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Nor reft that bard of life, whose tuneful breath Penrith is situated upon one of the Would surely then have given thee life~ principal roads between London and O Death!

T. Y. EDINBURGH ; it supports no manufac

ture of note. but the chief market is

held there for a considerable part of To the Editor of ibe Monthly Magazine.

Cumberland and Westmoreland.

April 1, PENRITH to ORTON, in HAVING, in the course of a particu. Weli moreland: by way of SHAP, 153 lar engagement, had occafion to visit miles.-I passed Carlton-Hall

, on the almost every district in the kingdom, I left, near Penrith. It is a neat, pleasant kept a Journal of my progrefs, and not- box, on the banks of the Eamont, the ed down every remarkable fact, relative seat of THOMAS WALLICE, esq. Enterto AGRICULTURE, COMMERCE, IM- ed Westmoreland at EAMONT BRIDGE, PROVEMENTS, and MANNERS. Here- a small village, where the famous Round with 1 transınit you the beginning of my Table of king Arthur stands, close by Journal, for insertion in your Magazine; the road on the right, fo often described and, lhould it appear to deserve the at- by different writers. A little farther tention of your readers, it shall be regu- leave Brougham-Hallon a gentle eminence larly continued hereafter. I am, fir, to the left, and, not far from thence, I Corby',

Your's, &c. entered lord LONSDALE's extensive de. Nov. 25, 1796.

J. H. mesne, through which the road passes March 31, 1796, set out from Cor- for seven or eight miles. Lowther-Hall, BY, in Cumberland, arrived at Pen

a seat of his lcrdíhip, is fituated to the RITH; 18 miles.-An

right, but not in view, being hid from naked coun

open try the whole distance. The soil dry, the eye of the traveller by large plantasandy, and in fome places a little

tions. A great number of cottages stand loamy. The road, for about 15 miles, fome years ago ; but most of them left

near the road, built by lord LONSDALE passes over very extenlive commons, which strongly mark the supineness of unfinished, and now tenanted by jackthe owners, especially as a great pro

daws and other birds. Some of these portion of these mors are capable of dwellings near Lowther Hall are ren: great improvement, at

dered comfortable habitacions, and occua very

small expence. The farmers bufy fowing pied by his lordship’s labourers, who, it oats, and preparing the ground for po

is said, work for is. por day. Those tatoes: they universally piow and har erected near SHAP, report says, were row with two horses abreast, without a

originally intended to be given to diffedriver ; the latter office is generally per

rent people, with as much land annexed formed by servant girls. Approaching lue of each to 40s. in order to increase

to them as would increase the annual vaPENRITH, the Skiddow, Saddleback, and Keswick mountains appear at a dif the number of freeholders in the county. tance on the right; the la:ter resembling

His lordship feeds numbers of cattle, a chacs of hills and rocks. On the theep, and horses, in his pastures, till fouth, the barren hills of Westmoreland some of them actually die of old age. present themselves, their aspect, how. To a traveller, who is a stranger in the ever, is softened by the beautiful woods country, and to his lordship's turn of chaand plantations of Lowther and Brough-racter, this tract would seem in a state ham-Hall. On the left, a long range of of ruin, wholly deserted by its inhabimountains, whose tops appear to reach tants, and left to herds of different anithe clouds, stretch like a wall as far as

mals who were grown old in the posthe eye can penetrate ; and on the north,

fellion. Would this noble proprietor, the Scotch hills appear at a

instead of keeping men to build houses great

distance, one behind another, till they are not distin- probably never to be inhabited, and to guishable from the opacity of the atmof- fend cattle, sheep, and horses, never to phere. The small town of PENRITH be usefu', employ them in cultivating stands at the bottom of the hill, tole. his grounds, his lordship, as well as the rably built with red freestone (of which public, would be greatly benefited. I there is great plenty in the neighbour-. passed over an excellent common before hood), and moftly covered with blue Nate I arrived at SHAP, but so much overfrom KESWICK. An old caftle in ruins stocked as to render it of little use to the adorns the west side, and a beacon, en

proprietors. Shap is a long ftraggling tire, stands on a high eminence to the village, in a bleak fituation. From SHAP NE.

to ORTON is fix miles, five of which ex.


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1796.] Agricultural and Commercial Tour of England. tènd over a high dreary common, covered ments of husbandry are simple, and towith heath. The soil of this district is lerabiy useful. various : within two or three miles of April 2. Travelled to day from ORPENRITH, it is a fertile loam, pretty TON to KENDAL, in Westmoreland, 16 warm and low; towards SHAP, rather miles.-The road winds round high heavy, wet, and cold, but tolerably pro- mountains, and thereby rapid ascents or ductive, particularly in grafs ; about OR- declivities are avvided; from the easy Ton, it is rather more warm and dry. acquisition of materials, it is kept in The general appearance is naked and is good repair : indeed, all the Weltmorerendered ftill more lo by itone walls being land roads are remarkable for their exmade instead of quick fences. The fields cellent condition. The foil, in general, and farms are finall, and mostly occupied is light, and gravelly, particularly toby the proprietors. The surface of this wards KENDAL, and produces good district, though very uneven, is more grafs, potatoes, oats, and some barley. level than the neighbouring country. Scarcely any attempts have been made Limestone abounds; a species of bad to raise wheat or rye. A mountainous coal is also found, but only vied in burn- common intervenes for about fix miles, ing lime. Coal for fuel is chiefly brougit confiting chiefly of fine green h lls, defrom STAINMORE, which is at a con- pasured with the black-faced, coarse. fiderable distance. There is a general wool breed of theep; the situation is want of trees, though, from the ituture worthy of better tenants. The surface of fome near SHAP, it is evident that of the country is extremely uneven ; the wood might succee', notwithstanding the appearance various. Near Orton, it is cold and moist nature of the climate. It rather bare, barren, and wild; a little should, however, be planted in clumps, farther it is rocky and romantic, and the or regular piantations; and, for warmih, road leads along the side of a hill, 'overbe interinixed with Scotch fir; a precau- looking a deep narrow valley below, in tion which never ought to be neglected which a brook meanders through a few in cold or exposed fituations.

ftraggling small farins; the whole assumThe buildings are good, being of white ing the appearance of a map on a large freestone, or limestone, and covered with- scale. The fields, in this district, ale in with the blue flaté for which Weft- universally divided by stone walls. Tomoreland is so famous. Farm-houses, wards KENDAL a few finall words, soine &c. are generally collected into villages, beautiful hedge-rows of thorn, and the and, in consequence, their fields are ge- smail fertile fields, give the country a nerally at an inconvenient distance.

more civilized appearance. The cattle Agriculture and mode of farming is are of the long-horned fort, and good in nearly the same as in the district I passed their kind; the hories are middle-fized. through yesterday. A third horse is, Three hories are generally yoked to a however, on foine occafions, yoked to the plough, in a line, and nec sarily replough. Most of the land is in grafs ; quire a driver; a very unprofitable mode, the farmers fuppofing the foil and cli- and by no means necessary. Farms and mate better adapted to the production of buildings continue as in the dift.ict last grafs than corn. They, unfortunately, described. The rocks, which present are still prejudiced with the notion, that themselves so frequently in these parts, natural herbage, or the spontaneous are hard, of a blue colour, and locally growth of the fields, is preferable to called Rag. Limestone abounds near clovers, or other artificial grasses ; the KENDAL; but no coal is found in this consequence of which is obvious. Or- neighbourhood. Blue flate is procured TON is a very small market town, inha- at no great distance north of the road. bited by farmers, without any improve. The land is here chiefly applied to the ment in buildings, and fruated in a wild purpose of dairying KENDAL contains country. Mr. Burn, author of the about 8000 inhabitants, who are chiefly book, well known by the name of employed in manufacturing stockings, “ Burn's Justice,” has a seat here, and linseys, flannels. a coarse woollen cloth is now making considerable improve- called Kendal cottons, &c. The town, ments in his adjoining estate, by plant- which is situated on the declivity of a ing and tilling barren moors. The hill, with a fouthern aspect, is very well cattle are of the long-horned breeds, and built of white stone, and covered with good of the kind; the theep are of the blue Nate ; but the streets are rather too heath or black-faced fort. The imple narrow, It is surrounded with high

4. hillie

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hills, which lie at a litrle distance, ex- bread of the common people is oat cake, cept to the north, where the mountain which is baked very thin upon a plate rises from the centre of the town. The of iron put over the fire. The fuel with situation is dry and open, and the air which this bread is baked is, for the most falubrious. The Kent, which winds part, fern, provincially called brackens, about one side of the town, has over it colleEted in the neighbouring commons, a fine stone bridge, lately widened and or wastes. improved ; and forms a pleasant vale to

[To be continued.] the east and west, which spreads to a contiderable extent in the eastern direc- To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. tion. An old cafile, in ruins, forms a

SIR, prominent feature on an eminence a little

a time when, if we may judge to the south of KENDAL ; as docs a pyramidical monument on the oppore side.

from numerous publications, local The liberal and charitable disposition of spect, to offer a few reflections on the

history obtains more than ordinary rethe principal inhabitants appears in the subject, will be deemed neither impernumerous charitable institutions for the tinent or useless : a subject of considerable education and clothing of poor children, and by public and private buildings, extent, and, when properly pursued, not for the reception and maintenance of the neficial to the community. Of its ex

more interesting to individuals, than beBcceflitous poor, &c. &c. Took an excursion to UNDERBAR; feel compelled to circumscribe my em

tent, indeed, I am so well aware, as to ROW, a small village at three miles and a half distance, and returned to KEN- quiries : to the antiquarian, and investiDAL the same day. The road excced- gator of pedigrees; to the fabulift, the

ecclesiastic, and historian, I leave un. ingly fine, but directs its course over

touched their favourite provinces. My mountainous deserts, where the surface

department, at present, is poetry, and is, for miles, entirely composed of limeftone rock, and loose stones ; and it is pcetry, in reference to rural Icenery. very rare that a particle of foil can be

-Flumina amem, fylvasque inglorius. met with. Vegetation is, consequently, Poetry is “ an imitative art." This in a great measure, precluded. A little general definition shall be readily admitfurze, or whins, appear here and there, ted. To enquire, in what respects poetry but the juniper-buth is the most preva

differs from the other imitative arts, Jent. The roots of that thrub penetrate painting, sculpture, or music, or into the the crevices of the rocks; from which various species of poetic compofition, is they extract plenty of outriment, and here unnecessary ; it being obvious, that fecm to flourith in the fituation. It is, descriptive poetry must be the subject of perhaps, not universally known, that the the present essay : and, antecedently to juniper plant produces a very pleasant the design of it, which is to show how far berry, the liquor of which forms ge- the topographer may assist the poet, a neva or gin. It is three years in ripen- question arises—“In what does the true ing ; the first year

it is

green, the second genius of descriptive poetry consist ?" yellow, and the third black, when it is The adjunct descriptive, in the prefit for ufe. About UNDERBAR ROW, the fent connection, is not to be confined, exfoil is a dry gravel, the farms fmall, the clusively, to a particular species of poetic buildings goed; the furface fo full of compolition, called descriptive poetry ; Iwells, that it is almost imposible to find fuch, for instance, as Thomson's Seaa yard of level ground. Blue rocks of fons, The Splendid Shilling, or Grongar great magnitude appcar every where, Hill; it applies rather to subject than to icme of which seem entirely above the morle, referring to description or scenery furface, and others confiderably project- in general, which may increase the eleing out of it. Several of the surround- gance of the ode, improve even the dig. ing mountains have the appearance of nity of tragedy, and heighten the majetty -being almost wholly composed of that spe- of the epic : in fhort, it may allift any cies of stone ; not even a thrub is feen on fpccies of poetry, as well as form the chafome of their grizzled fronts. In some racteristic excellence of what is properly of the inclosed grounds are pieces of called a descriptive poem ; delcription woodland, chiefly oak.

being that ornament and embellishment The fuel used'here, and at Kendal, of poetry, the more permanent as the is chiefly peat, dug from the mosles, or more true, the more agreeable as the morasses, in the neighbourhood. The more natural.


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1796.] Topography, how far useful to Poetry. -Πουλυπoδoς κεφαλη εν μεν κακον, ει δε και each county; proceeding from its woods, εσθλον.

its forests, its chaces; he traces rivers

and springs; describes vallies, corn-fields, In part the Polypus's head contains Much good, pernicious part.

and meadows; climbs, as it were, rocks,

and hills, and mountains; castles, churches, This passage, quoted by Plutarch", re- ruins of fortresses, and falling abbies, pass fers to the fictions and fables of poets, under his view ; the violent and terrific not to their defcriptions of natural ob- descent of the precipice, the foaming case jects.

cade, the headlong and tumultuous cata. It is evident, then, that the course to ract, must not be unobferved: in short, be pursued by a poet, who wishes to ex

whatever engages the attention of the cel in description, differs from that pro- landscape-painter, may enter into the deposed by Aristotle to the poet in ge- scription of the local historian ; and fuch neral : “ It is the office of the poet,” topographical writers as are unacquainted he says, “ to relate, not such things as with landscape-painting, even in their have taken place, but such as might have own art, will be generaily defective. taken place, such as are poilible,” from I attempt not to resolve the art into probability, or neceffity t Defcriptive elementary principles; I am contemplatpoetry, on the contrary, demands precio ing it in actual exercile. And what is fion, and is defective without minute topography ? Clearly a species of painte

different froin tragedy and epic ing; and as painting has been called lic poetry. In like manner, it differs from lent poetry, and poetry speaking paintportrait-painting; for a portrait-painter, ing*, to ography may not improperly as the same great critic observes, if he be called ipearing painting. accurately describes the peculiar lines of What advantage, then, does the poet the countenance, fu as to bring out a derive from the topographer: By local likeness, is permitted to make improve- descriptions, he may be brought acquaintments on the original.'

ed with scenes to which he was before a The proper answer to the question stranger. This is a plain, but, I apprefeems to be this : Descriptive poetry is hend, the proper, aniwer. then most exceilent, when calculated to I know it may immediately be urged, excite in the mind the clearett, and most that the poet describes nothing fo iuclively picture of the object imitated ; cessfully as scenes which he has himself and, in proportion as the ideas forming surveyede admitted. We allow that it that picture are vivid and circumstantial, was the peculiar felicity of Homer, that and the more minutely they ansiver to he copied his imagery from nature, as his the reality of the prototype, or scene, original ; that he described real life ; that the more complete is the imitation, and he was conversant with heroes, and thepthe more impressive the resemblance. herds, and peaiants, such as he paints :

The most simple definition of topo- in thort, that he was in familiar intergraphy is, defcription of place; and, course with such characters as he reprewere 1 to be determined by literal inter- sents : but does it follow, that' a poet pretation, topography I should immedi. may not enrich his mind from the stores ately reckon more favourable to the of other observers? The views taken by views of the poet, than even of the an- any individual, in comparison with the tiquary, or the historian : but, not to whole range of nature, are inconfide. avail myself of etymological meaning, it rable and confined, and if poets are not fhould be noticed, that, in the same man- permitted to increase their stock, by reper as a painter is an artist, not a me. ceiving a little on credit, many must be chanic, so a topographer is not a mere pour indeed. noter down of places, a reporter of cu. It would be endless to produce exriofities, or the panegyrist of elegant seats amples from the English poets, of happy (though some topographers are little imitations, as well of place as of characmore) but one who describes the nature ter and manner, 'when yet the writers of places, their relative situation, their posseffed no ocular proof of the scenery characteristic excellences; he enters the or subject described. Milton Inight parfavourite retreats of case and elegance, ticularly be mentioned. Sir William and roves through the walks of art and Jones published accurate Ahatic Poems, induttry: he marks the peculiarity of before he visited India ; Collins, charm.

ing Oriental Eclogues, though he was * De Aud. Poet. lib. I. # De Art. Poctcap. 9.

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* See Du Fresnoy's Art of Painting.






" The

never in the East; and a modern inge- filent; whercas topography, as it were, nious novelist, justly admired for ner de- speaks tuus, and can enliven the paffions fcriptive talents, relied on the represen- by moderate fallies of the fancy, and, tations of travellers and tourists.

occasionally, clevate the mind with moral But the topographer who would be- reflection. This, indeed, thould be atfriend the poet, mut not himself be tempted but sparingly, but if done with chargeable with the crime of poetry, fic- delicacy and with judgment, produces a tion :

most pleasant and poctical effect. Here

philofophy may fep in as the handmaid -Pi{tojbus atque Poctis

to topography; and both together form Quid libet audendi femper fecit æqua poteftas.

a molt delightful union with poetry.

The preceding observations may be He must be a copyist, and the more confidered as gi neral reflections, and stand faithful to nature the betrer.

independent of any particular hiftory: To no art does the maxim of Du for as in the former Ellay I meant not to Fresnoy apply with more propriety, than censure any particular writer, so do I to that of topography :

not appear in this paper as the professed

critic or panegyrist of any : I thall only -Errorum eit plurima sylva, Mul iplicesque viæ ; h ne agendi terminus unus, mouththire that has been much admired

observe, that the modern History of MonLinea recta velut fola eft, ct miile recurvæ.

for its general contents, seems also highly

favourable to the views above-mentioned. In Error's grove, though thousind thickets

Were I disposed to consider any parspread,

ticular county in England in reference to Ten thousand devious paths our feps mislead.

scenery, though I might prefer rambling 'Mid curvos,

vary in perp tual twine,

through other counties, I should choose Truth owns but one direct and perfect line.

to repote in Monmouthshire. Mr. David

Williams, in his history of this charmBut, farther, as no understanding com- ing county, properly observes, prehends all science, or recoilerts every whole county forms one exquisite landstage of its enquiries ; so no cye embraces scape.” In other counties the mountains every scene, and even of a favorite scene may be more lofty, the vallies more exfume parts may escape its notice. To- tentive; scenes may arise more grandly pography, therefore, may allift a poet, irregular, and wildlý romantic, at the fanie not only by unfolding to himn fernes that time, lublime and barren, so as alternately he never fail, but by retouching, as it to fill the mind with horror and with were, the objects already pictured in his pity. But in Monmouthshire the mind eye ; by completing the picture, and

is never carried higher than admiration, thus, by increasing the sensations, and nor falis lower than complacency and ftrengthening the conceptions, the topo- delight. grapher may give energy and precision “The beauty of Monmouthshire,” Mr. to the poet.

Williams justly observes," is not dependThe analogy between the painter and ent on fingie scenes, or particular fealocal historian has already been noticed ; tures; it is the result of all the circumbut when the latter adorns his work fiances which form the whole surface of with accurate and elegant engravings, the county. the analogy is rendered more ituiking : - The rivers confer as much beauty on the service, too, rendered the pect, be- the country as they receive from it. The comes two-fold, and appears to essential course of the W'ye is every where inte, an appendage to local history, as almost refing, in some places sublime : that of always to accompany it.

the Uík, fringed with woods, or bounded It has been already observed, that the by meble meadows, is a scene of perpelocal historian, who would render ellen- tual beauty. The whole county forins tial benefit to poetry, should consider one exquisite landicape, of which the valt himself a mere copyiit ; but, notwith- expanfe of the Briitel Channel is the standing, ample room is left for the ex- foreground ; hills covered with woods, ercise of taste, and for such emb: ilıfh- which the roads beautifully limit, or noments of style and composition as inay bly cimb; vallies fertilized with streams, direct the judgment, and even enliven where smaller eminences seem to recline a poetical imagination. In this respect, and if the nountains; thickers indeindeed, the topog;apher excets the paint. finirely diversified, where objects, as the er; for, as before observed, painting is traveilers move, feem perpetually to peep


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