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. II.)

Of the Language of Madagascar.



In manne anno, Wherein art thou Aho. What? rich ?

Meaz trangubas tambook trangue vattes Emgombe voolle, angondri, ojje, akohoo, trangue ambone, baze, lawa verwan lawa vooje. In gelt oxen, sheep, goats, and samme famme trangue France, mise sea lande gelt fowls.

voolangortdre, vooliose voolangombe mene Zahai te acco.

I will take some. meinte monguemongue vaque tootolabi. 'They Intoato oola, meinte mande, anya em- will toil to build fine houses of wood and boitz, melaque angombe, mitondre ef poola, stone, with great doors and windows, like

mbe bolje, focla angombe, tanmane. those of France, decked with cloths of folk, Come hither, negro, go to the mountain wool, mehair, ox-hair, red, black, yellow, for oxen, and fetch forty gelt oxen and ten green, and all colours. Cows.

faye oola mahai.

These men Ize marmare mizza, molle ensandok clever. aminai teanno. It is much, look into my

Rez mabai amboolle antanne samboorre chest for what thou wilt.

meaz engamere satroo camis lambe fooshe. Vaz annoo teaz Oiai angue madindin, They know to low, plant reap, make barez madindin, vaque momgey-moingey, shoes, hats, and white linen. meneamene feinte zaharai rarvoo. I know Abo oola mahai meaz andracalle andra. not if thou wilt give ine coral and beads calle. Why do your men toil day after of many colours, green, yellow, red, day? black.

Oola fe meaz moosquire mawoofe res Into fambcòrre. Take fome.

ampaanguinaira oola meaz manne mahaira Zaa citea samboorre, oma anno. I will vinsi ampanguinaira. The man who toils rot take, unless thou givest me.

not is poor and hungers, but the man who Into famboorre, voose failai enwoofe, toils, gets drunk and grows rich. ennog voose masjaisai, entangue awali Zahci annarez ji mahai meaz moosquine ennoo. Take this necklace, put it on thy rez ampanguinaira. Then if we toil not, neck, and take these motley bracelets for we are to be poor and to hunger. thy wife.

Accorre tampoo Zanharrei angarra yan.. Awiot entrangue, enminai femmesemme barra re fitca meaz andracalle andrăcalle trangano. Come to my house, it is moosquine abi. If our common master, thine.

God, will not accept our toil, though we Zaa fitia trangano roandrie, zaa teas work day after day, it profits not. tranganos. I will not, thy house, fir, but Taiza Zanharre zahai simaita. Who is one to myself.

this God? I never saw him. Samboorre trangaro menewali. Take Re toomooranbon re ampooras tootoolle the house of my wife.

oolla tanne tootoolle abi manfwandre vooel Zaa teaco. I content to it.

reak raa vinanguès hazes ahets. He Accorwali allai fandok, allai fihit, ve- dwells in heaven; he is the father of all longas, loowees oola, vaza tea, trangano. men of all the earth, the sun, the moon, Aviot roandrie, rie madhai. My wife, the sea, the beasts, the rivers, the trees clear away thy chefts, mats, pots, and the plants. dishes. Strangers want thy house. Come, Zaa tea mizandri zaa itandri rawon

ampanguinaira. I would fain see him. I Mande hanne, manfwander matte. Go Rould be very glad of it. away, the sun is dying.

Anno ite abi tootoo awerer fibiti amni Laa awiot amarray empisse. I shall tangue anni dola ampanzac tai Manafa. come again to-morrow.

Thou seeft him every where; haft thou Salam zanyak, abi tootoolle, akor sarako. not seen him in the hand of our priest at Good day, my children, are you well ? Manafia? Fante. Yes.

Zaa ite oola ampanzac ampoo warre Izangare lambe faihai anmemi, haze samboorre amni tangue booroo booroo foosbe lawa en loatambo. What is this net stretch-majaijai vaque ahelin amnifingue aheline ed between two bits of wood, fastened at fik mosne minon ampanguinaira zoa fihiti the ends on which


zanbarre. I have seen your priest talk, Engare lambemandre vatte. It is to rest and take in his hands a round white

thing, which he broke and put into a Anbanne manne zare. You are rich in cup of wine, which he drank; but I saw mind.

not God. Quelle quelle, ampanguinaira cola France Samme samme oola vaza biti ampane manne zare mahai meas tootola. So so, in guinaira, If thou wert a man of the faith, a short time you will see men of France thou wouldīt see him directly. do many



fir, she is gone.

the body upon.

other things.

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Zaha teakko. I consent to it.

I am full of meat. Slave, bring rice-milk, Tomoira ampanguinaira cola amponfae beans, ripe banyans, and prunes. awiote antan annaeirez. Wait, in a little Accorre anno awiotte autonna anai ise while you will have priests in your land, oomai annoo. If thou come to my town, who will teach you.

what shall I give thee? Zaha rawao. I fall be glad of it. Vas. I know not.

Ampoorras zaha rez baiza an ommez Zahai moosguin bin en angombe akoc ani annabaee. Father, I hunger, where shall enpocrras rene rafooze vali anai and. I'find to eat?

cawandri zana labe zanna ompelle anna Annak mis akoho lahe voolle tamanne lahe oratorigue ondeves ennai abelin fiq mimajjasai attoole farra angondri ole romonne. tondre hen. I ain poor; thou wilt eat Son, I have many cocks, capons, hens, only beef and chickens : but iny father chickens, eggs, calves, sheep, goats, and fall be there, my mother, my grandmomilk.

ther, iny wife, my sister, my son and Zaa thea ro ako vook aro. I desire daughter, my brother, my uncle and aunt, only two capons.

and my flaves shall serve us with wine Quelle quelle amini oolo abi. So so, that and meat. is little for you all.

Accore fibin fuie. Shall we eat no Manfwandre ambone zaa thea monde fith? mitff voorre fecque auranne amni varre. Hin ko malak oola mahai samboorre fuie. When the sun is high, I will kill ducks We will eat some. I will send men to také in the water, where thy rice grows.

filh. Maninye matte voorre. Wherewith wilt Ise mermaré fuie an, winangue. Are thou kill them?

there many fit in your

river? Amili ampingare lawa fenoo auli bachie. Marmare. Many. With a long gun, full of powder and lead. Ooaira. Whither goest thou?

Oowee mande zathea ombe anyo. When Mirna oola mahai samboole fuie. I am goeft thou? I will go with thee.

to fee for my men to take filh. Amarai ampisse. To-morrow early. Toomogaire zaa thea mandeano. Stay, I

Aho amarai ampille si mandai anyon. Why will go with thee. to-morrow early, canst thou not to-day? Atoo mande han. Lét us go then. Ato mandai. Come, let us go.

Ize winangue. Here is the river. Mize avorroo roandri. See these birds, Ize oole mahai samboole fuie. Here are fir.

the men ready to take fith. Anno tomoire zaa misix. Stir not, I am Ize maroo toli faya anri foole. Here are going to fire.

many lines fastened to a net. Zaa mitenne firi voorre matte.

I have Samboorre fuie erzetoc. They are to take heard: how many birds are dead? the fish.

Zai voonon vale. I have killed eight. Abo oole simatoo voy omban winangus. Ize vale marmare. Eight! that is many. The men are bold, for all the crocodiles,

Accorre roandri fitea awiotte hiane venturing into the river. voorre. Now, fir, wilt thou not come and Ize et Jamboorre tali. Here's an end; eat of them?

they are taking in the lines. Teako lili voose annivoorre allai raz. I Aho arre fuie. Ah! how many fish, agree to it. Cut the neck, that the blood Miraa lanzaa. Look! Reckon. may cuine out.

Maninye ef tootole fuie. What shall we Zaa lili voose allai voole allai ansinai do with all this fish? awali ani aze lawe. I have cut the necks; Vas samboorre tea anno fuie toombira pluck them, gut them, spit them on a zahai amiljoo labi. I know not. Take cane, and turn them.

what thou wilt, the rest I mall divide Zannok hen mansok enharrez firia hin. among my people. Son, the meat is roasted, shall we eat? Zaa filea samboorre fuie anno tampon Zaa teako. I confent.

ondeve anno mitondre antrangue anno. 1 Ato ambanne annisice. Let us sit on will not take any of this filh; your ilaves these mats.


choose to your Sos ben mansok. It is nicely roasted. house. Atao minon siq tantelle minon sarakoo So abigo. Well said !

Let us drink wine. I drink thy Mandai allhoa vahai ombe ampanguihealth.

naira. Go before, I shall be there in a Zai koo. And I thine.

little while. Vinsi hen ondooe in twato foofhe narre Zahai lalo falume. I will go then, Gronnon voaguembe onces mamy voannio, farewel.



Vol. II.)

Haller's Description of the Swiss Alps.


To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. of alps, which first runs fouthwards,

then directly eaft, dividing the Valais SIR, The following admirable topographical from Bern, and coalefcing with the

piece, prefixed by the illustrious Hal- fouthern chain in mount Furca.. But Ler to his treatise on Swiss Plants, not

from mount Gothard, which is connected having, as I believe, yet appeared in an

with Furca hy other alps, another chain Englith dress, I am induced to offer it begins, nearly in the same direction, to your niscellany, under the perfuafion nained Crispalt, separating first the canthat its intrinsic merit, and the interest

ton of Uri, and then that of Glaris, from excited by the country of which it the Grisons. This chain fubsides about treats, will render it acceptable to

Sargens, into hills of moderate height; it

your · readers, notwithstanding the various then rises again into very craggy summits accounts, by other writers, which have between $t. Gall and Toggenburg; and appeared' relative to the fame part of, with gentler elevations between thele dirEurope.

tricts and the Rhine, is continued to the


From each of these principal chains, HISTORY OF THE SWISS ALPS.

the northern and southern, shorter ridges, By the late BARON HALLER. but frequently of great height, run in a WHAT is called Switzerland, contains different direction; from the former, ge

the thirteen allied cantons; the coun- nerally towards the north and welt; from try of the Grisons, the Valais and other the latter, towards the fouth and eaft. allied states, and the subjects of the free The principal alps from the southern ftates. The extent of the whole country chain run between Savoy and Piedmont, is not considerable, containing about four and fo fouth-eastwards to the sea, as far degrees of longitude, and the space be- as the mouth of the Var. Some of these tween the 46th and 48th degree of lati- are of stupendons height. A shorter tude.

ridge runs due fouthwards into Aoust, and The whole of Switzerland may be di- divides into many branches, separating vided into two parts; of which the Cifal- the narrow vallies of this district. A pine is the greatest, and contains the prin. considerable one also proceeds froin mount cipal states: the Tranfalpine consists en- Furca, and defcends by Domo d'osiela tirely of subject districts, torn from the and the Lago Maggiore into the duchy Milanese.

of Milan. To the north the same high Switzerland proper is situated to the chain sends out many ridges, but sorter north of the Alps, and among their very

ones, into the principal valley of the fummits. Its general boundaries are, to Valais, intercepting portions of it, like the fouth, that very long chain of Alps

branches. which runs from the Leman-lake, be

Beyond the Furca, in the country of tween the Valais and the vallies of Aoust, the Grisons, so multiplied and various Seilia, Antigoria, and others, to mount are the ridges which run from the great Furca; and thence from mount Gothard,

alpine chain, that they can scarcely be through mount Lucmainer and Adulla,

described in words. Of these many are between the free Gritons and their sub- exceedingly wild and lofty, particularly ject allies, thence between the Valtelline those that run eastwards about Bormio and Engadina, and fo to the Bormian and the Valtelline. ridge. This chain of Alps is indeed here

The northen ridge of the alps pushes and there somewhat depreffed, so as to af. many branches into the canton of Bern, ford passages towards Italy; but even

and thence into Underwald, Uri, Glaris, these vallies are very much elevated, and and Schwitz.* are real craggy alps; nor did ever wheel

Some of the alps are insulated, and dee find a way from Switzerland to Italy.

tached from all others, every where surThis line, which is nearly one hundred rounded with lakes or vallies, as some leagues in length, I usually call the ridges between Bern and Friburgh, and fouthern alpine chain. It is not, how

mount Rigi, in Schwitz. ever, one simple ridge; for others, either These are the Alps. To the north and parallel, or varioully connected with it, west Switzerland is separated from Alface and rising to nearly an equal height, run from east to west. From the neighbourhood of the Leman- here abridged, as it confists of a number of

* Part of the description of the original is lake, and especially from the barriers of

names which could only be found in a good the Valais, commences the northern chain map.


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and Franche Comté by Mount Jura, a Upon this the snow is seated, Hence the much lower chain, and more resembling inhabitants rightly name Gletscher what the mountains of other countries ; yet we in German call snowy mountains. This fylit here and there into several ridges, ice in some places covers a breadth of purallel or inclined towards each other, thousand perches and more. Its under between which are interposed the vallies surface, which faces the rock or sand, is of Neufchatel, Bienne, and the bishopric generally hollow; and froin this vault of Bafil.

rops of water distil on all sides, most co; The country between the Alps and piously in the summer heats, when a rivu. mount Jura approaches nearer to a plain, let springs from every mass of ice. Such yet is rendered unequal in parts by rilings is the origin of the Rhine and Rhone, in and hilly tracts. Nor is there any where the source of which I have formerly in Switzerland a large extent of plain, quenched my thint; of the Aar and Rus. from whence no mountains may be dit- To these waters, destined to the produccerned. The most level are fome parts of tion of rivers, accesiions are occasionally the canton of Zurich, and the larger sub- made, when the snows melt from the alpine vallies.

warmth of the air or the heat of the sun; The face of the Alps appears to me not a circumstance which principally happens fufficiently known; I shall therefore brief- from fudden storms attended with thunly describe it, as I have observed it in der, or south-westerly winds, to the great many journeys through its regions. terror and peril of the neighbouring in

The Alps are entirely of a rocky na- habitants. ture, in most places naked about thesum- A third cause of the rivers is the rain mit, with a middle girdle of pasture, and distilling from the clouds, whenever they the roots cloathed with woods of fir..., are suddenly taken up from the middle Though from a distance they appear ridge of the Alps, and dissolved into a compoled of pyramids far detached all dewy shower on the summits of the mounround from the neighbouring inountains, taing; a phenomenon which I have feveyet in reality they are ridges, some parts ral times witnessed. The conflux of these of which are more elevated than the rest. waters into rivulets is aided by the pecu-, Their height has not been accurately de- liar structure of the Alps. The rocks termined. That of the mountain Dent which tower aloft are grooved by innu. de Midi alone has been found to be 8161 merable trenches, which are inclined feet above the level of the Rhone, by J. planes, meeting at various angles.--Gamaliel de Roverea, late engineer at the Through these, firinly wrought in a ftony Bern falt-works. But this mountain channel, the waters froin the heavens de loses all its snow almost every year, and is scend, and below the summits of the Alps the extreme and lower termination of the unite either into a lake, of which these fouthern chain By an experiment of mountains contain a vast multitude in Loys, the Montagne Maudite, in Savoy, their vallies, or into a rivulet. A stream rifes 13,440 feet above the Leman-lake ; thus formed, augmented from similar and the fame, or more, is the height of sources, flows through the upper vallies Mount Schreckhorn, Sylvio, the moun- in a Mallow channel; but as it descends tains above Gothard, Septimus, and the lower, where the mountain has a more Grison ridges above Bormio. For Mi- earthy foil, it digs itself a deep bed among cheli's calculation of 2,760 perches for the the precipices; from whence rushing in height of mount Gothard, depends upon repeated cataracts, and often dashed into an uncertain basis between Arburg and mift by its fall, it, at length gains the the Alps. The Alps, therefore, in ge- valley. Here it brings down stones torn neral rile to about 16,000 Paris feet above from the mountains, and overspreads it the fea; for the Leman-lake has an eleva- with a gravelly coat, till at last it is eition of 1000 or 1,200 from the sea *. ther swallowed up in foine more extensive

Great part of the Alps appears covered lake, or is loft in a larger river. This is with snow, which in many ridges is eter- the comision structure of the Alps, wherenal. That which is seen is not, how- by they generate rivers, by the junction ever, snow. A perpetual ice forms the of waters from liquified ice, melting snow, cruit which covers the declivities of the and rain and milf, Alpine fummits, as with a breast-plate. The alpine lakes, for the most part,

pour off their waters by torrents pro

ceeding from them, From fome, how* Sir.G. Shuckborough makes Mont Blanc, ever, the water steals away through imin Savoy, 15,662 feet.

perceptible shinks. Of this kind is the

lake 'The

Vol. II.)

Haller's Description of the Swiss Alps,


lake of Jura, not an inconsiderable one, from the valley of Bagnes towards Viege hut three leagues in length, which I have is intercepted between two ridges of tlie. observed upon the spot. not to discharge fouthern Alps. And there are many valits waters by any torrent, bụt filently lies filled with an icy lake of the same to lose them by chinks in its stony bed. kind," interiperted among the Alpine In other lakes I do not deny that there are chains ; not, indeed, fo connected as to manifest whirlpools, Indeed, I have my- forin one icy fea, as our late friends self seen, near Roche, the waters of the Christian, the physician, and J. Georgé torrent called l'Eaufroide sink beneath Altmann, the Greek professor, have als the rocks with a visible whirlpool, and serted in their writings. For the firstmurmur away at a distance under my mentioned lake is terriinated on this lide fect: and frequently, on comparing rivers Grimful; and if its extent be traced as with themselves, I have been convinced far as possible, is certainly interrupted in that they have lost a great part of their the Alps of Gemmi. water in their descent to the plains ; as in Froin theie icy lakes amidst the Alpine the latter, the quantity of water was much frags, where in places the mountainous less than might have been expected from range is broken hy a little ravine, conthe conjoined torrents ; less, indeed, than tinuous içy declivities descend into the init had been above the junction of many habited plain, Strangers usually visit rivulets which fell into the main stream. there under the idea of rivers of ice, two If the Aar, near Interlac, be compared of which may be seen in the valley of with the Aar at Bern, where it may be Grindel, and a third n-ar them as icon as forded under the old hospital, it will be you cross the height of Schiedek. From found to contain inuch more water before declivities of this kind, springing from it has received the Cander, the Simm, the the icy lakes, rivers also proceed, as that Rotach, the Sull, and the Gurb, torrents of Lutschin, in Grindel. of no inconsiderable magnitude.

The chains of Alps are usually comIt must not, however, be omitted, that posed of many ridges, of which the mid. the use of the sub-alpine lakes is twofold; dle are the higheit. From these, on each one, and the most evident of which, is to fide, towards the plain, others run geneexhale

part of the water flowing from the rally .parallel to the principal. In this mountains ; the other, to break that im- manner the vallies in which ice is devomense velocity with which the torrents fited are formed. rush down a fall of so many thousand feet. The inferior Alpine cliffs, especially For the Aar flows with no greater swift- towards the welt, are in various parts ness from the lake Thun towards Bern, composed of a fpecies of Schiltus. The than it would have done if it liad taken highest summits confilt of rock comits rise in that lake. By both these means pounded of mica, quartz, and a fotter the violence of the Alpine streams is matter, called Geisberger. The lower checked, which is much more dangerous regions are cloathed with 'calcarious to their neighbours when no lake receives stones, marbles of all kinds, and other them.

hard stones, which furnith to the rivers I have spoken of the icy breast-plate of the round calcarious stones which they the Alps, pofalling the wirole extensive roll down. Concretions of Hints are tract beneath their lummits. But there mingled, cemented together by a very are also other valt masles filling the icy hard matter. Wheutone is generally vallies, which to the south have the lof- found on the hills. The Alpine vallie's tiest ridges of mountains, ihading them contain fand, which, hoxvever, is never from the folar rays; though these icy found in the funnits, and seems produced tracts are likewise found on the southern from the comininution of the rock liv face of the Alps." Thete vallies often for water. Crystals are generally contained the space of several leagues, nay, even in the quartz, and are met with in the one or two days journey, are filled with highei Alps. ice, which is spread over the subjacent The Alpine earth is tenacious, black, rock or sand, and by them as by a nu- with small fandy and stony particles : in cleus is figured, so as to represent an an

the Valais it is frequently interperle! gry sea congealed with all its waves. A with silvery mica : in other respects it is valley of this kind is continued from the not unlike marsh earth, which, howevei, Alps above the valley of Lauterbrunnen, is usually more tenacious, and partly to that valley which emits the Aar, to the earthy, without pebbles. Indeed, a great hospital of Grimful, a length of near part of the Alps and of other mountains 14 leagues. Another of equal length is marshy.

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