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1796.) Arguments in Favour of Small Farms. which I hope will be marthalled in your

or fix children, without any expence to next Number.

the public. I wish he may think it proper to show Again ; the children of the little fara why bis adjectives alone may plead an mer are in common sufficiently instructed exemption from comparatives ; but should to make useful members of the commuhe think it proper to exclude these de- nity, when those of the labourer, through grees entirely from our language, he want of ability in their parents to give will doubtless ensure the thanks of every them any education, too frequently turn school-boy. I. must confess, I think he out an offcnce to decency, and become a has reduced himself to a dreadful alter- nuisance to the public. The former of native, the total expulfion of compara- these, too, by having come property, actives from our grammar, or the continu- quire an attachment to the Englith conance of them as “ as custom wills in all ftitution; the latter, having nothing to things."

lose, become indifferent who governs August 10, 1796. ANTI-SIN BORON. them : I may better myself, but cannot

be worse off, is the common language of

these people. To the Edior of the Monthly Magazine,

Such are some of the mischiefs attend. SIR,

ing the agricultural part of the society ; MUCH has been said of late for and but there are others, of no fmall moment,

against large farms, but the grand that affe&t the community at large. In a ob ions to them seem to have been un- neighbouring parish, as I am informed, noticed. As I live in a part of the coun no less than thirteen farms are occupied try where the farms in general run small, by three persons only, not one of whom and have seen, for fifty years together, keeps more than three cows, and all the great mischiefs arising from their being butter they make is spent in their own engrossed, my thoughts are sent you on families. When they were in separate that head.

hands, each farmer was able to maintain In the first place, a monopoly of farms two cows on an average, and three-fourths is a discouragement to industry, fruof the butter, at least, went to marker. gality, and fobriety, in fervants of huf- What an amazing loss is here to the pubbandry. Their grand ambition is to oc lic, in one single article! All the poultry cupy a small farm; when that prospect is they bring up is for their own table ; but taken away, the generality of them have under the occupation of different tenants, no inducement to saving; the money, five times the number, on a modeft which heretofore was hoarded up with computation, were bred by them, and that view, is squandered away at ale- all the chickers, together with the eggs, houses, in rioting, drinking, and gam were sold to others. But we are told, in bling. By such means a habit of idleness the Reply to Mr. Wright's Address, it is is contracted, they become enervated, bad management in the holders of small and less capable of work, and their morals farms to rear fowls, as by the unisconduct are corrupted.

of their wives, in squandering away the Secondly, if some few, of a better dif- barley, they are often fold at a loss. This position, are fo provident, as to lay by opinion indeed seems to be countenanced somewhat for a rainy day, what is the by the engroiling farmer, who seldom consequence ? They at length marry, and breeds more than can be supported at his become labourers to some wealthy mono barn door. But, if the one can, in this polizing farmer, in the neighbourhood. manner, rear up enough for his own use, In consequence of having got a little surely the other, without any wafie being before-hand 'to begin the world with, committed, can maintain some for the they live better for a few years than use of others. others, who have nothing but their But the little farmer, this anonymous labour to depend upon. By this time writer tells us, are as bad managers of they have probably got two or three chil- their affairs, as their wives are of their dren, when, the man finding himself no chickens, they cannot go to market to longer able to live by his labour, applica- buy a single beast, without being at as tion is made to the parish for relief. great, nay, greater expences, than the Could he, at first setting out, have pro- great one, who buys twenty. This how. cured a small farm, he probably by his ever he will find much difficulty to prove. own and wife's industry, might have con Is it not poslible for him to purchase one tinued to live comfortably throughout cow in his neighbourhood, without going fife, and have supported a family of five to any market? But thould he be reduce

ed

one

ed to that necessity, cannot he do his the substituting of Cyder for Port Wine. bafiness, and after dinking a glass or two In confirmation of what was then suç. of beer, return to his own house, when gested it might have been added, that in the other may probably lit for some hours, the brewing of Port wine (for it is palindulging himself with wine? Being de- pable that great quantities of it have been termined at allevents to extol the one, and brewed, or compounded, in this island) cydepress the o her, the addresser does not der has generally been adopted as the base. hefitare to declare that he purchase, when of the composition, or the principal ingremade, must be of an inferior kind, not- dient used. I observe, however, a trilling withftarding common sense tells us a man typographical error, about the middle of with fifty pounds in his pocket may buy page 476, which, indeed, most of your a fingle bu lock of as good a kind, as he readers will correct for themselves : what coulī had he a thousand pounds.

I had written arid, is printed acid, spirit

. Throughout the whole of the Address, Your ready insertion of the communicathe great farmer is made a bahaw, and tion above alluded te, induces me to offer the little one a beggar ; the former is you my thoughts on anther subject, endued with all understanding, and the equally interesting to the public: latter devoid of common sense. Both Notwithstanding the numerous laws being equal in abilities and education, concerning them, and the vigilance of may

surely manage the tillage of fifty our magistrates and police officers after acres, as well as the other can five hun- them, the numerous classes of beggars, dred: the presumption, if on either side, and vagrant poor, are a serious nuisance is in favour of the little renant.

to this country. It is acknowledged by It is farther contended, the little man travellers, that we are more infested cannot pofiibly grow so much corn on an

with them, than almost any kingdom or acre of land, as the great one can; but state on the continent of Europe : and why? because he cannot manure it so yet, in none of them, are there more use. well. If he can make enough of his ful establishments, more heavy taxes, or land to keep himself and family froin more charitable donations masle for the becoming a charge to the parish, we have poor than in this kingdom. The whole all we contend for. But, in fact, the al- country, as well as our towns, swarms legation is not true ; one inan may be with beggars, to the great inconvenience as able to manure fifty acres, as another of the inhabitants, and the disgrace of can pianure a thousand.

our national character. All this, it

may To leave no stone unturned, the ad- be faid, is indeed too true ; but why dresser goes on to urge, that a team suf. bring forward to public view an evil ficient to cultivate a hundred acres, must which every, body experiences, unless at be kept to plow fifty only, and this must the same time you point out a remedy? be a great drawback. Let his, profits be This, fir, is what i now propose to do, more or less, they are generally

, fuf- through the medium of your widely-ex. ficient, with good inanagement, to main- terded Magagine ; and if the plan I his independence. But the necellity for propose be as generally adopted, as your keeping a whole team is denied; as it is Miscellany is likely to communicate it, I no uncommon thing for a little farmer to a!n persuaded that it will strike more at keep half of one only ; to join another the root of the evil than any extension of in like circumstances, and for each to, the vagrant laws, or practice of coercive affift in plowing the other's lands, to the measures, whatever. The public have mutual advantage of both.

the power in their own hands, and they Upon the whole, by the means of small need only a little cool resolution to exert farins, industry and frugality among fer. it. The practice of indiscriminate charity vants will be encouraged ; parishes re

has drawn on the evil; a prudent direc. lieved in their poor rates ; and the mar

tion of charitable donations would correct kets better supplied with poultry, butter, it. To remove this inconvenience, we and eggs. I ain, your humble servant,

must do as Mr. Pitt did to prevent the Nov, 19, 1796.

CANTIANUS.

(muggling of tea; i.e. make it not worth

while to continue the practice. And this: To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine.

is to be effected, not by, hardening the

heart, clofing the purse, or stopping the SIR,

ears at the cry of the poor, but by layIN your Magazine for July, Number. ing down a general rule for the disposing.

VI, page 445, you have favoured ine of our charitable donations. with the publifting of a few thoughts on You will readily, observe, fir,, that I

make

to

1796.] On the Impropriety of relieving Beggars.

859 make a wide distinction between the ho- therefore, is, though not my own sug neft laborious poor, and the diffolute gestion, for it is the apostle Paul's, idle vagrant. Of the former, every man lay by in store, as God hath prospered me, has enough in his own neighbourhood, on the first day of the week,” such a sum and may, by a little enquiry and observa.

as 1 may expend in assisting the industion, easily appreciate their several me trious poor; and when a case occurs rits, or ascertain their respective wants. that requires assistance, I always advance To such of these as may be found truly it in filver. shilling, bestowed on a deserving, I would have the heart as open fick labourer, is certainly a much better as charity herself can expand it. But the directed act of charity, than twentylatter description of poor, are to be met four halfpence to twenty-four vagrants. with ac horse races, at the entrances to all A satisfaction also arises from reflecting, places of public amusement, at the cor- that, in the one instance, a real benefit ners of all our streets, dinning our ears has been bestowed, and will probably be with their doleful cries ; sometimes ex useful in restoring an active member to hibiting fores, distorted limbs, &c. with society; which, in the other case, is not a quantity of filth and rags, applied, 'only highly problematical, but almost imfecundun artem, to draw money from the patible. It may also be added, as a seoccasional passenger ; which, at night, is condary confideration, that such a gene. generally squandered in cellars, or in 'ral procedure would considerably tend to houses of illofame. The one are objects throw out of circulation a very large sum of charity, the other are objects for the of base and counterfeit copper coin ; whipping-post. I have made use of the which is the chief support of vagrancy. term secundum artem, because it is palpaa The value of an halfpenny, particularly ble that the fqualid appearance of most a bad one, is so very small, that it is reaof our vagrants is voluntary. Out of dily bestowed, to filence the importunity their gains, they might dress more clean- of a cry, if from no worthier motive. lily, if they were lo disposed ; but this And thus, thousands of useless mouths they apprehend would injure their trade; are daily fed among us; useless hands are for it is indeed too general a notion, that confirmed in idleness; and some hundred poverty must be accompanied with an pounds-worth of base coin is kept in cirexternal appearance of extreme wretch- culation, to the injury of the fair trader. edness. I lay it down, therefore, as a These reflections have arisen from general rule (to which, however, I ac- hearing of a plan adopted by the young knowledge there may be a few excep- ladies of the first boarding-school in this tions) that a person inay appear too mi. town, whose benevolence was perpetual-, serable to be a real object of charity. ly folicited by improper objects; nor That they might much meliorate their were their solicitations used in vain, till own appearance is certain, from a calcu- they became too troublesome to be longer lation of their general receipts, two borne. They, therefore, have discarded instances of which have been well au their old pensioners, and have made a thenticated to me: one of a conversa- stock purse, to which each subscribes, action between a beggar and a working cording to the proportion of her weekly mechanic in Birmingham. The latter allowance, for the relief of such poor ftated, that he could easily earn a guinea as may be well recommended to them ; per week by his labour. The former and they have lately experienced the boasted that he could beg through thirty heartfelt satisfaction of liberally contriftreets a-day; that he thought that a very buting to the relief of a poor widow in bad itreet which would not produce him the neighbourhood, with five children, two-pence; and that Sunday was always who has lost her all by fire. What a considered as a double day. Here now the charming example for imitation ! beggar, by his whining importunity, raises

I am, fir, twice the fum that the industrious artist can With much respect, and best wishes, procure, by his labour. The other was the

A CONSTANT READER. assertion of a beggar in my own neighbourhood, “that if he could not make For the Montbly viagazine. fourtcore pounds per annum by begging, ON THE POETRY OF SPAIN AND he would leave off his tralu.'

What,

PORTUGAL fir, thall idlenel, and vagrancy produce the double or treble of industry and laa IFLAVATER had contenplated the por

trait of Lope de Veg?, without knowbour ? What an affront upon, what a ing whom it represented, nu would cergross misapplication of charity! My mode tainly have pronounced him an extraordiMONTHLY MAG. No. XI.

5 R

deed a' poet.

nary man; but he would not have suspect. Alva! Madness never produced a more ed him to have been a poet. The Spaniards monstrous association ! have well characterised his genius by its The Arcadia of Lope de Vega is one monjiruosidad, a word which must literally of the innummerable imitations that be rendered monstruosity : nu other term swarmed in Spain, after George_of could so well have delineated it. Lope Montemayor published his Diana. The de Vega is never sublime, seldom pathe- age had been accustomed to extravagance tic, and feldorn natural; rarely above me- by their books of chivalry; compared diocrity in any of his writings, he has with which, the pastoral romance ap. attained to celebrity by their number. pcared natural. That this species of

Purity of language and harmonious composition may poffefs very great beauversification distinguih all the poems of ty, has been fuñiciently proved by Flothis indefatigable Spaniard. Born and rian, in his alteration of the Galatca of educated at Madrid, if he had beheld no Cervantes, and more particularly in his streain but the Manzanares, and no coun- Eltello. I know of no work in the try but the melancholy plains of Castille, English language that can properly be we might have expected dullness; but claffed under this head, though a very the secretary and favourite of the duke interesting one might be produced on the of Alva must have accompanied his mas, model of Florian, if the French frippery ter to Villa Franca and to Oropesa; and of sentiment, which infects even his the tranquil and majestic beauty of the writings, were avoided. one, and the wild sublimity of the other, I never toiled through the Arcadia of would have awakened all the enthufiafin Lope de Vega. After penetrating some of poetry, if Lope de Vega had been in- thirty or forty pages into the little vo

lume, I found that a few scattered conWben a school-boy, he bartered his ceils could not atone for its intolerable verses with his school-fellows, for hymns dullnefs. Great strength of imagination and prints: when a young man, he wrote only can reconcile the reader to a total eclogues, and a comedy, in praise of the want of taste, but the imagination of Grand Inquisitor; and a pastoral, in ho- this indefatigable Spaniard was not strong, nour of the duke of Alva. From these and his taste may be judged of by a lenfymptoins, one who knew the human tence relating to the heroine of his Arheart might have prophesied, that the

cadia :

“ the rays of Belisarda's eyes young poet never would attain to ex- shone upon the water like the refléccellence. The Dutch idea of bartering tion of the sun upon a looking-glass.” his verses could not have entered the Of his longer poems, I have never mind of the enthusiast : the young en

seen the Jerusalen Conquistada : I am, thu Gast carefully conceals his feelings however, well enough acquainted with from observation, and he who is not an the style and powers of Lope de Vega, enthusiast must never expect to be a fully to credit Mr. Hayley, when he poet.

says, that it is, in every respect, infinitely

inferior to the work of Taso, which it Is there who ne'er those myftic transports felt

attempted to rival. Of his “ Beauty of Of solitude and melancholy born?

Angelica,” a complete analysis, with ipeHe needs not woo the Muse !

cimens sufficiently copious, may soon be Were it not for the reverence which expected in a promised work upon Spain fashion has attached to their names, we and Portugal. His Dragontea is very should yawn over Virgil and Horace, bad. It is reported, that Mr. Polwhele when they prostitute poetry to panegy

has likewise chosen Sir Francis Drake, ric. No great or good man ever encou- as the subject of an epic poem. Sir raged a rhymer to besparter him with Francis Drake was a good failor; he praise ; panegyric has, therefore, usually makes a very respectable figure in the been employed on the weak and the naval history of England ; but he is but wicked, on those whom we despise and a forry hero for the poet ! A privatecr detest; but, among the villains whose is only a legalized pirate, which old Ful. deeds pollute the page of history, the ler calls the devil's water rat, and the duke of Alva ranks in the first class. worst kind of sea vermin. This man united in himself the bigetry Diogo de Sousa, in his celebrated faof the priest, the duplicity of the poli- tire called the Journey of Diogo Camatician, and the brutality of the soldier; cho to Parnassus, has made a happy allu. and to this man did Lope de Vega write fion to the rivalry of Lope de Vega with a pastoral! Arcadia and the duke of Talso, and his lamentable inferiority. Ca

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'1796.]
Life and Writings of Lope de Vega.

861 macho calls on the Spanish poet to beg a and the great Cervantes. They satirizletter of introduction to Apollo. Lope ed each other's faults, but they honettly replies :

allowed each other's merits ; the abilities My father for Arcadia is departing,

of Lope de Vega and of Gongora were (Where I have been myself) and he shall write

acknowledged by those who most strongly Your introduction first. He journeys there exposed the carelessness of the one, and To seek some tidings of a certain lord,

the affectation of the other. By name * Anfriso: it is now some time I have read nearly two hụndred of his Since we have heard ought of him, and we sonnets. As might be expected, many doubt

of them contain parts that are beautiful; Whether he lives or not. I answer'd him,

none of them are perfect as wholes. The Senhor, I would not have you venture there, Nor trult yourself in Palestine unmask'd

following is a fair specimen :

Το And heedless ; for the very children lay,

go, and yet to linger on the way: That, as Torquato did enrich those parts,

To linger, and look back; and yet to go, So you have ruin’d them!

To hear a syren's pleasant voice, and know

The winds of Fortune waft you far away ; His comedies are said to delineate cha.

To build gay fabrics in the baseless air ; racters well, and faithfully to reprefent Like Lucifer, to fall precipitate the manners of the age he lived in. This From Heaven's high bliss, even to a demon's commendation they could not have ob

ftate, tained without, in some degree, meriting To fink despairing ; nor regret despair ; it; and there is a liveliness in the lighter From Friendíhip’s voice affectionate to fly; pieces of Lope de Vega, which shows him Wildiy to rove, and talk in solitude ; best qualified for such subjects. He him. To think each passing hour eternity; self excuses his total neglect of all dra

All ill expecting, not to hope for good;

And all the hell of jealousy to prove, matic rules, by alledging the taste of the

Is to be absent from the maid we love. age. " I have written better (says he); " but seeing what monstrous productions

On the 25th of August 1635, died please the women and the mob, I have Lope de Vega, in the 73d year of his locked up all my precepts, and turned

age; full of honours as of days. If not Plautus and Terence out of my library. the best of poets, he was the most fortuSurely it is just that, as the,public pay: him happy in life, and the use he made of

nate; the wealth he acquired rendered the public should be pleased.” A child

it cheered him in death. He died honour. ith and ridiculous defence, which deserves not a refutation !

ed by the great, celebrated by the learnThe burlesque pieces of this universal ed, and regretted by the poor. His reauthor were published by him, under the putation still Aourishes in his own counname of the Licentiate Thome de Bur: try; and though the impartial judgment guillos, perhaps, because he thought them of foreigners cannot rank his produclittle consonant to his ecclesiastical cha

tions above mediocrity, let it be rememracter ; perhaps, because he was alhamed bered, that he never was excelled in inof a species of poetry so despicable. "An

dustry as an author, or in liberality as a Ode to a Flea was printed in one of those works to which he affixed his name,

The following sonnet may serve to but never avowed himself to be the au

show in what estimation he was held by thor of it. The editor of the Parnasso

his co-temporaries : it is by Antonio

Barbosa Bacellar, written in SpanishEspanol calls it a witty and ingenious composition ; it displays, however, little

but a complete specimen of Portuguese

taste : ingenuity, and less wit. The poet tells the Flea where he goes, and what he 'feeds upon, and calls him a greater Turk LOPE! like fome fair Syren in a sea than Amurath, because he spares no Of tears, thy Muse was heard! her won. body.

d'rous fong The Spanish poets appear to have been Could ftill the memory of the dead prolong, little envious of each other's reputation. Bafiling oblivion by her harmony. In his Laurel de Apolo, Lope de Vega Even Death, aftoniih'd at that powerful strain, has liberally praifed his contemporaries;

Heard its enchanting music with alarm ; and poems of the same nature have been

And trembled, left his desolating arm composed by Gil Pulo, Vicente Espinel, He came, he conquer'd :-—urely at some hour,

Should give po victims to oblivion's reign.

When o’er the eye-lids of thy mighty Muse * One of the characters in Lope de Vega's Sleep hed the poifon of her poppy dews: Arcadia.

Hc had not conquer'd else that waking power, 5 R2

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ON THE DEATH OF LOPE DE VEGA.

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