residence only in the Therefore if by the exempting théle Marches. marcher shires, neyther the number of Now if these Shires shall be exempted, Counsellors nor Officers wilbe Thorned where tha!) the Councell contynue, Lud. nor the allowance noir' made any whit low castle is in Shropshire, Ticknell house lessened, how much will the sanie occa- in Worcestershire ; noe house of her Mafion her Majesties benefitt fhall wee thinke jeftie in all Wales, to my knowledge, fitt that the giving of this desired liberty will for this purpose, soe that not only the dilo cause an increa!c of loyalty in the sub- contentment of the Wehmen thall be hajects of those parts ? will their dispositions zarded, which in this tyme is not convewhen they return uno that fate that nient, the principality of Wales shortened they were in before the erecting of that in dominion, by taking from it all those Counsell be other then it had been? Was Marcher Shires, and new houses must be there before good cause to put those builded, or old houses (to her Majestics thires under the government of that great charge, for the Councells aboade) Councell, and is there noe cause to con- repayred, or else these Shires must conty
nue as they now are. But you will say it is a burchen to But, lete all these inconveniencies be those Thires, why then thould Wales en- forgotten. Let not the mychiefes be redure it, are they not fubjects to one Sove- membred which will ensue, the Welthraigne, & therefore why ihould not all be men's repayers into thefe Marcher Shires, partakers of the like goodness
to avoyd punishment. For if the government of the Coun- Let' Marcher Shires be yelded free cell be greeivous to the marches, it can- from being receptacles of popith & difnot be comodious to Wales.
loyal subjects, who would to God were Therefore, in my opinion, wch I lub- not there too much harbored. mit to better judgment, it is no policie Let it be noe prejudice to her Majesrhat the Weltlinen thould fynde them- tie to have those Shires exempted from felves more awed and bridled, or lesie that juri!diction, which the wisdome of fendered then other subjects, for as they parliament have thought meeré to be tare a people apt to acknowledge any kynd- stablished in those parts more absolute nefs, roe are thev by narure inpatyent to then elsewhere in this land. eitdure any thing wch they shall conceave Let there be noe reafun to deny what is to be done for distru ing them, or for fought, if it may be for the ease of those contempt of thein.
Shires only if this motion prove not And foe, to speak truly, if it be alone prejudiciall to the publique ftate Deedful to contynue a Counsell in Wales, but hurtfull to these private Shires, then it is not fit to take it from the Marches, let it be considered what doth occafion for in these dayes though the offences of this suite. the Marcher men are neither fewer in First, if it be not for the good of the number, nor in qualitie inore tolerable, country, then must it of necessitie bee then those done in Wales, and that in because their suites (for fuites they still tymes past the Marcher inen have sooner will have) may be ended elsewhere with yelded to government, did not proceed lefle charges, & in shorter tyme. that they were in disposition better then The court of the Counsell in the the Welshmen; but because the plain. Marches ordinarily houldeth plea but of nelle of their country yclded better and such causes which are receaved into the easier means to suppress them.
Courts of Chancery, Star-chamber or ReYet if it Thalbe yelded that a Marcher quests, with some other pleas & causes li
ought to better esteemed & mitted by the instruclions, how longe suites more favoured, notithstanding the cause depend in these courts before they are end,
Vol. II.] Original Memoirs of the late Empress of Russia, &c.
ed lett any man who hath suites there be truly not any other cause then the greedy judge, I will not impeach any court in re- covetousenes of some persons in those putation, I yeld to them all due honour, but Courts above, who desire to gett all And for the truth of this matter, I must needs presumptious ambition of lome Gent. saye, that in one yeare, every matter if in those Marcher Shires where they seeke. eyther the playntiff or defendant will, to comaunde all, the Court of the Marshall receave end in the Marches, which ches being hindersom to the one forte of in none of the other courts, in lefle then these in profitt and a bridle to the other two yeares ordinaryly can be determined.' forte for opprefsing their poore neigh
If this longe contynuance doth pro- bours having remedy there against their cecd from the matter of suites (for it tyrrany, both forts therefore seeke to should be a wronge to thinke it occafioned Morten the Courts jurisdiction. for any other end,) then when the causes But I hope her Majestie will give noe arising in the marches shall come allfoe passage to these bad purposes & foe overthere to be adjudged in what tyme (thinke throwe a Court very behoofefull to her you) will the same be decided.
ovne safety & netdfull for the countryes Toucheing the difference of chardge quiets, it being greatly to be feared least fufteyned by suites in the marches & in the takeing away of that Court will enthese courts, the difference of fees will boulden those under that Goverment to manifest the truth every fee allmost returne to their former wildnes, and foe being doubled & many trebled, & fome put her Majestie to the like trouble & more then fower tymes soe much in the chardge, which many Kings of this land Starchamber as they are att the Counsell. have often fufteyned.
Soe that the dispatch of suites in these If there be faults in that Court (as Courts being not soe speedy nor the what Court is free) lete the fault be rechardge soe easy, it must needs followe formed and not the Court suppressed. that it cannot be for the good of the It is cruell & dangerous surgery to use countery to have all their suites removed noe cure but even to cutt from the bodye from the marches.
the parte ill affected their practize is more What then hath occafioned this mocion to be comended who purge where is too seeing it play nely appeareth to be neither much and cutt none off where is too benefitiall to the Soueraigne nor Subiect, little.
ORIGINAL ANECDOTES OF THE COURT OF PETERSBURGH. RY USSIA, hardly known to the rest of publication as the present can allow.-
Europe till the close of the last cen- The trayellers, however, who have of tury*, has made so considerable a figure late years presented the public with the in the annals of history since that period, observations they were able to make, and that a fuccinct detail of its progressive the information they obrained, on their advancement to its present state of aggran- journeys to that country, furnith sufficient disement and prosperity would doubiless accounts of the times immediately precedbe no less useful than agreeable to the ing the late reign, for excusing us from reader ; but the relation of so many par- any farther preliminaries here. riculars as have concurred to that end, On the tragical event that terminated and the necessary display of the causes and the life of Peter the third, in 1762, his conlequences of each, would, with every widow, Catharine the Second, began her pollible endeavour at brevity, lead us to reign.--She had been married to that ungreater lengths than the limits of such a fortunate prince in 1745, while Grand
Duke of Russia; being at that time in her * Even till about the middle of the present seventeenth year. The only issue of this century the proper name of the country seems union were Paul Petrovitch, the present to have been unknown.-It was called Muf- Emperor, born in 1754, and Anne, of cory; as if a Tarfar, speaking of England, whom the Grand Duchess was delivered Mould call it Londony,
in 1757, and who died in 1761. For sixteen years they lived together in the en- The Countess Elizabeth Vorontzof was joyment of as much conjugal felicity as permitted to enjoy the affluence she had usually falls to the lot of persons of that received from the liberality of Peter, and elevated rank ; at least no flagrant irregu- lived at Petersburgh among a small circle larities, nor any conspicuous disagreements, of friends and relations, by whom her appeared before the public eye. Peter, death was lamented in 1791. Godovitch, an easy good-natured prince, being ex. who was high in the confidence of Peter, cluded from all interference in public af- and thereby incurred the particular disfairs, during the reign of his aunt Eliza- like of the Emprefs, was allowed to retire beth Petrovna, had the palace of Ora- to his native country; and the Holstein nienbaum afsigned him for his residence, guards, who had offered the Emperor to where, the culture of his mind having march against his confort, and even imbeen totally neglected, he passed his days portuned him to lead them on, experiin military exercises at the head of his enced no leverity at her hands : such as troops, and his evenings were usually were willing to insist were incorporated spent in concerts, masquerades, and con. in the several regiments; and the others vivial recreations, in which, foldier,like, withdrew unmolested from Russia. Prince he sometimes indulged to excess. If we George of Holstein, uncle to Peter, though have only heard of him as entirely given confined during the revolution, was afterup to intemperance, and the childish wards promoted to the rank of fieldamusements of a weak understanding, we marshal, and appointed administrator of ought always to remember that, from one Hoiftein during the minority of her son. or other cause, his character has only Catharine was in the 34th year of her been delineated to us by his enemies and age when she ascended the throne, on the affalsins. Nor hould it be forgoten,' 28th of June, 0. S. 1762. On the first that the regulations he made during his of September following the departed for short reign, of only fix months, were, Mosco, where the ceremony of her coroafter being made matter of accusation nation was performed with great solemni. against him, adopted successfully, under ty and magnificence, on the 16th of that other auspices, by the Empreis his suc- month ; from whence the set out on her cessor.
return the 14th of June, 1763, and arNothing could evince more ability and rived at St. Petersburgh the 28th. prudence than the conduct of the Empress However unpopular the peace and allion her accession to the throne. Her mag- ance fo suddenly concluded on the accelnanimity too was strikingly displayed in fion of Peter the IIId. with the king of her behaviour towards the friends of the Prussia, and the little probability there late monarch, who had remained true to was that the close and intimate connec. his cause. None suffered either by exe- tion which had subfifted between thofe cutions, confiscations, or banishment. She two monarchs could greatly recommend reproached indeed Field-Marshal Munic, the interests of the latter to the new fowhom the emperor had recalled after vereign; yet, fortunately for that wontwenty years exile in Siberia, with having derful man, the Empress, who had come taken part against her: "To my late to the Russian throne in the extraordinary
mafter, said he, my best services were manner that we have seen, could not look “due. He was my sovereign, and there- upon herself as sufficiently secure tą re“ fore commanded my duty. He was my kindle the flames of a war so destructive "benefactor and deliverer, and I glory in in its progress, declared to the king of " the testimonies I was able to give him Prussia's ministers, that she was refolved " of my gratitude and affection. You, to observe inviolably, in all points, the " madam, are now my sovereign, and my perpetual peace concluded under the pre“ fidelity to you is as unalterable as iný ceding reign. $6 attachment was to him."
Catharine now turned her thoughts to Carharine made no reply, but gave the benefit and improvement of her em. him her hand to kiss; and the first news pire. In the September of 1763 she laid he heard from her was an invitation to the foundation of the great Foundling court, where he continued in her utmost Hospital at Mosco. The following year confidence to the day of his death, which fe made a journey into Livonia, to learn happened on the 16ih of October, 1767, the state of that province; and, on her in the 85th year of his age. As soon as return, was present at the consecration the apprehension of new commotions was of the Devitza Monastery, instituted for dispelled; Count Vorontzof was released the education of young ladies of quality, from prison, andafterwards put into uffice. endowing it with a salary of 16,0001. per
Vol. II.] Original Memoirs of the Late Empress of Rufia. 973
On the 17th of July, 1965, the of July, 1783; of Helena Pavlovna, Empress held the inauguration of the December 13, 1784; of Maria Pavlovna, Academy of Arts at St. Petersburgh; February 4, 1786; of Catharine Pavlove and in the fame year invited literati from na, May 10, 1788; of Anna Pavlovna, Germany, and other parts of Europe, to January 7, 1795; and of Nicolai Pavlor the Academy of Sciences, which had been vitch, born the 2d of July, 1996. instituted by Peter the Great. These The care bestowed by the Empress on persons were, on their arrival, provided the education and nurture of her grandwith houses and ample salaries, that they children was unremitted. Conftantine, might prosecute their studies with ease almost immediately on his birth, was and convenience.
delivered to Greek nurses from the The year 1766, presented at Petersburgh Archipelago, that the language of the the grandest spectacle that perhaps ever Constantines might be familiar to him, was seen in Europe. At an entertain- whom the one day hoped to feat on their ment, which the Empress chose to name a throne. In this grand scheme, of recarouzel, the principal nobility appeared viving the Grecian empire, it is generally in the most sumptuous dresses sparkling supposed we are to look for the origin with diamonds, and mounted on korses of the wars carried on against the Turks. richly caparisoned, in a magnificent The tutors, appointed to both of the theatre erected for that purpose. Here Princes, were selected with care, but the all that has been read of the ancient Empress would frequently inspect their jousts and tournaments was realized and lessons, and examine the pupils in the exceeded in the presence of thousands of presence of their masters. fpectators, who seemed to vie with each In 1768 the composed instructions for other in the brilliancy of their appear- a new code of laws for her dominions ;
and the same year she submitted to the ha. In 1768, the war broke out with the zard of inoculation, in order that her sube Ottoman Porte, the various events of jects, to whom the practice was unknown, which it would scarcely be possible to might benefit by her example; and the enumerate, much less to particularize experiment, under Baron Dimsdale, hayin the space to which this article must ing happily succeeded, it was commemoof neceility be confined. One event, rated:by an annual thankfgiving. This year however, in which our countryman, the a war broke out with the Ottoman Porte, Contre-Admiral Greig, displayed his su- In January, 1769, the Khan of the Kriperior conduct and bravery, cannot be mea made an attack on the territory of passed over. It was on the 24th of Octo- Bachmut on the river Bog, where he ber, O. S. 1772, that he burned the was several times bravely repulsed, with Turkish fleer in the harbour of Tschesme his army of Tartars and Turks, by Main the Archipelago, and destroyed the jor General Romanius and Prince Prop enemy's magazines. A peace with the Toroffkoi. At the same time were fought Turks was concluded the 10th of July, the battles of Zekanofca and Soroca on 1775
the Dnieper, when the large magazines In the year 1773, the Grand Duke of the enemy were burned. In February Paul Petrovitch married a Princess of the Polish Cosaks in the voyvodeship of the House of Heffe Darmstadt, who, on Braclau put themselves under the Ruffian her baptism into the Greek church, took sceptre. In the lame month the Nifovian the name of Natalia Alexievna ; but, Saparogian Kosaks gain a battle in the dying in child-birth the following year, delarts of the Krim. In March the Poo the Grand Duke, in 1776, espoused a lifh rebels are subdued and their town daughter of the Duke of Wurtemberg taken by Major General Ismailof. April Stutgard, born the 14th of October, 1759, 2d, the Fort of Taganrock is taken on and, on her admission to the national the Sea of Azoff. - On the 15th. the Russian, communion, adopted the name of Maria army, underthe generalin chief, Prince Gas Feodorovna. The Grand Duchess.was litzin, crosses the Dniester. On the 19th the brought to będ the 12th of December, victory by Prince Galiizin near Chotyim. 1777, of the Grand Duke Alexander On the 21st the Turks are defeated not Pavlovitch; and on the 27th of April, far from Chotyim by Lieut. Gen. Count 1779, was born the Grand Duke Con- Soltikof. The 29th, the action between ftantine Pavlovitch. These happy events the Russian Kalmucs, and the Kuban were followed by the birth of the Grand Tartars, to the disadvantage of the latter. Duchess Alexandra Pavlovna, the 29th June 8th, defeat of the Turks at the mouth Şup. to MONTHLY MAG. Vol. II.
of the Dnieper near Otchakof. 19. AC- Russia and the Porte. May 13, the tion on the Dniester, when the troops of treaty of peace between the belligerent Prince Proforoffkoi force the Turks to powers in Germany and the French King repass the river in great disorder. Chot. was ligned under the mediation of her yim taken Sept. 19. Yassy, in Molda- Majeity. In June the established an hor. via, taken Sept. 27. Bucharest, in Val- pital for invalids at Mosco, to be conlachia taken, and the hospodar made pri- fined to officers. In July General Bauer foner, in November. 1770. Victory gain, received orders to cause a canal to be cur ed by the Russians under Generals Pod- to supply Mosco with wholesome water, horillhany and Potemkin, near Fokshany. In Ociober a thip built at Taganrock, The town of Siuriha taken by Lieut. named the Prince Constantine, sailed to Gen. Von Stoffeln, Feb. 4. A Russian Smyrna with Russian commodities. De. fleet appears in the Port of Maina in the cember 3, the viceroyalty of Voronetsh was Morea, Feb. 17. Mistra, the Lacedæ. instituted ; and the 27th Count Romon of the ancients, and several other mantzof Zadunaiski opened the viceroytowns of the Morea, taken, in February. alty of Kursk with great folemnity. Surrender of Arcadim in Greece, and a În 1780, Feb. 28, appeared the memomultitude of Turks made prisoners in rable declaration of her Imperial Majesty, the same month. The Turks and Tar- relating to the safety of navigation and tars are driven from their intrenchments commerce of the neutral powers. May 9, near the Pruth, by Count Romantzof, the Empi ess set out on a journey to Prince Repnin, and General Bauer, 11•16 White Russia from Zarfcoi Selo, visits June. Prince Proforofíkoi gains several Narva, Plesco, meets the Emperor of Geradvantages near Otchakof, June 18. The many under the title of Count Falkenstein, Russian feet, under Count Alexey Orlöf, at Mohilef, pursue the journey together gains a complete victory over the Turks to Smolensk. June 6, Count Falkenstein near Tschelme, June 24. The confe- arrives at Mosco. The 17th the Empreis quent destruction of the whole Turkish returns to Zarscoe Selo, and the Count fleet, near Tschesme, where it was burned Falkenstein to St. Petersburgh. July 8, by Admiral Greig, June 26.
Battle on the Emperor, Joseph II. returns to Vithe Kagul, in which Count Romantzof de- enna. Sept. the present King of Prussia feats the Turkish army, consisting of in St. Petersburgh, and returns to Berlin 150,000 men, takes the camp and all the the 4th of November. artillery, July 21. The fortress Bender In 1781, March 1, the Empress metaken July 22.
The town of Ismail ta. diates between England and Holland. ken by prince Repnin, July 26. Kilia ta. April 5, institutes the first public school ken by Prince Repnin, Aug. 21. Acker. in Petersburgh. August 27, the grand man taken in O&tober. Brailof taken Dukes Alexander and Conftantine were Nov. 10.
1771. The fortress of Shurfha inoculated by Baron Dimfdale. Aug. 31, taken by General Olitz, Feb. 23. The the first stone of a cathedral was laid at town of Kaffa taken by Prince Dolgo. Cherson, dedicated to St. Catherine. ruckof, June 29.
The fort of Kertchi Sept. 19, the grand Duke Paul Petrotaken July 2.
The fort of Yenicali ta- vitch and his confort Maria Feodorovna ken July 3. With numberless other vic- depart from Zaríkoe Selo, through Plertories, by tea and land, till the peace was cof, Mobilet, and Kief, on a journey into concluded the 13th of January 1775, by foreign countries, under the title of the which the Krimea was declared independ. Count and Countess of the North. ent of the Porte, all the vast tract of In 1782, by command of her Majesty, country between the Bag and Dnieper dated Jan. 18, a Roman Catholic archwas ceded to Russia, besides the Cuban bishopric was erected in the city of Mo. and the isle of Taman, with free naviga- hilef, with aurhority over all the cathction in all the Turkish seas, including lic churches and convents in the Russian the passage of the Dardanelles, privileges empire. Aug. 7, the famous equestrian granted to the most favoured nations, and statue of Peter the Great, being finihed, Nipulations in behalf of the inhabitants of was uncovered to the public in presence Mldavia and Vallachia.
of the Empress, on which occasion the In 1779, the Empress, intending to dis published a proclamation containing par. vide the empire into viceroyalties, made a dons for several criır.inals, &c. Sept. 22, beginning in January with the viceroy- the order of St. Vladimir instituted. The alty of Orlof, March 21, a new treaty 27th, publishes a new Tariff. Nov.
20, was signed at Constantinople between the grand Duke and his Duchess, having