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1796.) Arguments in Favour of Small Farms. which I hope will be marshalled in your

or six children, without any expence to next Number.

the public. I wish he may think it proper to show Again; the children of the little fara why bis adjectives alone may plead an mer are in common sufficiently instructed exemption from comparatives ; but should to make useful members of the commu. he think it proper to exclude thefe de- nity, when those of the labourer, through grees entirely from our language, he want of ability in their paients to give will doubtless ensure the thanks of every them any education, too frequently turn school-boy. I must confess, I think he out an oifince to decency, and become a has reduced himself to a dreadful alter- nuisance to the public. The former of native, the total expulsion of compara- these, too, by having come property, actives from our grammar, or the continu- quire an attachment to the Englith conance of them as as custom wills in all ftitution ; the latter, having nothing to things.”

lose, become indifferent who governs Augujt 10, 1796. ANTI-SIN BORON. them : I may better myself, but cannot

be worse off, is the common language of

these people. To the Edtor of the Monthly Magazine.

Such are some of the mischiefs attende SIR,

ing the agricultural part of the society ; MUCH has been said of late for and but there are others, of no finall moment,

against large farms, but the grand that affect the community at large. In a objections to them seem to have been un- neighbouring parish, as I am informed, noticed. As I live in a part of the coun- no less than thirteen farms are occupied try where the farms in general run finall, by three perfons only, not one of whom and have seen, for fifty years together, keeps more than three cows, and all the great mischiefs arising from their being butter they make is spent in their own engrossed, my thoughts are sent you on families. When they were in separate that head.

hands, tach farmer was able to maintain In the first place, a monopoly of farms two cows on an average, and three-fourths is a discouragement to industry, fru of the butter, at least, went to market. gality, and fobriety, in servants of huf- What an amazing lofs is here to the pubbandry. Their grand ambition is to oc- lic, in one fingle article! All the poultry cupy a small farm; when that prospect is they bring up is for their own table ; but taken away, the generality of them have under the occupation of different tenants, no inducement to saving; the money, five times the number, on a. modest which heretofore was hoarded up with computation, were bred by them, and that view, is squandered away at ale- all the chickers, together with the eggs, houses, in rioting, drinking, and gam- were told to others. But we are told, in bling. By such means a habit of idleness the Reply to Mr. Wright's Address, it is is contracted, they become enervated, bad management in the holders of small and less capable of work, and their morals farms to rear fowls, as by the inisconduct are corrupted.

of their wives, in squandering away the. Secondly, if some few, of a better dif- barley, they are often fold at a loss. This position, are fo provident, as to lay by opinion indeed seems to be countenanced somewhat for a rainy day, what is the by the engrofling farmer, who feldom consequence ? They at length marry, and breeds more than can be supported at his become labourers to some wealthy mono- barn door. But, if the one can, in this polizing farmer, in the neighbourhood. manner, rear up enough for his own use, In consequence of having got a little furely the other, without any walie being before-hand 'to begin the world with, committed, can maintain some for the they live better for a few years than use of others. others, who have nothing but their But the little farmer, this anonymous labour to depend upon. By this time writer tells us, are as bad managers of they have probably got two or three chil- their affairs, as their wives are of their dren, when, the man finding himself no chickens, they cannot go to market to longer able to live by his labour, applica- buy a single beast, without being at as tion is made to the parish for relief. great, nay, greater expences, than the Could he, at first setting out, have pro- great one, who buys twenty. This how.. cured a small farm, he probably by his ever he will find much difficulty to prove. own and wife's induftry, inight have con: Is it not possible for him to purchase one tinued to live comfortably throughout cow in his neighbourhood, without going fife, and have supported a family of five to any market? But thould he be reduce


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ed to that neceffity, cannot he do his the substituting of Cyder for Port Wine, bufiness, and after dinking a glass or two In confirmation of what was then lug. of beer, return to his own house, when gested it might have been added, that in the other may probably lit for fome hours, the brewing of Port wine (for it is pal. indulging himlelf with wine ? Being de- pable that great quantities of it have been termined at all events to extol the one, and brewed, or compounded, in this island) cy. depress che o her, the addresser does not der has generally been adopted as the base kefitare to declare that i he purchate, when of the composition, or the principal ingremade, must be of an inferior kind, not- dient used. I observe, however, a trilling withstarding coinmon sense tells us a man typographical error, about the middle of with fifty pounds in his pocket may buy page 476, which, indeed, most of your a fingle bu lock of as good a kind, as he readers will correct for themselves : what coulj had he a thousand pounds.

I had written arid, is printed and, fpirit. Throughout the whole of the Address, Your ready insertion of the communicathe great farmer is made a bahaw, and tion above alluded to, induces me to offer the little one a beggar ; the former is you my thoughts on anther subject, endued with all understanding, and the equally interesting to the public : latter devoid of common sense. Both Notwithstanding the numerous laws being equal in abilities and education, concerning them, and the vigilance of may

Turely manage the tillage of fifty. our magistrates and police officers after acres, as well as the other can five hun. them, the numerous classes of beggars, dred: the presumption, if on either side, and vagrant poor, are a serious nuisance is in favour of the little enant.

to this country. It is acknowledged by It is farther contended, the little man travellers, that we are more infested cannot poliibly grow so much corn on an

with them, than almost any kingdom or acre of land, as the great one can; but state on the continent of Europe : and why? because he cannot manure it so yet, in none of them, are there more use. well. ' If he can make enough of his ful establishments, more heavy taxes, or land to keep himself and family froin more charitable donations masle for the becoming a charge to the parish, we have poor than in this kingdom. The whole all we contend for. But, in fact, the al- country, as well as our towns, swarms legation is not true ; one man may be with beggars, to the great inconvenience as able to manure fifty acres, as another

of the inhabitants, and the disgrace of can nanure a thousand.

our national character. All this, it

may To leave no stone unturned, the ad- be faid, is indeed too true; but why dreffer goes on to urge, that a team fuf- bring forward to public view an evil ficient to cultivate a hundred acres, must which every, body experiences, unless at be kept to plow fifty enly, and this must the same time you point out a remedy? be a great drawback. Let his, profits be. This, fir, is what i now propose to do, more or less, they are generally fuf- through the medium of your widely.ex. ficient, with good management, to main. ter.ded Magagine; and if the plan 1 his independence. But the necetlity for propose be as generally adopted, as your keeping a whole team is denied; as it is Miscellany is likely to communicate it, I no uncommon thing for a little farmer to an persuaded that it will strike more at keep half of one only ; to join another the root of the evil than any extension of in like circumstances, and for each, to, the vagrant laws, or practice of coercive affift in plowing the other's lands, to the measures, whatever. The public have mutual advantage of both.

the power in their own hands, and they the whole, by the means of sinall need only a little cool resolution to exert farins, industry and frugality among fer. it. The practice of indiscriminate charity vants will be encouraged ; parishes re.

has drawn on the evil ; a prudent direc. lieved in their poor rates ; and the mar

tion of charitable donations would correct kets better supplied with poultry, butter, it. To remove this inconvenience, we and eggs. I ain, your humble servant,

must do as Mr. Pitt did to prevent the Nov, 19, 1796.


smuggling of tea ; i. e. make it not worth

while to continue the practice. Apd this: To tibe Editor of the Montbly Magazine.

is to be effected, not by, hardening the.

heart, closing the purse, or stopping the SIR,

ears at the cry of the poor, but by layIN your Magazine for July, Number ing down a general rule for the disposing

VÍ; page 445, you have favoured me of our charitable donations. with the publishing of a few thoughts on. You will readily, observe, fir,, that I





1796.] On the Impropriety of relieving Beggars.

859 make a wide distinction between the ho- therefore, is, though not my own sug neft laborious poor, and the dissolute gestion, for it is the apostle Paul's, “ to idle

vagrant. Of the former, every man lay by in store, as God hath prospered me, has enough in his own neighbourhood, on the first day of the week,” such a fum and may, by a little enquiry and observa. as 1 may expend in affifting the indula tion, easily appreciate their several me- trious poor; and when a case occurs rits, or ascertain their respective wants. that requires assistance, I always advance To such of these as may be found truly it in filver. A shilling, bestowed on a deserving, I would have the heart as open fick labourer, is certainly a much better as charity herself can expand it. But the directed act of charity, than twentylatter description of poor, are to be met four halfpence to twenty-four vagrants. with a: horse races, at the entrances to all A satisfaction also arises from reflecting, places of public amusement, at the cor- that, in the one instance, a real benefit ners of all our streets, dinning our ears has been bestowed, and will probably be with their doleful cries ; sometimes ex- niseful in restoring an active member to hibiting fores, distorted limbs, &c. with society; which, in the other case, is not a quantity of filth and rags, applied, only highly problematical, but almost imfecundun artem, to draw money from the posible. It may also be added, as a seoccasional passenger; which, at night, is condary consideration, that such a gene. generally squandered in cellars, or in ral procedure would considerably tend to houses of ill fame. The one are objects throw out of circulation a very large sum of charity, the other are objects for the of base and counterfeit copper coin ; whipping-post. I have made use of the which is the chief support of vagrancy. term secundum artem, because it is palpa. The value of an halfpenny, particularly ble that the Iqualid appearance of most a bad one, is so very small, that it is reaof our vagrants is voluntary. Out of dily bestowed, to silence the importunity their gains, they might dress more clean- of a cry, if froin no worthier motive. lily, if they were to disposed ; but this And thus, thousands of useless mouths they apprehend would injure their trade; are daily fed among us; useless hands are for it is indeed too general a notion, that confirmed in idleness; and some hundred poverty must be accompanied with an pounds-worth of base coin is kept in cirexternal appearance of extreme wretch- culation, to the injury of the fair trader. edness. Tay it down, therefore, as a These reflections' have arisen from general rule (to which, however, I ac- hearing of a plan adopted by the young knowledge there may be a few excep- ladies of the first boarding-school in this tions) that a person inay appear too mi- town, whose benevolence was perpetual-, serable to be a real object of charity. ly solicited by improper objects; nor That they might much meliorate their were their folicitations used in vain, till own appearance is certain, from a calcu- they became too troublesome to be longer lation of their general receipts, two borne. They, therefore, have discarded instances of which have been well au- their old pensioners, and have made a thenticated to me : one of a conversa- stock purse, to which each subfcribes, action between a beggar and a working cording to the proportion of her weekly mechanic in Birmingham. The latter allowance, for the relief of such poor stated, that he could easily earn a guinea as may be well recommended to them; per week by his labour. The former and they have lately experienced the boasted that he could beg through thirty heartfelt satisfaction of liberally contri. streets a-day; that he thought that a very buting to the relief of a poor widow in bad street which would not produce him the neighbourhood, with five children, two-pence; and that Sunday was always who has lost her all by fire. What a considered as a double day. Here now the charming example for imitation ! beggar, by his whining importunity, raises

I am, fir, twice the sum that the industrious artist can With much respect, and best wishes, procure, by his labour. The other was the

A CONSTANT READER. affertion of a beggar in my own neighbourhood, “that if he could not make For the Montbiy Magazine. fouricore pounds per annum by begging, ON THE POETRY OF SPAIN AND he would leave off his tralis.' What,

PORTUGAL fir, thall idlenet, and vagrancy produce the double or treble of induftry and id. IF LAVATER had contemplated the pore

trait of Lope de Vega, without knowbour? What an affront upon, what a ing whom it represented, it would cergross misapplication of charity! My mode tainly have pronounced hin an extraordi


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deed a poet.

nary man; but he would not have fuspect. Alva! Madness never produced a inore ed him to have been a poet. The Spaniards monftrous association ! have well characterised his genius by its The Arcadia of Lope de Vega is one monjiruufidad, a word which must literally of the innummerable imitations that be rendered monstruosity : nu other term swarmed in Spain, after George_of could so well have delineated it. Lope Montemayor published his Diana. The de Vega is never sublime, feldom pathe- age had been accustomed to extravagance ric, and seldum natural; rarely above me- by their books of chivalry; compared diocrity in any of his writings, he has with which, the pastoral romance apattained to celebrity by their number. peared natural. That this fpecies of

Purity of language and harmonious composition may poffefs very great beauversification diftinguuh all the poems of ty, has been sufficiently proved by Flothis indefatigable Spaniard. Born and rian, in his alteration of the Galatea of educated at Madrid, if he had beheld no Cerrantes, and more particularly in his stream but the Manzanares, and no coun- Eftelle. I know of no work in the try but the melancholy plains of Caftille, English language that can properly be we might have expected dullness; but claffcd under this head, though a very the secretary and favourite of the duke interesting one might be produced on the of Alva must have accompanied his mas, model of Florian, if the French frippery ter to Villa Franca and to Oropesa; and of sentiment, which infects even his the tranquil and majestic beauty of the writings, were avoided. one, and the wild sublimity of the other, I never toiled through the Arcadia of would have awakened all the enthufialin Lope de Vega. After penetrating fome of poetry, if Lope de Vega had been in- thirty or forty pages into the little vo

lume, I found that a few scattered conWhen a school-boy, he bartered his ceirs could not atone for its intolerable verses with his school-fellows, for hymns dullness. Great strength of imagination and prints : when a young man, he wrote only can reconcile the reader to a total eclogues, and a comedy, in praise of the want of taste, but the imagination of Grand Inquisitor; and a pastoral, in ho- this indefatigable Spaniard was not strong, nour of the duke of Alva. From these and his taste may be judged of by a ledfymptoms, one who knew the human tence relating to the heroine of his Arheart might have prophesied, that the cadia : “ the rays of Belisarda's eyes young poet never would attain to ex- shone upon the water like the reflec. cellence. The Dutch idea of bartering tion of the sun upon a looking-glass.” his verses could not have entered the Of his longer poems, I have never mind of the enthusiast : the young en- seen the Jerusalcn Conquistada : I am, thulast carefully conceals his feelings however, well enough acquainted with from observation, and he who is not an the style and powers of Lope de Vega, enthufiaft must never expect to be a fully to credit Mr. Hayley, when he poet.

says, that it is, in every respect, infinitely

inferior to the work of Tasso, which it Is there who ne'er those myftic transports felt

attempted to rival. Of his “ Beauty of Of solitude and melancholy born ?

Angelica,” a complete analysis, with ipe. He needs not woo the Muse !

cimens sufficiently copious, may soon be Were it not for the reverence which expected in a promised work upon Spain fashion has attached to their names, we and Portugal. His Dragontea is very should yawn over Virgil and Horace, bad. It is reported, that Mr. Pol whela when they prostitute poetry to panegy- has likewise chofen Sir Francis Drakc, ric. No great or good man ever encou- as the subject of an epic poem. Sis raged a rhymer to bespatter him with Francis Drake was a good failor; he praise ; panegyric has, therefore, usually makes a very respectable figure in the been employed on the weak and the naval history of England ; but he is but wicked, on those whom we despise and a forry hero for the poet! A privateco deteft ; but, among the villains whose is only a legalized pirate, which old Fula deeds pollute the page of history, the ler calls the devil's water rat, and the duke of Alva ranks in the first class. worst kind of fea vermin. This man united in himself the bigotry Diogo de Sousa, in his celebrated faof the priest, the duplicity of the poli- tire called the Journey of Diogo Camatician, and the brutality of the foldier; cho to Parnassus, has made a happy alluand to this man did Lope de Vega write fon to the rivalry of Lope de Vega with a pastoral ! Arcadia and the duke of Talso, and his lamentable inferiority. Ca.




Life and Writings of Lope de Vega.

861 macho calls on the Spanish poet to beg a and the great Cervantes. They satirizletter of introduction to Apollo. Lope ed each other's faults, but they honettly replies :

allowed each other's merits ; the abilities My father for Arcadia is departing,

of Lope de Vega and of Gongora were (Where I have been myself) and he ihall write acknowledged by those who most strongly Your introduction firit. He journeys there exposed the carelefsness of the one, and To seek fome tidings of a certain lord,

the affectation of the other. By name * Anfriso: it is now some time

I have read nearly two hundred of his Since we have heard ought of him, and we fonnets. As might be expected, many doubt

of them contain parts that are beautiful; Whether he lives or not. I answer'd him,

none of them are perfect as wholes. The Senhor, I would not have you venture there,

following is a fair specimen : Nor trust yourself in Palestine unmask'd And heedless ; for the very children say,

To go, and yet to linger on the way: That, as Torquato did enrich those parts,

To linger, and look back ; and yet to go, So you have ruin'd them!

To hear a syren's pleasant voice, and know
The winds of Fortune waft


away ; His comedies are said to delineate cha. To build gay fabrics in the baseless air ; racters well, and faithfully to represent Like Lucifer, to fall precipitate the manners of the age he lived in. This From Heaven's high bliss, even to a demon's commendation they could not have ob

state, tained without, in fome degree, meriting To link despairing ; nor regret despair ; it; and there is a liveliness in the lighter From Friendthip’s voice affectionate to fly; pieces of Lope de Vega, which shows him Wildly to rove, and talk in solitude ; best qualified for such subjects. He him. To think each passing hour eternity ; self excuses his total neglect of all dra

All ill expecting, not to hope for good;

And all the hell of jealousy to prove, matic rules, by alledging the taste of the age.

"I have written better (says he); is to be absent from the maid we love. " but seeing what monstrous productions

On the 25th of August 1635, died please the women and the mob, I have Lope de Vega, in the 73d year of his locked up all my precepts, and turned

age ; full of honours as of days. If not Plautus and Terence out of my library.

the best of poets, he was the most fortuSurely it is just that, as the public pay,

; the wealth he acquired rendered the public should be pleased.” A child

him happy in life, and the use he made of ith and ridiculous defence, which de

it cheered him in death. He died honour. serves not a refutation !

ed by the great, celebrated by the learnThe burlesque pieces of this universal

ed, and regretted by the poor. His reauthor were publithed by him, under the

putation still fourishes in his own counname of the Licentiate Thome de Bur

try; and though the impartial judgment guillos, perhaps, because he thought them

of foreigners cannot rank his produclittle confonant to his ecclefiaftical cha

tions above mediocrity, let it be remem

bered, that he never was excelled in inracter ; perhaps, because he was alhamed of a species of poetry so despicable. "An

dustry as an author, or in liberality as a Ode to a Flea was printed in one of those works to which he affixed his name, show in what estimation he was held by

The following sonnet may serve to but never avowed himself to be the au. his co-temporaries : it is by Antonio thor of it. The editor of the Parnasso Barbosa Bacellar, written in Spanish Espanol calls it a witty and ingenious but a complete specimen of Portuguese compofition; it displays, howeyer, little

; ingenuity, and less wit. The poet tells the Flea where he goes, and what he 'feeds upon,

and calls him a greater Turk Lope! like some fair Syren in a sça than Amurath, because he spares no- Of tears, thy Muse was heard! her won. body.

d'rous fong The Spanish poets appear to have been Could still the memory of the dead prolong, little envious of each other's reputation. Baffling oblivion by ber harmony. In his Laurel de Apolo, Lope de Vega Even Death, astonish'd at that powerful strain,

Heard has liberally praised his contemporaries;

enchanting music with alarm ;

And trembled, left his desolating arm and poems of the same nature have been composed by Gil Polo, Vicente Espinel, He came, he conquer'd :-urely at some hour,

Should give no victims to oblivion's reign.

When o'er the eye-lids of thy mighty Muse * One of the characters in Lope de Vega's Sleep Thed the poifon of her poppy dews: Arcadia.

He had not conquer'd else that waking power,




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