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The foil of the fub-alpine vallies, abound in mount Jura ; it is soft and of where they are fiat, is frequently a blue- good quality; but being mistakenly abanish clay; which is the cause why they doned to itrangers, is linelted to advanare generally maríhy. For the rills of tage almost folely in the mountains of the water falling froin the heights swin upon bithoprick of Bafil. In mount Wetterthis clay and itagnate, nourishing plants horn, a rich heavy ore, nearly resembling of that kind which love to be always in the iron produced from it, is found : but water. Above this clay, the torrents, the fumaces in which it was finelted are deposit either a ftratum of stone and gra- fallen to decay. Steel has been made in vel, or fine sand; the latter more rarely. the county of Chiavenna about Flims; But that the inundations of torrents have but I ain informed that this fabric too is anciently been very frequent, is demon- discontinued. Sulphur is frequent in strated by the great and round tones Bern, in mount Lohner, out of which ľ which are in many places found on dig- have seen brimstone and vitriol procured, ging cellars and wells. That the marthy in the village of Candersteg: alio, about meadows were formerly wooded, may be Sublins, above Le Bevieux, where it efconjectured from the trees which are fre- floreices virgin from the rocks. There quently found in fenny foils. Above the are also fprings loaded with fulphur in Iakes there is every where, I believe, a the salt-water pits ; and sub-faline waters plain of some leagues, through which the rich in sulphureous vapour, which takes parent river runs in the midft of level fire on the approach of a candle, are boiled marthes.

down not without benefit. Above LauMould would be scarce in Switzerland, wenen the earth also is found rich in fulhad not the perpetual industry of three phrir; yet they no where turn these gifts ages gradually fabricated vegetable earth of nature to advantage, Petroleum Hows from manure, which now tempers the in various places; as not far above Bern gravels or clays. Here and there, how- on the Aar; and it is found copioutly ever, fertile fields may be found, yielding mixed in the gritty stone of Chavornac. a large increase of feed.

Crystals are in tolerable abundance, I have no where in the Alps met with and of tome value. Large pyramidal vestiges of volcanic mountains; no pu- masses of it are for:nd in caverns, where mices, or any thing like fcoriæ, or matter the inhabitants discover thein by protubecalcined by the force of fire. Yet lulphur rances in the rock. On the banks of the is plentiful in some parts. Funnels alio, Aar, as it flows towards the hospital of or chasms, an acre or more in extent, may Grimsul, in a most wild valley, masses of be observed: but I rather fuppofe them one hundred, two hundred, and more the ruins of gypseous stones, which water pounds, were dug out in the year 1727, has consumed.

which I saw and examined in 1728 and Metals do not belong to my subject; 1733: Among these, was a mass comyet Switzerland poffefies many, though posed of two united pyramids, weighing very few in any abundance, so as to be 697 pounds. In the upper Valais itill wrought with profit. Several torrents greater masses have been found. The canwash down gold, particularly the Emma, ton of Uri allo yields crystals ; and many and the Goldbach which flows into it, and persons throughout the country support next to these the Aar and the Rhone. I themselves by digging up or vending cryknow not whether any mine of gold has fals. been discovered, except in the Valais, Of mineral waters there is ample store where about mount Semperen, in a yellow in Switzerland. True hot springs are clayey earth, foine gold is extracted by found at Baden and near Leuk į tepid means of quicksilver, by the flourishing waters at Fabar and Weiffenburg : there family of Burginers. Silver mines have are also cold waters impregnated with a been discovered in the canton of Bern, and fine bole or lixivial earth, which have the even in the higher Alps, about lake odour of rotren eggs. ' Acidulous waters Engstlan, but to no advantage. Copper are rare, scarce any being known but is dug up in the Valais, about Martinach. those in the Engadina, near St. Maurice's There is a rich mine of lead above church. Morcle, in Bern ; and formerly lead was Brines, or salt fprings, are only met finelted about Sichellauinen, in the valley with in that corner of the territory of of Lauterbrunnen. Iron is sufficiently Bern which is terminated on this side by plentiful, yet in very few places are there the torrent of Avanton, on the other by profitable mines of it. The richest ore, that of La Grande East. This tract is in roundish masses, like yellowish flints, covered with a stratwn of gypsum, which

is

Vol. II.]

Haller's Description of the Swiss Alps.

943

out.

water.

is, in various places, burned for the use duce conferva, as is common in those of of the builder; and there is sulphur in other countries. the vicinity. The veins of brine are Switzerland generates streams for all weak :: that is somewhat the strongest Europe, in the manner we have already which springs in the mountain les Fon- mentioned. These waters find on all sides demens, in which there is about an eighth declivities 'prepared for them, through of sea salt : another near it is weaker, full which they delcend into the greater val. of a fulphureous vapour, and yielding lies, as those of the Valais, the Valtelline, scarcely above a hundredth of salt. Those the Grisons, &c. and empty into the subalso are weak, though more copious, alpine lakes, with which Switzerland which issued from a free-stone rock, two abounds. The rivers, however, never lay leagues from thence, near the village Pa- aside all their savage character: for the nex : lastly, those are the most scanty Rhine has two cataracts between Schaffwhich in the same tract spring from the hausen and Bafil, and a most rapid current surface of the earth, beneath the high rock both at Schaffhausen, and between Lauf. of Chamosiere. It is worthy of notice, fenburg and Rheinfelden. The Aar, fixty that in many places a salt water perco- leagues from its source, runs through a lates from a blue compact marle, in the dangerous and rapid channel above the centre of the mountain, round which is a town of Brugg. The Rhone, below the rock composed of very hard micaceous , Leman lake, links into the earth in the whetstone.

midst of rocks. The Inn, which the Another kind of salt both efloresces country of the Grisons fends to the Euxspontaneously from the rocks, even in the ine sea, has a precipitous course throughneighbourhood of the salt-springs, and is The Tell, alone, both above and also contained in a black soil in various below the lake of Neufchatel, flows with parts of the Alps. This is manufactured a calm and navigable ftream. by some of the inhabitants into a purging There is no valley in Switzerland withfált, under the name of Gletscher Salt. In out its rivulet; scarcely a village which the crevices of the rocks under Chamofiere is noť enlivened by springs of running is found a salt resembling native Glau

Wells are hardly known, except ber's Salt, cooling, bitter, icy, destitute in a very few places, where there is no of regular figure, and frothing when laid declivity. Hence I cannot believe that on red hot iron.

ftrumous swellings are produced by the In common waters Switzerland excels impurity of the waters: for though in the almost every country in Europe. I never Valais muddy waters are drunk, yet the recolleet out of Switzerland to have seen water at Bern is extremely pure, where, those limpid and truly crystalline waters, nevertheless, strumous diseales are not inwhich gush, unpolluted by any earth, frequent in both sexes. ftrained through the pure flints of our It remains for me to speak of the moun. rocks. Not a few of them have this fur- tains ; between which and the Alps there ther advantage, that they neither them- is a great difference. The principal of selves freeze in the severeit colds, nor per. these is Jura, which on one side stretches mit common water to freeze when mixed

beyond Geneva towards Lyons; on the with it. A rill of this kind rushes from other, extends near fifty leagues to the the village of Fontenai, and is carried by conflux of the Aar with the Rhine, where pipes to Aigle, protecting the waters it terminates. It is a little craggy in many of Grande Eau, with which it mixes, places, tame, woody, and even admitting from the utmost violence of froit. Such, the plough beneath its highest summits. too, are the springs in the manor farm In this mountain are long plains, and of Roche, which alone suffice for the ridges like the principal : there are no whole village in the most rigorous winters, pyramids; yet the bare summits are not when all others are frozen up. The cause productive of trees. The greatest part of of this phenomenon is unknown: the wa- the mountain is composed of an uniform, ters are extremely pure, and grateful to yellowish, very hard stone, useful for the taste. Perhaps they are collected not building, but unfit for the carver. Jura far from their source into fome deep sub- abounds in iron of the best quality. It is terranean lake, where, as in a natural for- drier than the Alps, and in places void tress, they refift the power of frost, and in water, even in the vallies ; so that the a hort course cannot suddenly be reduced rivulets of melted snow and ice might be from their native heat of 53 degrees to here withed for. that of 32.

There are also in the valley of Emms Further, the waters of Switzerland do mountains continued from the Alps, not become fætid on standing, nor pro- though diftantly, which the country Sup, to MONTHLY MAG. Vol. II. 6 E

people people themselves distinguish by a peculiar' ground. The blueith whetstone of Bern name from the craggy Alps. These are is very beautiful; but it has the fault of entirely composed of gravel, or at least attracting moisture to such a degree, as to arched beneath by rocks concealed under comsume itself if it touches the earth. much earth, nearly as in the Hercynian Flints, jasperine, white, red, green, and valley.

black, every where abound in the rivulets From these mountains innumerable hills of Switzerland : the black ones are said are derived, separated by little watered to contain some gold. The sands consist dales, without any certain order. In the of triturated quartz, of litțle pebbles, like hills whetitone prevails, which may be granates; and other crystals: the beds of met with every where from the village rivers are generally strewed with very flat of Lutry to Burgdorf, either naked and oval stones, of a sandy nature, extremely broken, or buried under a little earth; on fit for the experiments of the celebrated a sandy mountain of which kind the city Spallanzami. of Bern is placed.

Chalk is unknown in Switzerland, I do not find, however, that in the tracts though it abounds in calcarious stones, of Switzerland there is any uniformity of No where, also, are to be found large the various species of stone. About Lil- tracts of sand : those which there are aptry whetstone is dug. Then succeeds a

pear either about the margins of lakes, or hard calcarious stone continued from the the shores of rivers. Alps. With these are mingled ftony con- I now come to the subject, which the cretions of Aints, cemented by a hard preceding observations were intended to matter: these

may

be found scattered by introduce ; namely, the variety of plants the road from Ćuilly to St. Saphorin. which Switzerland produces. This vaHard calcarious rocks again succeed be- riety is connected with the situation of yond Chilon, and true marble of various places, the water, but principally the air. colours, which on all sides hangs over the Switzerland represents almost all the principal valley of Aigle. Yet the same countries in Europe ; from the fartheit marble is here and there interrupted by a Lapland, and even Spitzbergen, to Spain. reddish whetstone on this side Ivorne; and About the rocks of ice, in the highest val. by much gypsum beyond the Grande Eau. lies of the Alps, the temperature of the The neighbouring rocky part of the Va- air is the same with that of Spitzbergen: lais is deftiiute of marble. A schistus the summer is extremely short, scarcely comes down to Bex, above which town it consisting of forty days, and those too inis fit for Nating. Thence it ascends into terrupted by snow; and all the rest of the the Alps.

year is severe winter. Hence moft of the Thus, when the hill near Bern, beyond plants found by Martens in Spitzbergen the Aar, was dug through for making are produced near the glacieres of the Alps

. the high-road, I saw mixed micaceous Since these plants in Spitzbergen and ftone and alpive quartz, intermingled in Greenland grow near the sea, it appears, the quarry with a round lime-stone, and that the cause why they are also peculiar gritty whetstone. Clay also covers the to the Alps is not the levity of the air, whole mountain Jorat, the rocks of which but the cold; for in this respect the cliconfift of whetstone.

mate of the Alps resembles that of the I lhall add, that the Swiss marbles are remotest north ; but in the weight of the all variously coloured, no white ones hav- air it is extremely different. ing been found ; so that we are ignorant From thence, on leaving the eternal ice, whence the Romans brought those im- pastures succeed ; first poor, stony, and mense masses of white marble which are frequented by sheep alone ; in which seen in the building and statues at Aven. plants of the humbleft growth, all perenches. The marble climbs to the highernial, and many of them distinguished by regions; for a kind, variegated with rose. white flowers, compose short turf. They colour and green, is frequently found are in general harder than common, more about the icy rocks of the valley of Grin- tenacious of their colour in dyeing, and delwald, in fallen masses, but not in en. more aromatic, so as that even the comtire rocks. A very beau hla nd mon rauunculufes have a grateful odour. is dug near St. Tryphon; a kind varie- The pastures, becoming more and more gated yellow, ash-culoured, and blood- fertile, now suffice for cows, which remain red, about Roche ; and near it, an afh- in them the forty days that alone are free coloured and spuited kind; about Spiez, from snow, nor then, indeed, with perfect a b'ack with whire veins, of which the constancy. In that region numerous plants houses in Bern are usually built above are produced, which are commonly called

alpine;

Vol. II.) Haller's Description of the Swiss Alps.

945 alpine ; and not a few of which also grow vallies is such as scarcely can be credited in Lapland, Siberia, and Kamtschatka; by strangers. I have seen, when the sky some likewise in the highest mountains of threatened a storm, in a thermometer at Asia. The summits of mountains afford Roche exposed to the sun, the mercury the greatest of these plants.

afcend to the 117th degree of Fahrenheit's In these pastures trees begin to Thoot scale; and in the year 1762, even to the up; first the Savines, and Pines with an 140th, when fixed to a garden wall, proeatable nut, together with the Rhododen- tected from the north and east. drons, Vacciniums, Salixes with a Myr- The hottest parts of all are in the Val. ile leaf, and with a Thyme leaf, and telline, and in transalpine Switzerland, others.

about Lugano and Chiavenna. These A little lower succeed the Fir woods, in afford plants, as yet not sufficiently exthe declivities both of the Alps, and the amined, but entirely Italian, and unknown other mountains. Some of these, which in Germany, unless Carniola and Iftria be face the north, produce the boreal plants reckoned in that country: of Lapland and Siberia ; as that which Thus it comes to pass, that Switzer. descends from the mountain Pontdenant to land, in a small compass, produces more the village les Plans. The other woods numerous plants than those kingdoms of of this kind generally afford the Hercy- which we as yet possess floral catalogues. nian and Swedish plants, and some peculiar Not that we deny that the same riches will to the country.

be found in the Alps, vallies, and plains The woods are occasionally interrupted of Savoy and Piedmont, when the collecby meadows, which owe their rise to tions of C. Allionius shall be made pub. burned trees,

and are for the most part lic. But if A. Gouan, in his Flura Monf. very fertile, and abundant in the finest peliensis, has enumerated 1,865 fpecies, of hay. Among these, the Yellow Gentians, which about 1,600 have conspicuous Veratrums, Campanula with a Draba flowers; and if our enumeration contains leaf, Anchusas, brown Stachys, and other almost 2,500 species, of which there are mountain plants prevail.

1,714 exclusive of Lichens, Mosses and And now succeed the sub-mountainous Fungi; I may justly suppose that ours and subalpine regions, variegated with exceed in number, since that celebrated fields, meadows, and woods; such as the botanist has reckoned among his many territory of Friburg, and other tracts garden plants; whereas we have not a fin. lying beneath the lower mountains ; gle one which may not be found in untracts not level, but unequal in their fur: cultivated spots; and there are scarcely face, composed of clusters of hills and above twenty which can be suspected to vallies. These resemble the north of Ger- have come originally from gardens. many, yet are without its sands : they It is wonderful in how small a tract have some turf bogs, but not large. such a variety of plants is contained. If Along with common plants, fome Alpine from Sion in the Valais you travel to ones are here found, probably brought Mount Sanetsch, a journey of about seven down by the torrents.

hours, you will leave at Sion the Ephe. The vine-bearing plains follow, as those dra, the Gramen echinatum, the Pomeof Bafil, Zurich, Turgow, Paternach, granates, flowering in the rocks of mount Vaud, Geneva, and the alpine vallies. Valeria, you will leave the Chesnuts and This warmer tract resembles that of Jena, flourishing Walnuts, filled by the chirpor the middle of Germany. But the funny ings of the Cicadæ, and the vines produce banks of the Leman lake, and that of ing excellent wine; then, the fields fertile Neufchatel, and the midst of the Valais, in the finest wheat; and by degrees the excel all others in the generous quality of Beeches and Oaks will vanish; then even the wines and plants. Here we meet with the Firs will desert you, and soon after many plants of Austria, the south of the Pines with an edible nut; at length, France, and Italy; and some even of Spain the whole race of trees; and you may in the very hot and southerly exposed val.' dine among the heath-like Saxifrages, and lies of the Valtelline and Valais. In the other plants of Spitzbergen ; and thus, same are produced aromatic wines, replete in the space of half a day, collect plants with native spirit, and extremely strong. which grow from the 40th to the 8oth

The heat of the atmosphere in these degree of latitude.

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For the Monthly Magazine. country which renders that country more HEADS OF AN ESSAY ON CIVIL

or less desirable. This it is that stamps a JURISPRUDENCE.

value on the political establishment when

ir happens to be good, and above every Read before a learned Society.

other circumstance affects the welfare of A a period when the public attention

a people. has been fo much directed to politi. A few authors indeed have latterly cal investigation, and when we can even arisen, among whom, one of the most reventure to pronounce that a very liberal spectable, is the Marquis Beccaria, who style of thinking has prevailed upon these have treated of criminal law in a philofosubjects, it could not fail to excite, some phical manner; but I do not recollect a degree of surprize, if we should find upon fingle writer who has arisen to point out enquiry, that the most important of po- the defects in Civil Jurisprudence, though lirical topics had been, (both practically I am persuaded that in most countries of and thcoretically) almost totally neglect. Europe the civil is much more defective ed; and the most pernicious errors incau- than the criminal code, and productive of tiously countenanced, on matters, the most much more oppreffion, injustice, and unaffecting to human happiness.

happiness. The majority of kings and statesmen In the narrow limits of a literary me. (I include even those who have been in, moir it would be absurd, were the writer general eleva ed above mean and selfish poffefied of every necessary qualification, views) have imagined that they consulted to enter into the minuteness of legal difbest the welfare of their respective states, quisition; and all that can possibly be when they increased their territory; when attempted is to exhibit a slight sketch of they formed treaties of alliance, ca!cu- what apparently ought to be the leading lated to enlarge the power, and, what they principles in a rational code of Civil are pleased to consider as the glory of the Jurisprudence. nation; and above all, when they have The First principle which I should extended and improved its commerce, and insist upon as esential to a good code of increased its 'wealth.

Jaws is, that they be barmonious and conEven speculative politicians have fallen fistent.—The whole of the laws ought to into an error almost equally prejudicial. branch out from a few principles, and They have in general been engaged in there as consistent as poslible with nacontests concerning the form which the tural justice; and though the cases ought executive power of a nation ought to al- to be as numerous as possible, in order to fume—they have not confidered, that in afford a specific remedy for every wrong, every couniry where public liberty is for. yet the spirit thould be the same in all, rified by the strongobarrier of a popular le- and the same chain of reafoning should gisla-ure, it is almost impossible that op- universally apply.--But with which of preilion or despotic authority should be the European codes is this the case ? In exercised; and that the rest is a mere ques- most of them, in our own for instance, the tion of expediency, whether the executive principle of the law is directly ar war authority of a state shall descend in a chain with the practice.--The principle is of subordination from one chief magil. mostly feudal, and is only :o be rak d nut trate, or thall be rádically divided into of obsolete volumes by the indefatigable different departments ? a question which, labour of the antiquarians. The judge in my opinion, might be discussed in who fits upon the bench is fometimes at a much fewer words than have been beftowed loss for the reafon and principle of the upon it : a question, che solution of which law which he administers. The ad. is really of much less importance than vocate often misunderstands, and still many other political topics that have at. more commonly perverts it; and the tracted le's attention.

jury and the fuitors all remain in the most While such have been the usual em- perfect ignorance. It is a mystery, a ployments of statesmen and philosophers, ju gle, only for the initiated; and even they have almost entirely overlookd a they are frequently lost in its mazes, and funject of instant importance to the hape unable to say where the influence of feu. piness of society; a sudjeci in which every dality should end, and where the modern individual is deeply interested; a fubieét fyftem fhould begin. which gives, as it were, the very character Hence proceeds the absurd discrepancy to every Society. It is in fact THE AD). between what is called real and personal MINISTRATION OF JUSTICE in every property. Hence an estate in land thail

be

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